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date: 18 September 2019

(p. 626) Index

(p. 626) Index

(p. 627) Note: Page numbers followed by “ f  ” and “t ” denote figures and tables, respectively.

A
Abnormalities, schizophrenia, 543–544, 546, 548
Abstract-feature mismatch negativity (MMN) studies, 150–152
Additive methods, lateralized readiness potential (LRP), 218t
Additive model, event-related potentials (ERPs), 35–38
Adolescence. See also Development
development of ERP components, 498–499
error-related negativity (ERN), 264–267
P300,, 491–493
Adrian, Edgar, 612
Adults. See also Aging
aging, 513–514
contingent negative variation (CNV), 488–490
development and aging, 463–464
error-related negativity (ERN), 265–266
probable Alzheimer’s disease (PAD), 515–517
Affect
error-related negativity (ERN), 245, 262
term, 442
Affective chronometry, emotion, 444
Affective response, error-related negativity (ERN) as, 259–263
Affirming the consequent, 18
Age
development measure, 479–480
P300 amplitude and latency, 167t
Aging
compensation hypothesis, 522
development and, 463–464
direction for future work, 528–529
early-latency components, 514–517
episodic memory components, 525–526
error-related negativity (ERN), 526–528
lateralized readiness potential (LRP), 217t
medial-frontal negativity (MFN), 526–528
mild cognitive impairment (MCI), 515–517
mismatch negativity (MMN), 514, 517–520
N2b and P3b, 522–524
N400, 524–525
normal, in P300,, 166, 169f, 170t
novelty P3 (P3a), 520–522
probable Alzheimer’s disease (PAD), 515–517
Alpha activity, working memory, 39, 40f
Alpha flooding, 80, 80f
Alpha oscillations, phase-preservation index (PPI), 37f
Alpha waves, 31–32
Alzheimer’s disease. See also Neurodegenerative diseases
alterations of event-related potentials (ERPs), 593–596
diagnostic problem, 594–595
genetic risk, 604n.1
mismatch negativity (MMN), 517, 518f, 520
N400 effect, 524–525
P300,, 168–169, 171f, 546
probable, (PAD), 515–517
probing memory deficit, 595–596
Ambiguity resolution theory, 356
Amphetamine, 263, 543
Amplitude
ICA ambiguity, 70
waveforms, 13
Amplitude-modulation theory, 35
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)
communication of locked-in patients, 603–604
movement-related potentials, 602–603
nonmotoric functions, 603
thought translation device, 604
Analysis, slow brain potentials, 202–204
Animacy violations, N400, 412, 413f
Animals, electroencephalography (EEG), 611, 622–623
Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), 231, 233
conflict-monitoring theory, 242–243
dorsal ACC and dopamine, 278
error-related negativity (ERN), 233–238
Anterior directed-attention negativity (ADAN), cerebellar atrophy, 601
Anterior N2 component, feature-based attention, 333
Anterior P2 attention effect, 314
Anterior P2 component, feature-based attention, 332–333
Anterior selection positivity, 314
Anticipation. See Negative slow waves
Anxiety, individual differences, 461–462
Anxiety disorder, 579
Appetitive activation, emotion, 443
Arousal, emotion, 443, 458
Artifact separation, 66
Attention, 24. See also Auditory attention; Selective attention; Visual attention
discrimination of auditory conjunctions, 303–305
emotion, 459–460
mismatch negativity, 303
motivated, 443
Nc (negative central wave), 494
P3a component, 520
term, 4, 295, 347
working memory, 369
Attentional blink paradigm, 319–322
Attentional control, working memory, 369
Attentional filtering, 18
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 98
contingent negative variation (CNV), 489–490
error-related negativity (ERN), 266, 490–491
Attention research, 28
Auditory attention. See also Attention; Selective attention
comprehension development, 495–498
discrimination of auditory conjunctions, 303–305
event-related potential (ERP) component, 301–303
mismatch negativity, 303
Auditory brainstem response (ABR), 480, 514
Auditory components. See also Early auditory components
N1 and intensity dependence of, 578–580
(p. 628) Auditory event-related potential (ERP), 143. See also Mismatch negativity (MMN)
Auditory evoked potentials, 89, 90–104
auditory brainstem responses, 90–94
auditory nerve and brainstem potentials, 90–94
change complex, 100–101
factors affecting potentials, 93–94
fusion complex, 101
generators, 91–92, 95–97
long-latency potentials, 97–101
middle-latency potentials, 94–97
N100, 99
offset response, 99–100
onset response, 99
P300, 98–99
recording and waveform, 90–91
waveform, 95
waveform measures, 92–93
Auditory nerve, 90–94
Auditory oddball, 160, 172, 179f, 514
depression, 565, 566t
P3 in challenging tasks, 567–568
P3 potential, 564–567
Autism, 98
Automaticity, mismatch negativity (MMN) elicitation, 147
Autonomic nervous system activity, error-related negativity (ERN), 262
Avalanche events, 53
A-waves, 31–32
B
Back-projection, independent component (IC), 64, 65
Backward priming, 404
Bar graphs, error-related negativity (ERN), 274–275
Baseline, error-related negativity (ERN), 274
Bayesian approach, reverse inference, 19
Bayes’s theorem, 17
Bech–Rafaelsen Melancholia Scale, 567
Beck, Adolf, 31
Behavioral inhibition and activation systems (BIS/BAS), 261–262
Behavioral methods, event-related potentials (ERPs), 27–28
Bereitschaftspotential (BP), 192–196, 209
brain areas, 193–195
components, 192
cortical sources, 193
functional significance, 195–196
motor potential (MP), 192
movements, 193
negative shift (NS), 192
Parkinson’s disease (PD), 195, 596
premovement positivity (PMP), 192
primary motor cortex (MI), 192, 193–194
psychopharmacology, 195
slow negative-going wave, 189, 190f
subcortical sources, 194–195
supplementary motor area (SMA), 192, 193–194
timing diagram, 190f
Berger, Hans, 612
Berger effect, 32
Beta waves, 31–32
Bias, negativity, 458–459
Biased competition model, 348, 356
Bilateral hippocampal lesion patients, 173, 174f
Biological factors, P300,, 166, 167t
Bipolar disorder, P300,, 546
Blind source separation, 63
Blood oxygen-level dependent (BOLD)
activity, 19, 38, 46
brain development, 476
error-related, 234, 236
spatial attention, 308
working memory, 362, 368
Bootstrapping, term, 18
Boundary element method (BEM) head model, 68, 69f
Brain, error-related negativity (ERN) as bridge to, 268
Brain activation patterns
P3a and P3b, 176, 177f
three-stimulus oddball task, 177f
Brain areas
Bereitschaftspotential (BP), 193–195
contingent negative variation (CNV), 197
stimulus-preceding negativity, 200–201
Brain development. See also Development
cortical maturation, 478–479
event-related potentials (ERPs), 475–476
Brain Electrical Source Analysis (BESA), 571
Brain Electromagnetic Source Analysis (BESA), 233f, 236
Brain potentials, recording and analyzing slow, 202–204
Brainstem potentials, 90–94, 104
Brain systems, generating lateralized readiness potential (LRP), 212–213
B-waves, 31–32
C
C (change) potentials, 100–101
C1 wave, visuospatial attention and, 307–308, 309, 311
Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene, error-related negativity (ERN), 263–264
Caton, Richard, 31, 611, 622
Central response activation, 209
Cerebellar atrophy (CA). See also Neurodegenerative diseases
consequences of lesions on cognition, 601
disease, 599–600
movement-related activity, 600–601
Change complex, auditory evoked potentials, 100–101
Change detection task, visual working memory, 362
Channel
attended and unattended, 298
term, 296
Children. See also Development
age and performance, 479–480
brain development, 475–476
contingent negative variation (CNV), 488–490
development and aging, 463
development of ERP components, 498–499
early auditory components, 480–484
early visual components, 485–488
N400 component, 495–498
P300,, 491–493
response variability, 477–478
spatial distribution, 478–479
specific language impairment (SLI), 484
Clinical correlates
mismatch negativity (MMN), 541
P300 and schizophrenia, 547
P50 sensory gating, 544
Closed-class (CC) words, 42
Clustering
EEGLAB, 84n.8
independent component (IC), 74–77
Cocktail party problem
independent component analysis (ICA), 63–64
selective attention, 296–297
Cognition, 159
cerebellar atrophy, 601
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), 461
Cognitive control, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), 233
Cognitive impairment, Parkinson’s disease, 598–599
Cognitive mechanisms
mismatch negativity, 538–539
N1 component, 548
N400, 549–550
P300,, 545–546
P50 sensory gating, 542–543
Cognitive process, N2pc component, 347–357
Cognitive reappraisal, emotion, 460
Coherence
event-related, 82
functional network dynamics, 34–35
Color
featural attention, 313–316
filtering hypothesis, 348, 349f
(p. 629) Communication, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), 603–604
Comorbid anxiety disorder, 579
Compensation hypothesis, aging, 522
Competition, error-related negativity (ERN), 276
Competition resolution hypothesis, 356
Competition theory, attention, 315
Complex motor tasks, error-related negativity (ERN), 268, 269f
Complex spatiotemporal dynamics, 52
Component
scoring, 456
term, 4, 52, 65
Component-independent experimental designs, 17, 24
Component overlap, error-related negativity (ERN), 271, 274, 279
Component process, term, 65
Comprehension. See also Language comprehension
spoken sentence, 409–410, 411f
Conceptual priming, familiarity, 380–382
Conflict-monitoring theory
anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), 242–243
error corrections, 247–248
error-correct mismatch, 251–252, 253f
evaluation, 256
level of response conflict, 252, 254
N200/N450, 254
parsimony claims, 255–256
Conflict-resolution hypothesis, term, 248
Conflict tasks, N200/N450 and error-related negativity, 238–239
Congruence
phonological or semantic, 410, 411f
sentence, and lexical association, 408–409, 431n.5
Constant condition, filtering hypothesis, 352, 353f
Contextual significance, 51
Context updating theory, P300,, 161
Context word, attentional blink, 320–321
Contingent negative variation (CNV), 196–199, 222
brain areas, 197
components, 196–197
development, 488–490
emotion, 444–445
functional significance, 198–199
nonhuman primates, 615
Parkinson’s disease, 596–597
psychopharmacology, 197–198
serotonin, 198
slow negative-going wave, 189–190, 191f
timing diagram, 190f
Contingent processing theory, auditory attention, 304–305
Contralateral delay activity (CDA). See also Visual working memory (VWM)
attentional control over working memory, 369
contralateral activity, 364
contralateral control method, 364
future direction, 370–371
identity of items in VWM, 366–367
individual differences in memory capacity, 365–366
ipsilateral activity, 364
memory load, 365, 366f
multiple object tracking, 369–370
oscillations, 370–371
scalp topography and possible neural sources, 368–369
time course, 367–368
unresolved issues, 370–371
working memory, 331
Contralateral-minus-ipsilateral difference, N2pc component as, 339–343
Converging evidence approach, 17, 25
Corrected motor asymmetry (CMA), 210
Correct-response negativity (CRN), 239, 254–255
Correct sentence, 45f
Cortical maturation, brain development, 478–479
Cortical potentials, 104, 105
Cortical sources, Bereitschaftspotential (BP), 193
Covert attention, 330
peripheral location, 335–338
visual locations, 313–313
visual perception, 305–306
Covert monitoring, 27–28
Cue-trace interactions, memory retrieval, 386
Current source density (CSD)
combining with principal components analysis (PCA), 564, 570–573, 576
N1 sink activity and CSD-PCA study, 578–579
waveforms in depressed patients, 577f
D
Data channels, independent component analysis (ICA), 71
Data collection, error-related negativity (ERN), 278–279
Decomposition, independent component analysis (ICA), 64, 71–72
Deep Blue, computer, 441
Defensive activation, emotion, 443
Delay activity
scalp topography, 368–369
visual working memory (VWM), 362
Delayed repetition paradigm, 129–130
Depression
auditory oddball studies, 565, 566t
cognitive P3 potential, 584
combined current source density (CSD)-principal components analysis (PCA) method, 570–573
depressive disorder, 563–564
ERP waveforms, 570f, 574f
error-related negativity (ERN), 564, 582–584
future directions, 585–586
individual differences, 462
N1 and intensity dependence of auditory ERPs, 578–580
N1 and Nd potentials, 584–585
N2 and MMN potentials, 585
Nd, N2 and mismatch negativity (MMN), 580–582
novelty P3 reduction, 570
old-new effect during recognition memory tasks, 584
olfactory stimuli, 575
P300,, 546, 564–565, 567
P3 in challenging auditory and visual tasks, 567–568
P3 subcomponents, 564–565, 567, 568–573
performance-monitoring potentials, 585
post-error processing, 582–584
processing emotional words or pictures, 573–575
recognition memory tasks, 575–578, 584
Desynchronization, event-related, 34
Detection, 352
Development
age and performance effects, 479–480
attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD), 489–490
contingent negative variation (CNV), 488–490
early auditory components, 480–484
early visual components, 485–488
error-related negativity (ERN/Ne), 490–491
event-related potential (ERP) measures of, 476–480
N170 visual component, 487
N1 auditory component, 482–483
N1 visual evoked peak, 485–486
N2 auditory component, 483–484
N2 visual component, 487
N3 visual component, 488
N400 component, 495–498
Nc (negative central wave), 493–495
obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), 490
P1 auditory peak, 481–482
P1 visual component, 486–487
P2 auditory component, 483
P2 visual component, 487–488
P300,, 491–493
positive slow wave (PSW), 491
reading disorders, 497
response variability, 477–478
rhyming decisions, 497–498
sentence processing, 495
spatial distribution, 478–479
(p. 630) Deviant pitch, 23
Deviant-stimulus probability, mismatch negativity (MMN), 146
Diagnosis, Alzheimer’s disease, 594–595
Difference waves
error-related negativity (ERN), 274–275
event-related potential (ERP), 59
mismatch negativity, 23f
Difficult nontargets, 348
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), 487
Dipole, electric, 5
Dipole source localization, N170 in response to faces, 121f
Directed attention, 197
Discourse contexts, 397
lexical processing, 413
N400 and, 410–415
noun phrase, 414
referential processing, 414, 414f
repetition priming, 413–414, 415f
Discrimination, 352
Discrimination accuracy, mismatch negativity (MMN), 147–148
Distractor positivity (PD), 329, 354–356
Dm (difference due to memory) effects, 376
Donder’s subtraction method, lateralized readiness potential (LRP), 219t
Dopamine, 198
dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and, 278
error-related negativity (ERN), 259, 260f, 263–264
feedback-related negativity (FRN), 257
Double subtraction technique, lateralized readiness potential (LRP), 210, 211f
Dual-dipole, independent component (IC) processes, 70
Dual-process model, memory retrieval, 378, 382
Dual-task condition, attentional blink, 321
Dual-transmitter hypothesis, P300,, 175
Dyslexia, children, 497
E
Early auditory components
development, 480–484
development studies, 480–484
major maturation changes, 481f
N1 component, 482–483
N2 component, 483–484
P1 component, 481–482
P2 component, 483
Early directed-attention negativity (EDAN), cerebellar atrophy, 601
Early left anterior negativity (ELAN)
functional nature of, 428–429
language, 427–431
Early posterior negativity (EPN), emotion, 447–448
Early poststimulus components, emotion, 445–446
Early selection hypothesis, 296
Early visual components. See Visual evoked potentials (VEPs)
Easy nontargets, 348
EEGLAB clustering functions, 84n.8
EEGLAB Matlab software, 83n.3, 84n.7
EEGLAB toolbox, 83n.3
EEG source, term, 70
EEG source processes, 65
Eigenvector matrix, 72
Electrocardiographic (ECG) activity, 55
Electroencelphalographic (EEG) activity, human scalp, 51–52, 456
Electroencephalographic/magnetoencephalographic (EEG/MEG) signal, 31, 46
Electroencephalography (EEG). See also Bereitschaftspotential (BP); Contingent negative variation (CNV); Stimulus-preceding negativity (SPN)
animals, 611, 622–623
depression, 583–584
description of EEG source, 52–53
discovery of rhythmic EEG oscillations, 31–32
EEG sources and source projections, 52–55
evoked vs. induced responses, 32–33
forward and inverse modeling, 55
from EEG to event-related potentials (ERPs), 32
functional networks, 33–34
meeting challenge, 82–83
mismatch negativity (MMN), 539
negative slow waves, 189–191
Nobel Prize, 612–613
nonhuman primates, 622–623
oscillations, 33–34
phase-locked vs. non-phase-locked responses, 32–33
role of EEG source activities, 53–54
simulated data, 33f
source mixing, 54–55
spatial source variability, 54
synchronization, 33–34
temporal source variability, 54
time-locked increase in EEG amplitude, 118–119
voltage fluctuations, 5
volume conduction, 54–55
Electromyographic (EMG) activity, 55, 232
Electrooculographic (EOG) channel, 66, 212
Emotion
affect, 442
arousal, 443
component scoring, 456
contingent negative variation (CNV), 444–445
development and aging, 463–464
differentiating event-related potentials (ERPs), 450–452
early poststimulus components, 445–446
emotion-cognition interactions, 459–461
fear, 442
feelings, 444
filter settings, 453–454
form of, 442
International Affective Picture System (IAPS), 443
late positive potential (LPP), 449–450, 454, 455f
memory, 460–461
methodology and measurement, 453–454
mood, 442
N170/vertex positive potential (VPP), 446–447
N2/early posterior negativity (EPN), 447–448, 454, 455f
negativity bias, 458–459
overview, 441–444
P300,, 448–449
principal component analysis (PCA), 456–458
psychological theory, 458–459
reference selection, 454–458
schizophrenia, 452
stimulus meaning/reappraisal, 460
stimulus-preceding negativity (SPN), 444–445
temporal principal components analysis (PCA), 450–451
time processing, 24
valence, 443
world of, and event-related potentials (ERPs), 444–450
Emotional, term, 443
Emotional stimuli, task relevance, attention and, 459–460
Emotional words, ERPs during processing, 573–575
Encoding, memory, 376–378, 460–461
Endogenous components, aging, 513–514
Endophenotype, 552
Envelopes, event-related potentials (ERPs), 76–77
Episodic memory (EM), 513
aging, 525–526
Episodic retrieval, memory, 384–386
Equivalence current dipole, 5
Equivalent dipole, independent component (IC), 68, 69f
ERP adaptation, face, 136
ERP components. See also Event-related potentials (ERPs)
approaches to defining, 8–10
(p. 631)
assessing time course of processing, 23–26
challenges in isolating, 10–17
covert monitoring, 27–28
description, 4–5
ERP peaks vs., 10–12
identifying and defining, 14–17
indexing specific processes, 20–23
measuring processes occurring prior, 25–26
methods for isolating, 21–22
methods for measuring, 22–23
nature of, 4–10
problems of forward and reverse inference, 17–20
solving and avoiding problems, 20–28
source, 5–6
summation in observed waveform, 6–8
term, 3, 5, 8, 10, 17
uncovering and subdividing mental processes, 26–27
variability in, 12–14
waveform and underlying components, 11f
ERPology, term, 21, 279
ERP repetition effect, 130
ERP waveform
between-subject variations, 14
peaks, 22–23
peaks and underlying components, 10–12
single-subject, 13f
summation of components, 6–8
variability, 12–14
Error-clearing hypothesis, term, 248
Error correction, error-related negativity (ERN), 246–248, 277
Error detection, 231
error-correct mismatch, 251–252, 253f
error-related negativity (ERN), 231, 246–250, 250
evaluation, 256
level of response conflict, 252, 254
Error detection/comparator theory, error-related negativity (ERN), 242
Error negativity (Ne), 231. See also Error-related negativity (ERN/Ne)
Parkinson’s disease, 599
Error positivity (Pe), error-related negativity (ERN), 238
Error probability, error-related negativity (ERN), 245–246
Error-related negativity (ERN/Ne), 26–27, 232–241
advice for young investigators, 275–280
affect/motivation, 245
aging, 526–528
anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), 233–238
attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 490–491
autonomic nervous system activity, 262
baseline and measurement issues, 274
beyond choice reaction time, 267–268, 269f
Brain Electromagnetic Source Analysis (BESA), 233f, 236
bridge to brain, 268
component overlap, 271, 279
conflict-monitoring theory, 242–243
conflict-resolution hypothesis, 248
core empirical phenomena, 245–251
correct-response negativity (CRN), 239, 254–255
data collection, 278–279
depression, 564, 582–584
development, 490–491
development and individual differences, 264–267
difference waveforms, scatterplots and bar graphs, 274–275
dopamine, 263–264
electrophysiological phenomena, 241
ERN as affective response, 259–263
ERN in social world, 268, 270
ERPology, 279
error-clearing hypothesis, 248
error-correct mismatch, 251–252
error detection and conflict monitoring, 251–256
error detection and correction, 246–250
error detection/comparator theory, 242
error positivity (Pe), 238
error probability, 245–246
evaluation, 250–251, 256
examples of problems, 272f, 273f, 275
experimental design and signal-to-noise ratio, 271
feedback-related negativity (FRN), 239, 240f
flanker task, 240f
functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activations, 234f
functional significance of, 241–245
genetics and, 270–271
immediate error correction, 277
initial reports, 232f
key issues, 271–275
level of response conflict, 252, 254
mismatch effects on ERN amplitude, 252, 253f
modeling competition, 276
moving target, 279–280
N200/N450, 238–239, 254
neuropharmacology, 260f
neurotransmitters, 263–264
new research directions, 267–271
obsessive/compulsive disorder (OCD), 260, 261f, 490
orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) as contributor, 237
parsimony, 255–256
patient studies, 260–262
post-error slowing, 249f, 250
reinforcement learning theory of, (RL-ERN), 243–245, 256–259
representation, 277–278
research, 231–232, 280
sickle-cell disease, 237
social neuroscience, 270
speed/accuracy emphasis, 245–246
stimulus-locked and response-locked data, 232f
strategic adjustments, 248–250
supplementary eye field (SEF), 235f, 236
terrain hypothesis, 276–277
theories, 241–245
theta oscillations, 239–241
Evaluation, error-related negativity (ERN), 250–251
Event-related activity, 57
Event-related averaging
limitations, 58–63
spatial filters, 59
spatial variability, 58–59
temporal variability, 59–63
Event-related coherence, 82
Event-related desynchronization (ERD), 34, 179–180
Event-related magnetic field (ERMF), N2pc component, 345–347
Event-related potentials (ERPs), 51. See also ERP components; P300 components; Schizophrenia
auditory evoked potentials, 90–104
averaging, 51
brain activity, 89
brain development and, 475–476
emotion-cognition interactions and, 459–461
experimental design and interpretation of ERP correlates of memory, 374–376
experimental events, 52
from EEG to, 32
image plots, 61f, 63f
independent component (IC) contributions, 73–74
language research, 399
luminance change evoked potentials, 104–107
measures of development, 476–480
memory encoding processes, 376–378
olfactory stimuli, 575
partial phase resetting, 79–82
phase resetting vs. additive model, 35–38
processing emotional words or pictures, 573–575
recognition memory tasks, 575–578
schizophrenia, 537–538, 551–553
sentence reading, 405–409
single-subject ERP, 55, 56f
somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs), 101–104
spatial filters, 59
(p. 632)
studying memory, 373–374
trial averaging and trial variability, 55–63
trial-averaging model, 56–58
visual evoked potentials (VEPs), 104
Event-related spectral perturbation (ERSP), 77–78
Event-related synchronization (ERS), 179f, 180
Event-unrelated activity, 57
Evoked activity, 32–33, 36f
Evoked potentials, pictures and written text, 106–107
Excitatory catecholamines, 198
Excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs), 189
Executive control, Parkinson’s disease, 598–599
Experimental design
attention, 297–300
error-related negativity (ERN), 271
memory, 374–376
Experimental factors, sensitivity, 16
Externally triggered movements, Bereitschaftspotential (BP), 193
Eye movements, development, 478
F
Face localizer, N170 studies, 119–120
Face perception. See also N170 component
basic-level categorization, 126–129
coding individual, during N170 time window, 129–132
degrading face stimulation, 126–127
delayed repetition paradigm, 129–130
early face detection, 127–129
event-related potential (ERP) component N170, 115–116
immediate face repetition, 130
individual face adaptation ERP paradigm, 130, 131f
long-term face representations, 132–133
N170 amplitude, 123–124
N170 and face categorizations, 133–134
N170 as tool and time course, 126–134
N170 larger for faces, 118–124
N170/M170 amplitude, 128–129
P1/M1 face effect, 127–129
Familiarity, memory, 378
Far field, 52
Fear, anxiety, 461–462
Featural attention, 313
Feature-based attention, 331–335
anterior N2 component, 333
anterior P2 component, 332–333
bilateral P2, N2 and P3 components, 331–335
P1 wave and sensory confounds, 334–335
P3 component, 334
popout arrays, 331–332
posterior N2 component, 333–334
Feature integration theory, 356
Feeble potentials, 611–612
Feedback-related negativity (FRN), 202, 231, 239. See also Error-related negativity (ERN/Ne)
reinforcement learning theory of ERN, 256–259
Feelings, emotion, 444
Filler-gap interval, 44
Filtering
attentional, 18
term, 356
Filtering hypothesis. See also N2pc component
appraisal, 356
evidence against, 352–354
evidence supporting, 348–352
N2pc and distractor positivity (PD), 354–356
N2pc component, 347–348
Filter settings, emotional research, 453–454
Firing rates, neural, 29n.3
Fixated object, attention around, 338
Flanker task
conflict monitoring model for, 243
Eriksen, 238
grand average error waveform, 240f
Flexible selection hypothesis, 318
Forced-choice recognition, memory retrieval, 397
Forward and inverse modeling, 55
Forward inference, problem of, 17, 18
Fourier, Joseph, 77
Frequency change, mismatch negativity (MMN), 144
Frequently used words, language, 401
Frontal-lobe deficit hypothesis, 521
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), 19, 32, 54
brain development, 476
depression, 578
development research, 480
error-related negativity (ERN), 234
oddball experiments, 426
studying memory, 373–374
virtual working memory, 362, 368
visual cortex responding to faces, 118, 119–120
Functional networks
EEG, 33–34
power and coherence, 34–35
Functional significance
Bereitschaftspotential (BP), 195–196
contingent negative variation (CNV), 198–199
error-related negativity (ERN), 241–245
stimulus-preceding negativity (SPN), 201–202
Fusiform face area (FFA), 118, 120, 122
Fusion complex, auditory evoked potentials, 101
G
Gamma activity
long-term memory, 41
time-frequency analysis, 45f
working memory, 39, 40f
Generators
auditory brainstem potential, 91–92
middle-latency potential, 95–97
mismatch negativity (MMN), 145
Genetic polymorphisms, error-related negativity (ERN), 263–264
Genetics
Alzheimer’s disease risk, 604n.1
error-related negativity (ERN), 270–271
mismatch negativity (MMN) and schizophrenia, 541
N1 and schizophrenia, 548
N400 and schizophrenia, 551
P300 and schizophrenia, 547
P50 sensory gating and schizophrenia, 545
Global condition, filtering hypothesis, 351a, 352
Grammatical sentences, P600 effects, 421
H
Hemisphere studies, visual half field (VHF) method, 408–409
Heterogeneous condition, filtering hypothesis, 353–354
High-frequency words, language, 401
Hillyard sustained attention paradigm
avoiding confounds and alternative explanations, 298–300
encouraging focus, 298
experimental design, 297–300
featural attention, 315
N1 wave, 297–300
visual attention, 306, 307f, 308–309
Horizontal electro-oculogram (HEOG), 212
Horizontal eye movements, lateralized readiness potential (LRP), 212
Human brain. See also Development
development, 475–476
error-related negativity (ERN), 264–267
pattern of sulci and gyri, 14
Human cognition. See also P300 component
language comprehension, 41–46
oscillatory neuronal dynamics, 38–46
working memory and long-term memory, 39–41
Human immunodeficiency virus 1, 98
Huntington’s disease, 98, 601–602
error-related negativity (ERN), 263
(p. 633) I
Identity, delay activity, 362
Imageability, N400 component, 401–402, 403f
Imperative stimulus (S2), contingent negative variation (CNV), 196–197
Impulse control, error-related negativity (ERN), 266
Independent brain component processes, 68
Independent component (IC)
clustering, 74–77
contributions to single trials and ERPs, 73–74
description, 65
equivalent model dipole locations, mean scalp maps, and cluster projection envelopes, 76f
event-related potential images for ICs contributing to central scalp channel, 75f
event-related potential images for midline ICs and bilateral brain IC, 74f
ICs of EEG data, 65–68
Independent component analysis (ICA), 8–9, 22, 51, 52
assumptions, 68–73
boundary element method (BEM) head model, 68, 69f
cocktail party problem, 63–64
data requirements, 71–72
decomposition, 82
decompositions, 71–72
dual-dipole processes, 70
ICA ambiguity, 70–71
ICA vs. principal component analysis (PCA), 72–73
IC filter, 64
independent brain component processes, 68
independent nonbrain component processes, 66, 67f
information sources, 52
number of data channels, 71
schematic flowchart, 64f
separating EEG sources using, 63–77
spatially nonstereotyped (SNS) artifacts, 67
spatially stereotyped vs. nonstereotyped artifacts, 66–68
Independent components (IC), 52
Independent source of information, 70
Individual differences. See also Development
anxiety, 461–462
attention and working memory, 369
contralateral delay activity (CDA) amplitude, 365–366
depression, 462
error-related negativity (ERN), 264–267
lateralized readiness potential (LRP), 217t
P300,, 165–166
psychopathology, 461–463
schizophrenia, 462–463
Induced band power (IBP), 34
Induced responses, term, 32
Infants. See also Development
age and performance, 479–480
auditory comprehension, 495–497
behavioral methods, 27
brain development, 475–476
development and aging, 463
development of ERP components, 498–499
early auditory components, 480–484
early visual components, 485–488
P300,, 491
response variability, 477–478
spatial distribution, 478–479
Information sources, independent component analysis (ICA), 52
Infrequently used words, language, 401
Internal system, 196
International Affective Picture System (IAPS), emotion, 443
Intertrial coherence (ITC), 78f, 79, 80f
Intertrial interval (ITI), aging, 514–516
Intertrial time jitter, peak latency of N170, 119f
Intraparietal sulcus (IPS), working memory, 368–369
Involuntary attention, mismatch negativity (MMN), 147
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), 98
K
Kasparov, Garry, chess match, 441
KR (knowledge of results) stimulus, stimulus-preceding negativity (SPN), 192f, 199–200
L
Language, 397–398. See also N400 component
discovery of N400, 399–402
early left anterior negativity (ELAN), 427–431
left anterior negativity (LAN), 427–429
lexical-phonological processes, 410, 411f
methodological issues, 429–430
N400 and discourse contexts, 410–415
N400 and lexical context, 402–404
N400 and nonliteral language, 415–417
N400 and sentence context, 404–410
N400 component, 398–418
P600 and semantic-thematic integration, 422–423
P600 and syntactic ambiguity, 420–422
P600 and syntactic anomaly, 419–420
P600 and syntactic priming, 423–424
P600 component, 419–427
P600 vs. P300,, 424–427
possible neuronal generators of 400, 418
processing nature of 400, 417–418
processing nature of P600, 424
rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP), 430–431
sentence reading, 405–409
spoken sentence comprehension, 409–410
visual half field (VHF) method for processing, 408–409
Language comprehension
N400 and discourse contexts, 410–415
open-class (OC) and closed-class (CC) words, 42f
retrieval of lexical information, 41–43
semantic unification, 44
syntactic unification, 44–46
theta power changes, 42f, 43f
time-frequency analysis of power changes, 45f
unification operations, 43–46
world knowledge, 431n.8
Language processing models, 431n.1
Language-specific speech-sound memory, mismatch negativity (MMN), 149–150
Late-frontal old-new effects, 384
Latency
ERP components, 15–16
lateralized readiness potential (LRP) onset, 224
waveforms, 13
Latency jitter, 12
Late positive component (LPC), 159
Late positive potential (LPP), 10
emotion, 449–450, 454, 455f
Lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), 81
Lateralized readiness potential (LRP), 17, 21, 209
assessing motor preparation, 213–215
brain systems generating, 212–213
cerebellar atrophy, 600
definition, 209–210
double subtraction technique, 210, 211f
error-related negativity (ERN), 246–247
future directions, 224–226
incorrect lateralizations, 223–224
isolating, from other components, 210–212
motor preparations, 223–224
onset latency in partitioning, 224
Parkinson’s disease, 597–598
partitioning reaction time (RT) interval, 215, 221–223
response-locked (LRP–>R), 215, 216–220
RT effects, 216–220
(p. 634)
scoring and testing, 223–224
stimulus-locked (S–>LRP), 215, 216–220
Late selection hypothesis, 296
L-DOPA administration, Parkinson’s disease, 195
Learning, mismatch negativity (MMN), 148–149
Left anterior negativity (LAN)
functional nature of, 428–429
language, 427–429
syntactic violations, 427, 428f
Left-parietal ERP old-new effect, memory retrieval, 378–379
Lexical association, and sentence congruence, 408–409, 431n.5
Lexical context
N400 and, 402–404
sentence congruence, 407–409
Lexical repetition, N400 component, 403–404
Linear decomposition, independent component analysis (ICA), 64–65
Literature review, oscillatory neuronal dynamics, 38–46
Local cortical synchrony, EEG signals and ERP waveforms, 83
Local field potentials (LFPs), 234
error-related negativity (ERN), 234, 235f
recordings from microelectrodes, 51, 53
Location-specific delay activity, 362
Locus of selection, 24
attention, 296–297
Long-latency potentials, auditory evoked potentials, 97–101
Long-term memory, 39, 41, 373. See also Memory
Long-term synaptic potentiation (LTP), 54
Low-frequency words, language, 401
Low resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA), 568, 571, 580, 582
Luminance change evoked potentials, 104–107
cortical potentials, 105
evoked potentials to pictures and text, 106–107
pattern change evoked potentials, 105–106
stimuli, 104–105
subcortical potentials, 105
Lumping technique, 9
M
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
depression, 575–576
N2pc component, 345
Magnetoencephalography (MEG), 55
Bereitschaftspotential (BP), 196
brain research, 143
mismatch negativity (MMN), 539
Major depressive disorder (MDD)
auditory oddball studies, 566t
P3 amplitude, 565
recognition memory tasks, 575
Masking, 28
Mattis Dementia Rating Scale, 583
Maximum successive variance, 72
Measurement, error-related negativity (ERN), 274
Medial-frontal negativity (MFN), aging, 526–528
Memory, 159. See also Alzheimer’s disease; Working memory maintenance
Alzheimer’s disease, 595–596
auditory mismatch negativity, 143–144
control and monitoring, 382–390
depression, 575–578
emotion, 460–461
encoding, 376–378, 460–461
ERP studies of, encoding processes, 376–378
event-related potentials (ERPs) to study, 373–374
experimental design, 374–376
interpretation of ERP correlates, 374–376
long-term, 39, 41
memory encoding and P300,, 164–165
P300,, 162–165
Parkinson’s disease, 599
schematic of experiment, 375f
serial position memory and P300,, 163–164
working, 39–41
Memory capacity
contralateral delay activity (CDA) amplitude, 365–366
grand averaged difference waveforms, 369, 370f
Memory dependence, mismatch negativity (MMN), 145–146
Memory load, contralateral delay activity (CDA) amplitude, 365, 366f
Memory retrieval, 373
conceptual priming, 380–382
dual-process model, 378, 382
encoding processes, 376–378
episodic retrieval mode, 384–386
ERP old-new effects and recognition, 378–382
late-frontal old-new effect, 384
left-parietal ERP old-new effect, 378–379
midfrontal old-new effect, 379–382
old-new ERP effect, 378–382, 383f
orientations, 386–390
postretrieval processing operations, 383–384
prefrontal cortex (PFC), 382–383
pretrieval processing operations, 384–386
priming, 380–382
repetition effects, 378
right-frontal old-new effect, 383f, 384
semantic retrieval, 384–385
semantic retrieval task, 384–386
Mental process, 6
uncovering and subdividing, 26–27
Middle-latency potentials, auditory, 94–97
Midfrontal old-new effect, memory retrieval, 379–382
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI)
aging, 515–517
Alzheimer’s disease, 594–595
N2b and P3b, 523–524
N400 component, 525
Minima of curvature, ERP waveform, 4
Mismatch negativity (MMN), 21, 23, 99
abstract-feature MMNs, 150–152
aging, 514, 517–520
Alzheimer’s disease, 595
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), 603
attention, 303
auditory component, 27
auditory MMN, 143–144
automaticity of MMN elicitation, 147
clinical correlates, 541
cognitive and neural mechanisms, 538–539
definition, 144–145
depressed patients, 585
deviant-stimulus probability, 146
difference waves, 23f
discrimination accuracy, 147–148
function of frequency change, 144f
generators, 145
genetics, 541
involuntary attention switch to auditory change, 147
isolation from overlapping components, 144–145
learning/training effects, 148–149
memory dependence on MMN elicitation, 145–146
musical stimuli, 150
N1 sink and depression, 579
Nd, N2, and, in depressed patients, 580–582
nonhuman primates, 617–618
Parkinson’s disease, 599
passive attention, 147
schizophrenia, 538f, 539–540, 541–542
sensitivity and specificity, 540–541
speech stimuli, 149–150
subcomponents, 145
Mismatch theory, error-correct mismatch, 251–252
Missing-stimulus potential, nonhuman primates, 615
Mixing matrix, 6, 64
Modeling competition, error-related negativity (ERN), 276
Mood, 442
Mooney images, two-tone, 123
Motivated attention, emotion, 443
Motivation, error-related negativity (ERN), 245, 262
Motor control tasks, error-related negativity (ERN), 268, 269f
Motor preparation, lateralized readiness potential (LRP), 213–215, 223–224
Movement-related activity
cerebellar atrophy (CA), 600–601
Parkinson’s disease, 596–598
Movement-related potentials, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), 602–603
Movements, Bereitschaftspotential (BP), 193
Multiple cause intensified retrieval model (MRI), 418
Multiple-object condition, filtering hypothesis, 350
Multiple object tracking (MOT), visual working memory, 369–370
Musical stimuli, mismatch negativity (MMN), 150
Mutual information, 63
N
N100 component, auditory evoked potentials, 99
N170 component
amplitude in response to stimuli, 124f
basic-level face categorization, 126–129
coding of individual face representations, 129–132
degrading face stimulation delays, 126–127
dipole source localization of, 121f
dissociation between M100 and M170 amplitude response, 129f
distribution of response times, 130f
driving N170 face effect, 123–124
early face detection (P1/M1), 127–129
early face processes, 124–126
early visual component, 487
emotion, 446–447
ERP response to test face, 131f
ERP to first face of block of trials, 132f
face categorizations, 133–134
face localizer approach, 119–120
face processing studies, 116–117
fusiform face area (FFA), 118, 122
human visual event-related potential (ERP), 115–116
individual face adaptation ERP paradigm, 131f
intertrial time jitter in peak latency of, 119f
inversion of polarity between, and VPP, 117f
larger for faces, 118–124
long-term face representations, 132–133
N170 face effect, 117
occipital face area (OFA), 121, 122
occipitotemporal component, 116
research recommendations, 135–136
simulation of intertrial jitter, 119f
simulation paradigm for faces and nonface objects, 125f
sources of N170 face effect and multiple components, 120–123
subtraction waveforms, 131f
summary, 134–135
superior temporal sulcus (STS), 122
time course of face processes, 126–134
time-locked increase in EEG amplitude, 118–119
time window of N170 face-specific increase in amplitude, 121f
two-tone “Mooney” images, 123
typical, from posterior lateral electrode sites, 117f
vertex positive potential (VPP), 116–117
and visual expertise, 124–126
N170 face effect, 117
driving, 123–124
sources, 120–123
N170/M170 face effect, 120
N1 component, 14, 117
abnormalities in schizophrenia, 548
aging, 514–517
attention, 297–300, 482–483
auditory attention, 301–302
auditory ERPs and depression, 578–580
basic P1 and, attention effects, 308–311
clinical correlates, 548
cognitive and neural mechanisms, 548
depression, 584–585
early auditory, 482–483
early visual component, 485–486
emotion, 445–446
endogenous (internally triggered), 302
exogeneous (stimulus–evoked), 302
featural attention, 314
genetics, 548
Huntington’s disease, 601–602
nature of P1 and, attention effects, 311–313
sensitivity and specificity, 548
N200/N450, conflict tasks, 238–239, 254
N270, depression, 582
N2b component, aging, 522–524
N2 component
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), 603
cerebellar atrophy, 601
depressed patients, 580–582, 585
early auditory, 483–484
early visual component, 487
emotion, 447–448
N2pb (N2-posterior-bilateral), 333
N2pc component(N2-posterior-contralateral), 16, 17, 18, 19, 333
cognitive process, 347–357
contralateral-minus-ipsilateral difference, 339–343
discovery of, 339
distractor positivity (PD), 354–356
evidence against filtering hypothesis, 352–354
evidence supporting filtering hypothesis, 348–352
filtering and, 354–356
filtering hypothesis, 347–348, 356
neural generators of, 345–347
nonhuman primates, 618–621
sensitivity, 343–344
sequence of lateralized components, 344–345
special populations, 347
theories of attention, 356–357
typical N2pc paradigm, 335, 336f
N3 component, early visual, 488
N400 component, 14, 25, 26. See also Language
aging, 524–525
Alzheimer’s disease, 595
animacy violations, 412, 413f
attentional blink, 319–322
attention and, 318–319
clinical correlates, 551
cognitive and neural mechanisms, 549–550
concreteness, 401–402
critical words, 406f
development, 495–498
discourse contexts, 410–415
discovery, 399–402
ERP studies of sentence reading, 405–409
experimental manipulations, 401f
frequently used words, 401
genetics, 551
imageability, 401–402, 403f
language-related ERP, 399–418
lexical context, 402–404
nonliteral language, 415–417
Parkinson’s disease, 599
possible neuronal generators of, 418, 419f
postlexical meaning integration, 404
priming effect, 318
processing nature of, 417–418
rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP), 404, 407
semantic and repetition priming, 402–404
semantic matching, 404
semantic priming, 551
sensitivity and specificity, 551
sentence congruence, 407f
sentence congruency and lexical association, 407–408
(p. 636)
sentence context, 404–410
sentence processing, 549–550, 550–551
spoken sentence comprehension, 409–410
visual half field (VHF) method, 408–409
word, sentence, and discourse comprehension, 400, 401f, 402f
word priming, 550
written and spoken language, 431n.2
Nc (negative central wave), development, 493–495
N-complex, 100
Nd (negative difference) wave, 302
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), 603
depressed patients, 580–582, 584–585
Near field, 52
Negative shift (NS), Bereitschaftspotential (BP), 192
Negative slow waves
anticipatory, 189
Bereitschaftspotential (BP), 189, 190f, 192–196
contingent negative variation (CNV), 189–190, 191f, 196–199
stimulus-preceding negativity (SPN), 189, 190–191, 192f, 199–202
working memory, 331, 362, 363f
Negativity bias, psychological theory, 458–459
Neural generators
N2pc component, 345–347
possible, of P600, 424–427
response variability, 477–478
Neural mechanisms
mismatch negativity, 538–539
N1 component, 548
N400, 549–550
P300,, 545–546
P50 sensory gating, 542–543
Neural origins, P3a and P3b components, 172–174
Neural sources, contralateral delay activity (CDA), 368–369
Neurodegenerative diseases
Alzheimer’s disease, 593–596
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), 602–604
cerebellar atrophy (CA), 599–601
Huntington’s disease, 601–602
Parkinson’s disease, 596–599
progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), 602
Neuroelectric determinants, P3a and P3b, 178–179
Neuroinhibition, 159
P300 and, 175–180
Neuromodulatory system, 54
Neuronal generators, possible, of N400, 418, 419f
Neuropharmacology
error-related negativity (ERN), 259, 260f
P300,, 175
P3a and P3b, 175
Neurophysiological measures, visual working memory (VWM), 362
Neuropsychology, P3a and P3b, 169–174
Neuroscience, emotion, 441
Neurotransmitters, error-related negativity (ERN), 259, 260f, 263–264
Nobel Prize, Adrian and Sherrington, 612–613
Nonhuman primates
electroencephalography (EEG) in, 622–623
ipsilateral and contralateral waveforms, 620–621
mismatch negativity (MMN), 617–618
N2pc component, 618–621
P3 or P300 component, 613–615
right and left visual field targets, 619–620
selection negativity, 617–618
sensory and perceptual components, 615–617
Nonliteral language, 397
N400 and, 415–417
Non-phase-locked responses, 32–33
Nonspatial visual features, attention, 313–316
Nontargets, filtering hypothesis, 348, 349f
Norepinephrine (NE), 198
Normal aging, P300,, 166, 169f, 170t
Nyquist frequency, 83n.5
O
Object-based visual attention, 316–317
Object-relative (OR) sentences, 44–45
Object substitution masking, 28
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
enhanced ERN, 583
error-related negativity (ERN), 260–261, 490
Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Revised, 267
Occipital face area (OFA), 121
Occipito-temporal component, 115, 116
Oddball discrimination tasks
P300,, 545–548
Oddball paradigm
aging, 514, 520–521, 522
language, 399–400
P3b component, 426
schematic, 160f
Oddball task
P300,, 492
Parkinson’s disease, 598–599
Offset response, auditory evoked potentials, 99–100
Old-new effects
depression, 576
ERP effect, 130
memory literature, 460
memory retrieval, 378–382
recognition memory tasks, 584
Olfactory stimuli, event-related potentials (ERPs), 575
Onset response, auditory evoked potentials, 99
Open-class (OC) words, 42
Orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), error-related negativity (ERN), 237
Orientations, memory retrieval, 386–390
Oscillations
contralateral delay activity (CDA), 370–371
discovery of rhythmic EEG, 31–32
EEG, 33–34
phase, 46n.1
Oscillatory neuronal dynamics, literature review, 38–46
Overt attention, 330
peripheral object, 338
visual perception, 305–306
P
P1 component
basic, and N1 attention effects, 308–311
early auditory, 481–482
early visual component, 486–487
emotion, 445–446
featural attention, 314
nature of, and N1 attention effects, 311–313
sensory confounds, 334–335
P2 component
aging, 514–517
early auditory, 483
early visual component, 487–488
effect 333
emotion, 445–446
P2 wave, 13
P300 component
abnormalities in schizophrenia, 546
aging, 514
Alzheimer’s disease, 168–169, 171f, 594
amplitude, 161–162, 167t
applied, 165–169
biological factors, 166
characteristics and theory, 160–161
clinical applications, 166, 168
clinical correlates, 547
cognitive activity, 173–174, 175f
cognitive and neural mechanisms, 545–546
context updating theory, 161
discovery of, event-related potential (ERP), 159
emotion, 448–449
(p. 637)
event-related desynchronization and, 179–180
genetics and schizophrenia, 547
individual differences, 165–166
latency, 160–161, 165, 167t, 170t
memory and, 162–165, 491–493
memory encoding and, 164–165
neuroinhibition, 175–180
neuropharmacology, 175
neuropsychology of P3a and P3b, 169–174
nonhuman primates, 613–615
normal aging and, 166, 170t
passive and single-stimulus tasks, 169
positive slow wave (PSW), 491–493
resource allocation and, 161–162
sensitivity and specificity, 546–547
serial position memory and, 163–164
short history, 160–161
target-to-target interval, 162
term, 159
P3a component, 16, 159
aging, 520–522
brain activation pattern, 176, 177f
depression, 568–573
neural origins, 172–174
neuroelectric determinants, 178–179
neuropharmacology, 175
neuropsychology, 169–174
stimulus context, 170, 172
theoretical perspective, 172, 173f
P3b component, 16, 17, 159
aging, 522–524
brain activation pattern, 176, 177f
depression, 568–573
lesion studies, 426, 427f
neural origins, 172–174
neuroelectric determinants, 178–179
neuropharmacology, 175
neuropsychology, 169–174
oddball paradigm, 426
P600 vs. P300 family, 424–427
theoretical perspective, 172, 173f
P3 component
aging, 520–522
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), 603
attentional blink, 319
attention and, 319
auditory and visual oddball tasks, 564–567
cerebellar atrophy, 601
challenging auditory and visual tasks, 567–568
cognitive and depression, 584
depression, 563–564
feature-based attention, 334
Huntington’s disease, 601–602
nonhuman primates, 613–615
Parkinson’s disease, 598–599
progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), 602
subcomponents in depressed patients, 568–573
P3 wave, 14, 15, 20, 25
P50 component
abnormalities in schizophrenia, 543–544
aging, 514–517
Alzheimer’s disease, 594–595
auditory evoked potentials, 98–99
clinical correlates, 544
cognitive and neural mechanisms, 542–543
genetics and schizophrenia, 545
sensitivity and specificity, 544
sensory gating, 542–545
P600 component
Alzheimer’s disease, 595
critical words, 425f
grammatical condition, 421f
lesion studies, 426, 427f
oddball paradigm, 426
possible neural generators, 424–427
probability, 425f
processing nature of, 424
semantic-thematic integration, 422–423
semantic violations, 423
syntactic ambiguity, 420–422
syntactic anomaly, 419–420
syntactic positive shift (SPS), 419
syntactic priming, 423–424
syntactic violation, 420f
syntactic violations, 427, 428f
task sensitivity, 424–427
Parallel search task, 339
Parkinson’s disease, 98. See also Neurodegenerative diseases
Bereitschaftspotential (BP), 195, 596
development and aging, 266
error-related negativity (ERN), 263
measures of executive control, 598–599
memory, 599
movement preparation after ambiguous imperative signals, 597–598
movement preparation before imperative signals, 596–597
movement-related activity, 596–598
oddball task, 598
P3a and P3b, 175, 176f
psychopharmacology of Bereitschaftspotential (BP), 195
self-initiated movements, 596
Simon effect, 597
stimulus discriminability, 221
Partial phase resetting, event-related potentials (ERPs) and, 79–82
Partial response preparation, lateralized readiness potential (LRP), 213–215
Partitioning
lateralized readiness potential (LRP), 225
LRP onset latency, 224
Passive attention, mismatch negativity (MMN), 147
Passive paradigms, P300,, 169
Patient studies, error-related negativity (ERN), 260–262
Pattern change evoked potentials, 105–106
Pattern reversal, 105, 106f
Pattern shift, 105
Peak amplitude, ERP component, 22–23
Peak-end rule, emotion, 444
Peak latency, ERP component, 22–23
Peaks, 3, 28n.1
event-related potential (ERP), 10–12
observed waveform and underlying components, 11f
waveform, 4
Perception, 28, 323n.4
Perception without awareness, 323n.4
Perceptual components, nonhuman primates, 615–617
Perceptual group, 519
Perceptual processing, 115
Performance, development measure, 479–480
Performance-monitoring, depression, 585
Peripheral nerve potentials, 102
Personality disorders, error-related negativity (ERN), 266–267
Perturbation, 83
Phase, 46n.1, 57
Phase cancellation, 57
Phase cones, 53
Phase-locked, 57
Phase-locked responses, 32–33
Phase locking, intertrial coherence (ITC), 78f, 79
Phase-preservation index (PPI), 37–38
Phase resetting, 79
event-related potentials (ERPs), 35–38, 79–82
simulated data, 36f
Phobias, anxiety, 461–462
Phonological congruence, words, 410, 411f
Pictures
ERPs during processing, 573–575
evoked potentials to, 106–107
Polarity
ERP components, 15
ICA ambiguity, 70
Polymorphisms, error-related negativity (ERN), 263–264
Pond ripples, 53, 54
Popout arrays
contralateral, ipsilateral and homogeneous, 342, 343
feature-based attention, 331, 332f
Popout condition, filtering hypothesis, 351
Positive slow wave (PSW), development, 491
Positron emission tomography (PET), 32, 193, 603
(p. 638) Posner cuing paradigm, visual attention, 308
Posterior N2 component, feature-based attention, 333–334
Posterior selection positivity, 323n.3
Post-error processing, depression, 582–584
Post-error slowing, error-related negativity (ERN), 248–250
Postlexical meaning integration, 404
Postperceptual attention effects, 317–323
attentional blink paradigm, 319–322
attention and N400 component, 318–319
attention and P3 component, 319
psychological refractory period paradigm, 322–323
Postretrieval processes, memory, 383–384
Postsynaptic potentials, 189
Postsynaptic potentials (PSPs), summation of, 5
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 98, 540
Potency, negative and positive stimuli, 458
Power, functional network dynamics, 34–35
Precueing, lateralized readiness potential (LRP), 216t
Prediction of response outcome (PRO) theory, 244–245
Prefrontal cortex (PFC), cognitive control, 382–383
Preretrieval processing, memory, 384–386
Presaccidic positivity, 338
Primary motor cortex (MI), Bereitschaftspotential (BP), 192, 193–194
Priming
auditory, 497
backward, 404
lexical, 408–409
repetition, 595–596
semantic, 402–404
semantic, studies, 551
word, in N400, 550
Priming paradigm, N400 component, 403–404
Principal component analysis (PCA), 8–9
auditory oddball target, 172
current source density (CSD) with, 564, 570–573, 576
emotion, 456–458
independent component analysis (ICA) vs., 72–73
temporal PCA, 571
Probable Alzheimer’s disease (PAD). See also Alzheimer’s disease
aging, 515–517
mismatch negativity (MMN), 517, 518f, 520
N2b and P3b components, 523–524
N400 component, 525
P3a component, 521
pathological aging, 523–524
Probe-elicited sensory responses, covert attention, 335–338
Problem of forward inference, 17, 18
Problem of reverse inference, 17, 18–20
Process, term, 4, 29n.4
Processing nature
N400, 417–418
P600, 424
Processing negativity, term, 302–303
Processing positivity, 303
Processing speed, development, 478
Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), 602
Psychological refractory period (PRP)
attention paradigm, 322–323
lateralized readiness potential (LRP), 218t
Psychological theory, ERP studies of emotion, 458–459
Psychopathology
anxiety, 461–462
depression, 462
schizophrenia, 462–463
Psychopathy Checklist-Revised, 266
Psychopharmaca, lateralized readiness potential (LRP), 218t
Psychopharmacology
Bereitschaftspotential (BP), 195
contingent negative variation (CNV), 197–198
stimulus-preceding negativity, 201
Pure insertion, assumption, 221–222
Putative filtering mechanism, 18
R
Rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP)
N400 effects, 404, 407
requirements, 430–431
Reaction time (RT), 209. See also Lateralized readiness potential (LRP)
error-related negativity (ERN), 267–268
lateralized readiness potential (LRP), 225–226
partitioning RT interval, 215, 221–223
Readiness potential (RP), 190, 192, 209. See also Bereitschaftspotential (BP)
Reading disorders, N400 component, 497
Recognition memory
event-related potentials (ERPs), 575–578
Nc (negative central wave), 494
old-new effect during, 584
Recollection, memory, 378
Recording, slow brain potentials, 202–204
Reference electrode, EEG, 65
Referential effect, discourse contexts, 414–415
Reflect, term, 4
Reinforcement learning theory of ERN, 231
error-related negativity (ERN), 243–245
evaluation, 259
extension, 259
feedback-related negativity (FRN), 256–259
Reinterpreting meaning, emotion, 460
Reliable, term, 4
Repetition effects, memory, 376, 378
Repetition priming
Alzheimer’s disease, 595–596
N400 component, 402–404
Representation, error-related negativity (ERN), 277–278
Research, advice for error-related negativity (ERN), 275–280
Resource allocation, P300, 161–162
Response conflict, 231
error detection and conflict monitoring, 252, 254
model, 243
Response-locked lateralized readiness potential (LRP), 215, 216–220
partitioning reaction time, 221–223
Response selection process, 323
Response variability, development measure, 477–478
Restless legs syndrome, P3a and P3b, 175, 176f
Retrieval orientations, 386–390. See also Memory retrieval
general test, 386, 387f
specific test, 386, 387f
Reverse inference, 3, 21–22
problem of, 17, 18–20
Reward positivity, feedback-related negativity (FRN), 257–258
Rhyming effect, N350/N400 components, 497–498
Right-frontal ERP old-new effect, 383–384
S
Saccades, 306
Scalp activity, independent component (IC), 70–71
Scalp distribution
delay activity, 368f
ERP components, 15, 16–17
memory effects, 377
voltage difference of emotion, 455f
Scalp maps, 66, 67f
component, 64–65
Scalp topography, contralateral delay activity (CDA), 368–369
Scatterplots, error-related negativity (ERN), 274–275
Schizophrenia, 98, 107
abnormalities, 543–544, 546, 548
clinical correlates, 541, 544, 547, 548, 551
emotion, 452
error-related negativity (ERN), 263
(p. 639)
event-related potential abnormalities, 551–553
genetics, 541, 545, 547, 548, 551
grand average ERPs, 26f
individual differences, 462–463
mismatch negativity (MMN), 538–542
N400, 549–551
oddball discrimination tasks, 545–549
P300, 545–548
P50 sensory gating, 542–545
psychotic disorder, 537–538
reaction times (RTs), 21, 25
risk factors, 537
sentence processing, 549–550, 550–551
word priming, 550
Scoring, lateralized readiness potential (LRP), 223–224
Search template, 330
Selection negativity, 314
nonhuman primates, 617–618
Selective attention, 295–296. See also Attention
attentional blink paradigm, 319–322
auditory attention, 301–305
avoiding confounds and alternative explanations, 298–300
basic P1 and N1 attention effects, 308–311
cocktail party problem, 296–297
covert attention to visual locations, 306–313
design of attention experiments, 297–300
encouraging focus, 298
Hillyard sustained attention paradigm, 297–300
locus-of-selection question, 296–297
N1 wave, 297–300
N400 component, 318–319
nature of P1 and N1 attention effects, 311–313
nonspatial visual features, 313–316
object-based visual attention, 316–317
overt and covert attention in visual perception, 305–306
P3 component, 319
Posner cuing paradigm, 308
postperceptual attention effects, 317–323
psychological refractory period paradigm, 322–323
visual ERP components, 305–317
Self-initiated movements, Bereitschaftspotential (BP), 193
Semantic matching, 404
Semantic priming, N400 component, 402–404
Semantic retrieval, memory, 384–385
Semantic-thematic integration, P600 effects, 422–423
Semantic unification, language comprehension, 44
Semantic violation, 45f
Sensitivity
contralateral delay activity (CDA) amplitude, 365–367
experimental factors, 16
mismatch negativity (MMN), 540–541
N1 component, 548
N2pc to basic parameters, 343–344
N400, 551
P300, 546–547
P50 sensory gating, 544
task, of P600, 424–427
Sensory components, nonhuman primates, 615–617
Sensory confounds, P1 wave and, 334–335
Sensory gain control, 297
Sensory gating, 98, 515
P50 component, 542–545
Sensory Gating Inventory, 544
Sentence context
critical words, 406f
ERP studies of sentence reading, 405–409
lexical association, 407–408, 407–409
N400 and, 404–410
processing, 397, 495
Sentence processing, N400, 549–551
Sentence reading, ERP studies, 405–409
Serial position memory, P300, 163–164
Serial search task, 339
Serotonin
contingent negative variation (CNV), 198
error-related negativity (ERN), 264, 265f
stimulus-preceding negativity, 201
Shared generator hypothesis, 38
Sherrington, Charles, 612
Shock, stimulus-preceding negativity, 201
Sickle-cell disease, error-related negativity (ERN), 237
Signal-to-noise ratio, error-related negativity (ERN), 271
Silent suppressive surrounds, 309
Simon effect, 212, 335, 597
Simple maps, 55
Simulation, intertrial jitter, 119f
Simulation paradigm, faces and nonface objects, 125f
Single-channel process, 323
Single-object condition, filtering hypothesis, 350
Single-stimulus paradigm
P300, 169
schematic, 160f
Singleton detection mode, 349
Single trials, independent component (IC) contributions, 73–74
Slow brain potentials, recording and analyzing, 202–204
Slow waves. See Negative slow waves
Social neuroscience, error-related negativity (ERN), 270
Social world, error-related negativity (ERN) as bridge to, 268, 270
Somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs), 101–104
brainstem potentials, 104
cortical potentials, 104
lower extremity, 102, 103–104, 104
peripheral nerve potentials, 102
spinal potentials, 103–104
upper extremity, 102, 103, 104
Source activity
phrase, 53
roles of EEG, 53–54
Source localization, 8, 22
N170, 121–122
Source mixing, EEG, 54–55
Spatial attention, 313, 459–460
Spatial distribution, development measure, 478–479
Spatial filtering, 55, 59
Spatially nonstereotyped (SNS) artifact, 67
Spatially stereotyped artifact, 66–68
Spatial source variability, EEG, 54
Spatial-stimulus response, lateralized readiness potential (LRP), 210, 212
Spatial variability, event-related activity, 58–59
Specificity
mismatch negativity (MMN), 540–541
N400, 551
P300, 546–547
P50 sensory gating, 544
Specific language impairment (SLI), children, 484
Spectral profile analysis, 101
Speech stimuli, mismatch negativity (MMN), 149–150
Speed/accuracy emphasis, error-related negativity (ERN), 245–246
Speed-accuracy trade-off, 216t, 217t, 222
Spike potential, 338
Spinal potentials, 103–104
Spoken language, N400, 431n.2
Spoken sentence comprehension, 409–410, 411f
Stage robustness, 221
Standard pitch, 23
Steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs), 300
Stimulus evaluation time, 25
Stimulus-locked lateralized readiness potential (LRP), 215, 216–220
partitioning reaction time, 221–223
Stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA), attention, 322–323
(p. 640) Stimulus-preceding negativity (SPN), 199–202
brain areas, 200–201
emotion, 444–445
functional significance, 201–202
Parkinson’s disease, 597
psychopharmacology, 201
shock, 201
slow negative-going wave, 190–191, 192f
time estimation task, 199–200
timing diagram, 190f
Strategic adjustments, error-related negativity (ERN), 248–250
Strength, memory signal, 378
Stroop test, depression, 582, 583
Structural encoding stage, face categorization, 126
Subcomponents, 16
Subcortical potentials, 105
Subcortical sources, Bereitschaftspotential (BP), 194–195
Subject-relative (SR) sentences, 44
Subsequent memory effect, 461
Subsequent memory effects, 376
Summation, necessity, 28n.2
Superior temporal sulcus (STS), 122
Superposition problem, 6
Supplementary eye field (SEF), error-related negativity (ERN), 235f, 236
Supplementary motor area (SMA)
Bereitschaftspotential (BP), 192, 193–194
error-related negativity (ERN), 233
pre-SMA, 236, 238
Sustained posterior contralateral negativity (SPCN), 329, 335, 344
Synchronization, EEG, 33–34, 46
Syntactic ambiguity, P600 and, 420–422
Syntactic anomaly, P600 and, 419–420
Syntactic positive shift (SPS), 419. See also P600 component
Syntactic priming, P600 effects, 423–424
Syntactic unification, language comprehension, 44–46
T
Targets
attentional blink, 319–322
filtering hypothesis, 348, 349f
storing in working memory, 331
Target-to-target interval (TTI), P300,, 162
Task relevance, emotion, 459–460
T-complex, 99
Temporal preparation, lateralized readiness potential (LRP), 217t
Temporal source variability, EEG, 54
Temporal variability, event-related activity, 59–63
Terrain hypothesis, error-related negativity (ERN), 276–277
Testing, lateralized readiness potential (LRP), 223–224
Theta oscillations, error-related negativity (ERN), 239–241
Theta power changes
language, 42f, 43f
time-frequency analysis, 45f
Thought translation device, 604
Three-stimulus oddball paradigm
brain activation patterns, 177f
P3a and P3b components, 173f
P3a and stimulus context, 170, 172
schematic, 160f
Time course
contralateral delay activity (CDA), 367–368
processing ERPs, 23–26
Time estimation paradigm
error-related negativity (ERN), 239, 240f
stimulus-preceding negativity (SPN), 199
Time-frequency, 8, 9–10
error-related negativity (ERN), 275
event-related EEG data, 77–82
Time-locked, 57
Training effects, mismatch negativity (MMN), 148–149
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) study, 346
Trial-averaging model, EEG data, 56–58
Trial rejection, development, 478
Troughs, 28n.1
Twins, P300,, 165
Two-tone “Mooney” images, 123
U
Unification
language comprehension, 43–46
semantic, 44
syntactic, 44–46
Unmixing matrix, 6, 8, 64
V
Valence, 443
Variability, event-related potentials (ERPs), 12–14
Variable condition, filtering hypothesis, 352, 353f
Variable serial visual presentation (VSVP), 430
Vector filter, 22
Vertex positive potential (VPP), 115, 116. See also N170 component
emotion, 446–447
N170 face effect, 116–117
Visual attention. See also Attention; Selective attention
basic P1 and N1 attention effects, 308–311
covert attention to visual locations, 306–313
Hillyard sustained attention paradigm, 308–309
nature of P1 and N1 attention, 311–313
nonspatial visual attention, 313–316
object-based, 316–317
overt and covert attention in visual perception, 305–306
Posner cuing paradigm, 308
stimuli and grand average ERP waveforms, 312f
visuospatial attention and C1 wave, 307–308
Visual evoked potentials (VEPs), 104
1 month to 4 years of age, 487f
early visual components, 485–488
maturation changes, 486f
N170 component, 487
N1 component, 485–486
N2 component, 487
P1 component, 486–487
P2 component, 487–488
Visual expertise, N170 and, 124–126
Visual field, nonhuman primates, 619–620
Visual half field (VHF) method, language processing, 408–409, 416–417
Visual oddball tasks, depression and P3 potential, 564–565, 567
Visual perception
overt and covert attention in, 305–306, 330
role of attention, 329–330
Visual processing. See also N2pc component
covert attention on peripheral location, 335–338
feature-based attention, 331–335
fixated object, 338
shifting overt attention to attended peripheral object, 338
storing target template in working memory, 331
Visual tasks, P3 in challenging, 567–568
Visual working memory (VWM). See also Memory; Working memory
change detection task, 362
contralateral delay activity (CDA), 364–371
event-related potential studies, 362–364
maintenance, 364
measuring, 361–362
memory capacity, 365–366
memory load, 365, 366f
multiple object tracking, 369–370
negative slow wave (NSW), 362, 363f
neurophysiological measures, 362
sensitivity of CDA to identity of items in, 366–367
Visuomotor adaptation task, error-related negativity (ERN), 268, 269f
Volume conduction, EEG, 54–55
(p. 641) W
Warning stimulus (S1), contingent negative variation (CNV), 196–197
Waveforms
auditory nerve, 90–91, 92–93
common problems in error-related negativity (ERN), 272f, 273f, 275
defining observed ERP, 4
grand average, 15f
middle-latency potential, 95
relation between underlying and observed scalp, 7f
single-subject, 15f
Wavelet transform (WT) analysis, 178–179
Waves, 3, 31–32
Word priming, N400, 550
Words, ERPs during processing emotional, 573–575
Working memory. See also Memory
Alzheimer’s disease, 595
contralateral delay activity (CDA), 364–371
contralateral delay activity (CDA) and attentional control over, 369
description, 361–362
event-related potential studies, 362–364
measuring visual, 361–362
storing target template, 331
Working memory maintenance
alpha and gamma activity, 40f
oscillatory dynamics, 39, 43–46
World knowledge violation, 45f
Written language, N400, 431n.2
Written text, evoked potentials to, 106–107 (p. 642)