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date: 23 October 2019

(p. 568) (p. 569) Index

(p. 568) (p. 569) Index

Aboriginal peoples, Australia,30, 45, 46, 49, 52, 53, 123, 198–199, 253–254
Aboriginal peoples, Canada,45, 123, 124, 524–525, 530, 534
abortion,3, 81, 106–107, 425
China,267
eugenic,546
Germany,327–328
Italy,394
rights,175
selective,126
Sweden,370
Switzerland,145
United States,518
absorption, biological,195–199, 254, 524. See also assimilation
acclimatization,354
African Americans,515, 516
disability,520
immigration,503
intermarriage,196
problem population,7
sickle-cell screening,543–544
Tuskegee experiment,20
Agar, W. E.,244
Agassiz, Louis,496
Alabama, Tuskegee syphilis experiment,20
Alabaster, C. G.,267
Alberta.See also Canada
Alberta Eugenics Board,203
mental hygiene,531
Red Deer Training School for Mental Defectives,533
Sexual Sterilization Act,532
sterilization,125, 203, 524, 528, 530–532
United Farmers of Alberta,531–532
United Farm Women of Alberta Association,531
Allan, McGrigor,54
Allen, Grant,46
Amoral, Azevedo,502
amentia,293, 296
AnswersinGenesis.com,27
anthropogenesis,418, 423, 425
anthropology,66, 379, 503
Anthropological Institute, Britain,38, 44, 47
colonialism,43–45, 55–56
criminal,415
Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology, Berlin,321, 325, 327, 468, 500
race conceptions,66, 71, 318, 336, 372
Roman Anthropological Society,383
volks,283
anthropometry,55, 219, 220, 405
anthropotechnique,414, 415, 418
anti-colonial nationalism,232–233, 399
anti-Malthusianism,386–387
anti-natalism,378
Antipodes, eugenic ideas and practices,245, 246, 248–249, 253, 254
anti-Semitism,193, 316, 319, 339–341, 406, 407, 462
apartheid, South Africa,274–275, 282–284, 393
Apáthy, István,65, 402
Apert, Eugène,338
Argentina,18, 157, 317, 479, 495, 502
aristogenesis,178
Arthur, Richard,103, 244
artificial insemination,221–222, 552
Artom, Cesare,389
assimilation,195–199, 311, 405, 524
Astel, Karl,326
atavism, in women,54–55
Australia,123, 243–244, 245, 246
Asians in,198
child-removal programs,53, 199, 254
genocide,199
immigration,249
Immigration Restriction Act,52, 159–160
marriage,198, 249–250
maternal mortality,250
Mental Defectives Act,247
Northern Territory,198
Protectors of Aborigines,47, 198–199
Queensland,198, 199
Racial Hygiene Association, New South Wales,17, 103, 245, 250
reformers,245–246, 253
segregation,247–248, 251
sterilization,247–248
Tasmania,247
Austria,388
racial hygiene,316–317
Viennese Society for Racial Hygiene,401
Balfour, Arthur,215
Balkans, eugenics,399
(p. 570) Bang, Herman,365
Bangladesh,239–240
Family Planning Association,239
Bateson, William,19, 69, 83, 548
Materials for the Study of Variation,83
Bauman, Zygmunt,14, 74, 135, 544
Baur, Erwin, Human Heredity,67
Beale, Octavius,253
Bebel, August,320
Bedwell, C. E. A.,166
Belgian Eugenics Society,387
Bell, Alexander G.,118
Ben-Gurion, David,197
Benwen, Sun,19, 264
Berlin
School of the Science of Judaism,466
Congress,55
Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology,321, 325, 327, 468, 500
Racial Hygiene Society,315, 316, 317
Berry, R. J. A.,244, 293
Bertram, Colin,543
Besant, Annie,108
biology,44, 431
and race,402, 405
microscopic,82
biological capital,13, 398, 404
biological determinism,63, 400, 404
biometrics,83, 84, 91, 182, 284
biopolitics,15, 185, 194–195, 203, 204, 400
bio-regulation, international,158–160
biotechnologies, Japan,442
biotypology,391
birth control,3, 99, 217, 218, 222. See also fertility control
Catholic Church,102
contraception in colonial India,229–230
eugenics and,100, 103–104
France,338
German policies,327–328
growing use,53
Hong Kong campaigns,266–269
Huxley's manifesto,163
India,101
Puerto Rico,482–483
race suicide,100
Race Welfare Society,103
South Asia,233–234
birth rate,53
Australia and New Zealand,253
France,335
Black, Edwin,520
Blacker, Carlos Paton,102, 122, 155, 168, 216, 218, 221–223, 230, 246, 296, 542, 546, 547
Chances of Morbid Inheritance,223
Blaschko, Alfred,319
Blatz, William,530
Bleuler, Eugen,141
blood and soil mythology, Russia,424
blood groups,70–71, 420, 431
blood marriages,182
Japan,438
Bluhm, Agnes,378–379
Boas, Franz,19, 71–72, 87, 89, 487, 503
The Mind of Primitive Man,90–91
Bolshevik Russia,416–421, 424, 425. See also Soviet Union
Bonnevie, Kristine,366, 367
Bo˘o˘k, Jan,163, 372
Bose, Kartick Chandra, Sex Hygiene,231
Bose, Pramatha N., Survival of the Hindu Civilization,231
Booth, Charles,213
Life and Labour of the People in London,38
Bosnia-Herzegovina,398–399, 400
Bouhler, Philipp,323
Bouman, K. H.,350
Bowring, John,266
Brandt, Karl,323
Brazil,16, 259, 382, 493–494, 502–506
Brazilian Central Commission of Eugenics,504
Brazilian Mental Hygiene League,123, 499–500
climate and race,494–495
diffusion of eugenics,494
Eugenics Society of São Paulo,499
First Brazilian Congress of Eugenics,493, 501, 502, 503
future of mestiço people,502–504
health and education policies,497–499
immigration,503, 505
Manifesto of the Brazilian Intellectuals against Racism,504
maternity,502
medicine,498–499, 502
Pro-Sanitation League of Brazil,498, 500
public health,497–499
race theories and dilemmas at end of 19th century,495–497
sanitation,498, 500
sterilization, discussion of,502
breeding, animal,85, 264, 297, 333
breeding, human,80, 333. See also marriage, human heredity
breeding out Aboriginality,52–53, 198, 254
managed,180–181
selective,33–34, 195, 379
women and,176–178
men and,216, 217–18
breeding, plant,81, 83–84, 93
Britain,213–216, 217–218, 222–223, 399
Abortion Act,107
artificial insemination by donor,221–222
(p. 571) Committee on Physical Deterioration,53
British Association for the Advancement of Science,48
Eugenics Record Office, University College London,37
Eugenics Society,118, 140, 161, 200, 214, 215–218, 219–221
Family Planning Association,218
feebleminded,221–222
Francis Galton Laboratory for the Study of National Eugenics, London,37
Malthusian League,99, 100
Mental Deficiency Acts,139, 200
modernity model,14
National Birth Control Association,218
race mixture,219–221
responsible motherhood,215–216
Royal Commissions,214
segregation,221–222
sterilization,125, 139–140, 221–222
British Columbia,524
mental hygiene,531
sterilization,530–532
British East Africa.See Kenya
Broca, Paul,487
Bruce, Lieutenant Governor,533
Brunius, Harry,520
Bryce, James, Impressions of South Africa,52
Bryce, Peter,528
Buckle, Henry,495–496
Buck v. Bell,121, 516
Buffon, Georges Louis Leclerc Comte de,333
Bulgaria,399, 400
Bulgarian Society for Racial Hygiene,402
Bunak, Viktor,417
Buschan, Georg,414
Butler, Fred,184
Bychowski, Shneor Zalman,466–467, 470
Byrne, Joseph,297
Calder, John,49
California,180, 513, 517, 524
San Quentin prison,180
Sonoma State Home for the Feebleminded,184, 517
sterilizations in state institutions,184
Cameroon,318
Canada,123, 472, 523–525. See individual provinces; see also Aboriginal peoples
Canadian Mental Health Association,533
Canadian National Committee for Mental Hygiene530–531
Chinese Immigration Act,529
citizenship,528–530
deportation,529–530
Eugenics Society,526, 532
Gradual Civilization Act,524
immigration,52, 528–530
indigenous populations,123–124
maternity,527
mental disability,530–531
Northwest Rebellion,528
provincial patterns,530–533
sanitation,525
sterilization,9, 18, 125, 524
Cape Colony.See South Africa
Carde, Jules,335
Carlyle, Thomas,29
Carneiro, Levi,502
Carrel, Alexis,180, 338–340, 350
Man, the Unknown,339
Carr–Saunders, Alexander,18, 99, 162
Eugenics,3
Carrera y Justiz, Francisco,478
Carter, C. O.,163
Carter, Cedric,549
caste, in India,231–232
Castle, William,84, 87
castration,120
Castro, Fidel,179
Catholic Church
abortion,105
Argentina,18
attitude to sterilization,140, 201
Australia and New Zealand,247–248
birth control,102, 106, 108, 483
Cuba,481
eugenic sentiment,379
eugenics movement,102, 105–106
France,338
French Canada,526
Italian eugenics,383–384, 387
Nazi Germany,143
scientific progress,394
sterilizations in Puerto Rico,483
U.S. eugenics,514
Chadwick, Osbert,260–261
Chagas, Carlos,498
Chamberlain, Neville,215
Chambers, Robert, Vestiges of Creation,48
Chandrasekhar, Sripati, Population and Planned Parenthood in India,165
Chapple, W. A.,244, 245
Fertility of the Unfit,254
Charcot, Jean-Martin,466
Chesser, Elizabeth Sloan,215
Chesterton, G. K.,19
child-raising,453–454
child-removal programs
Australia,53, 199, 254
Canada,524–525
Kinder der Landstrasse,137–139, 148
Switzerland,137–139, 143, 148, 149–150
child welfare, Australia and New Zealand,251–252
(p. 572) China,16, 127–128, 129, 259, 260–261
birth control movement,269
Chinese geneticists,258–259
eugenics vs. public hygiene,262–266
marriage,262–263
Maternal and Infant Health Law,127, 546
national character,260–261
National Population Policy,269–270
New Life Movement,268
public health,262–266
reproductive autonomy,176
sanitation,260–261
Churchill, Winston,215
citizenship,13, 109, 439
Canada,528–530
Nazi eugenics,322
civilization
anthropology,45
and colonialism,45, 51, 53, 399
Clarke, C. K.,525, 527
Clerici, Alessandro,382
climate and race,494–495. See also acclimatization
Colbert, Jean-Baptiste,333
colonialism,398
and anthropology,43–45, 55–56
civilization and,53–54
European,399
settler,50, 51, 197
Comte, Auguste,332, 484
Confucian virtues,265
contraception.See birth control; fertility control
Condorcet, Marie Jean Antoine Nicolas de Caritat,332
Cook, Cecil,198, 199, 251
cosmopolitanism, eugenics and,165–168
Couto, Miguel,505
Crawfurd, John,302
Creation Museum, Kentucky27
Creed, J. Mildred,53
Crew, Frank,297
critics, eugenics,18–20, 84–89, 321, 324
Cronjé, Geoffrey,283
Crowdy, Dame Rachel,161
C(r)zellitzer, Arthur,319
Cuba,16, 477, 478–481, 484, 488
Academy of Sciences,480
immigration,480–481
Mariel boat lift,179
medicine,478, 486
National Homiculture League,478
Pan American Central Office of Eugenics and Homiculture,479
sterilization,479
Czechs, independence,400, 401
da Cunha, Euclides,496, 497
da Fonseca, Álvaro Fróes,503
da Fonseca, Olímpio,503
Dahlberg, Gunnar,87–88, 89, 90, 367, 369
Raser och Folk,90
Darwin, Charles,27, 28, 29, 30, 32–33, 36, 37, 46, 47, 48, 49, 54, 64, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84
Descent of Man,4, 28, 32, 33, 34, 46, 49, 213
natural selection,4, 28, 30, 80, 82, 83, 84
On the Origin of Species,4, 28–31, 34, 80, 82, 264, 335
selective breeding,32–34
theory of evolution,27–28, 80, 83
Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication,34, 35
Darwin, Leonard,69, 156, 216, 358
Darwinism,349, 381
Dashti, ‘Ali,456
Davenport, Charles,69, 70, 87, 136, 156, 246, 259, 339, 350, 356, 414, 478–479, 485, 488
Eugenics Record Office, U.S.,500, 512, 515
Heredity in Relation to Eugenics,70
human migration and regulation,160–161
Race Crossing in Jamaica,70, 87
Davidenkov, Sergei,418
Davis, James P.,483
Davis, Kingsley,235
Day, Matthew,46
Deakin, Alfred,244
de Carvalho, Arnolda Vieira,499
defective children,415, 420. See also disability
degeneration,38, 44, 53, 117, 333
Australia and New Zealand,248
cerebral signs,384–385
China and,260–261
decadence and,50–51
French eugenics,336–337
link to extinction,53
national race,135
Scandinavia,365
Deggeller, O.,354
De Magalhães, Fernanco,502
de Medeiros, Amaury,500
demography
French colonies,333
policies, race and,68–69
problem, Iran,451–452
de Moura, Olegário,499
denazification, eastern Europe,407–408
Deniker, Joseph,66
Denmark,365–366, 480
private eugenic society,365
Social Democratic party,363, 368
sterilization,201, 365–366, 371–373
Dennery, Étienne, Asia's Teeming Millions,52
Derrick, Carrie,525
De Sanctis, Sante,384
De Tullio, Benigno,384
Díaz, Porfirio,487
Diderot, Denis,334
Dienes, Lajos,402
(p. 573) Dingan, Hu,263
disability.See also defective children; feebleminded; mental disability; prenatal testing; psychiatry
The Black Stork,519, 520
euthanasia,9, 125
segregation,116–119
sterilization,120–122
United States,520
DNA, discovery of structure,92–93
Dobzhansky, Theodosius,86
Heredity, Race and Society,90
Doctors’ Trials,19, 544. See also Nuremberg trials
Domingues, Octávio,501
Dorr, Gregory,516
Dor-Yesharim,472
Downs' Syndrome,126, 222
Doyle, Arthur Conan,276
Drury, E. G. Dru,279
Drysdale, Alice Vickery,108, 215
Drysdale, Charles Robert,100
Drysdale, Charles Vickery,100
DuBois, W. E. B.,516
Duclaux, Emile,414
Duerden, James E.,281
Dugdale, Richard,48
Dunbar–Nelson, Alice,516
Dunn, Leslie, Heredity, Race and Society,90
Dunston, J. T.,277
Dutch East Indies,347–348, 353–357
ethical policy,353–354
eugenic research,356–357
Eugenics Society of the Dutch East Indies,352, 354
race mixing,354, 365
racial and ethnic tensions,354, 359
public health,349–350
United [Dutch] East Indies Company,353
Duxiu, Chen,261
dying race theory,44, 47–50, 198, 253, 276
East Africa, Italian,393
eastern Europe,196, 398–402
ethnic diversity,405
illiberalism,406–407
legislation and implementation,407–408
medicine,400, 401, 403–404
modernization,398, 400, 404–405
public health policies,398, 403–404
race and racism,405–406
segregation,405
East Indies.See Dutch East Indies
ectogenesis,431, 442
education, eugenics,8–9, 497–499
Eggleston, Edward, The Ultimate Solution of the American Negro Problem,196
Egypt,451
Eichmann, Adolf,326
Elderton, Ethel,440
Eldridge, John,244
Ellis, Havelock,109
England.See Britain
Enríquez, Andrés Molina,487
environmentalism, eugenics and,46, 165–168, 455
epilepsy,10, 103, 120, 367
Estabrook, Arthur,515
eugenic marriage,418, 437, 438–440, 442. See also marriage
eugenic nations, colonial states and,135–139
eugenics. See individual countries; see also genocide; immigration; race; racial hygiene; segregation; sterilization
coining of term,36
environmentalism,46, 165–168
feminist,177–178
fertility control, feminism and108–110
gender and,174–175
heredity, reproduction, and fitness,4–11, 15, 43
influence on policy making,146–150
Jewish,463–465, 471–473
new,539, 540–542
sex and,173
Zionism as,196, 469–471
Eugenics Society, Britain.See Britain, Eugenics Society
euphenics,421, 422
Eurasian community, Hong Kong,266–269
euthanasia,9, 125, 193, 202, 383–384, 394, 456, 544
Italy,394
Nazi,6, 202, 323–324
Evang, Karl,91, 369
Race Politics and Reaction,369
evolution,27–28, 43, 44, 54, 80, 81–82. See also Darwin
extinction,49
degeneration to,53
dying races and human,47–50
Fãcãoaru, Iordachi,402
Fairchild, Henry Pratt,102, 165
family
eugenics movement,182–185
U.S. eugenics,514–515
Family Planning Associations.See Bangladesh; Britain; India; Pakistan; Singapore
fantasies, male eugenic,178–182
Fantham, H. B.,279
fascism,385–389, 392
fecundity, eugenics and colonialism,51–52
feebleminded,9, 86, 117–118, 177, 194, 200, 201
Canada,527, 528–529
sterilization of,200–201, 371
Sweden,370, 371
United States,513, 517
Feldman, W. M.,465
female, sexual difference,54–55, 177
female enslavement,267
(p. 574) feminism
abortion,106–107
equal rights and citizenship,176–177
eugenics, fertility control, and,108–110
India,232–233
reproductive control,109
Fengbin, Yu,262
Fernández, Francisco María,480
Fernando, Sylvia,238
fertility control.See also birth control
abortion,3, 106–107
eugenics, and feminism,108–110
men promoting,111
regulation,98–99
sterilization,3, 104–106
Fichman, Martin,56
Filipchenko, Iurii,416, 417, 418, 421, 422
Fischer, Alfons,414
Fischer, Eugen,67, 279, 318, 355, 367, 467–468, 500
Human Heredity,67
Fishberg, Maurice,467
The Jews: A Study of Race and Environment,464
Fisher, R. A.,545, 548
fitness,4–11, 15, 32–33, 415, 431, 479
fitter families,8, 176, 182, 514–515
Fitzalan, Edmund,268
Fleming, Rachel,219–220
Fleure, Herbert,219–220
Florinskii, Vasilii,414
Fontenelle, Oscar Penna,500
foot binding, China,260
Forel, August,140, 317, 414
France,7–8, 16, 332–333, 341–342, 399
Colonial Social Hygiene Service,336
degeneration fears,336–337
French Eugenics Society,336–337, 339, 341–42
marriage,334
maternity,340
medicine,340, 342
National Office of Social Hygiene,336
population,333–335, 340–341, 343
puériculture,17, 336–337, 340, 414, 418–419
race,334, 342–343
secularism,381
sterilization laws,201
Vichy regime,339–341
Frank, Johann Peter,334
Frassetto, Fabio,391
French-Canadians,524, 526
Frets, Gerrit Pieter,350
Freyre, Gilberto,493–494, 504
Froude, J. A.,276
Galen, Clemens,324
Gall, Franz Joseph,29
Galton, Francis,28–31, 35–38, 48, 51, 55, 56, 82, 99, 134, 178, 179, 213, 221, 264, 285, 399, 416, 438, 440, 466, 478, 539, 540
eugenic and demographic policies,68
German eugenics and,64–65
Hereditary Genius,4, 29, 30, 31, 32, 36, 414, 431
Inquiries into Human Faculty and Its Development,64
Kantsaywhere,179
loss of faith,28
race and eugenics,56
race and science,73
Gamble, Clarence,482
Gamio, Manuel,487
Gandhi, Indira,236
Gandhi, M. K.,229
Garrod, Archibald,548
Garvey, Marcus,516
Gates, Reginald Ruggles,157, 279
Geiger, Abraham,466
Gemelli, Agostino,387, 392
gemmules,34–35, 81
gender,173–174, 175, 437, 543
eugenic sterilizations,145–146
and sexuality,174–176, 183–184
and the state,144–146
gene technology,91
genealogies,9–10, 419–420
genetic counseling,89
Britain,549
Jews today,471–472
Scandinavian countries,372–373
genetic criticism, eugenics,84–87, 89
geneticists, UNESCO declaration on race,89–91
Geneticists' Manifesto,88, 91
genetics,542. See also breeding, animal; breeding, plant; human genetics
classical,81, 83, 85, 366
cytogenetics,91
disability,126–127
in 1950s and 1960s,91
Lysenkoist,87, 423
medical,92, 423, 424, 548–549
Mendelian,69, 70, 222, 485, 486
natural selection,4, 30, 32–33, 36, 69
new science of,82–84
Permanent International Committee of Genetics,85
population,86
public use of term,83
racial research in Germany,323–325
Russian,416, 417, 418, 421
vs. racism,87–88, 92
genetic surgery,91, 93
genocide
after 1945,542–544
Australia,199
colonial,204
eugenics and,74, 193–195, 203–204
Genocide Convention, UN,193–194, 197, 203, 539, 544
Holocaust,202, 204
(p. 575) Nazi racial planning,325–326
sterilization as,193, 199–202
genotype,83, 84, 86, 91, 366, 421
German psychiatry, mental illness,121, 321
Germany,10, 315–316, 321–322, 325–326, 328, 399, 400, 413. See also Berlin; Nazi Germany
abortion,327–328
Blood Protection Law,322
euthanasia,6, 202, 323–324
genetics and racial research,324–325
German Psychiatric Institute,321
Jewishness and racial hygiene,318–319
Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology,321, 325, 327, 468, 500
medicine,316, 319, 322, 327–328
mental illness and inheritance,118
Nuremberg trials,327
Permanent International Eugenics Committee,156
politics and eugenics,141
public health,316–317, 327–328
racial hygiene,65–68, 105, 156, 316–318, 371, 439, 542–543
Racial Hygiene Society, Berlin,315, 316, 317
Reich Citizenship Law,322
Reich Colonial Office,318
Reich Health Office,326
Rhineland “bastards,”201
sex research,185
sterilization,89, 121, 122, 141, 146, 201, 202, 370–371
Stuttgart Racial Hygiene Society,319
Weimar welfare state,320–321
germ-line theory,82. See also Weismann, August
germ plasm,69, 259, 264, 282, 293, 335, 348, 378, 381, 385, 446n.42
Gilks, John,291, 296
Gini, Corrado,157, 389, 390–391, 392–394
Glad, John,540
Gobineau, Arthur de,53, 496
An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races,496
Goldman, Emma,108
Goldscheid, Rudolf,317
Goldschmidt, Richard,319
Goldstein, Kurt,414
Goodisson, Lillie,244
Gordon, Doris Clifton,244
Gordon, Henry Laing,290, 292–294, 294–296
Gottstein, Adolf,319
Grace, Alfred,47, 49
Graham, Robert,180
Grand, Sarah,176
Grant, Eleanor,295
Grant, Madison,156, 195, 380
The Passing of the Great Race,52
Grant, Alexander,46
Grave, Guillaume Poncet de la,334
Greece,399, 402, 407
Greek Anthropological Association,402
Greg, William Rathbone,28
Gross, Heinrich,327
Grotjahn, Alfred,65, 141, 193, 320
G spot,184
Günther, Hans F. K.,66, 320, 321
Guangdan, Pan,259, 261, 263–266, 269–270
Gunn, Elizabeth,244
gynecology,419
“gypsies,”48, 201
Nazi eugenics,322, 326
Habsburg lands, eugenics,399, 400–401
Haddon, Alfred C.,45, 47, 72, 162
We Europeans,72
Haeckel, Ernst,9, 64, 317–318
Hagedoorn, A. L.,351–352
Hailey, Malcolm,297
Haiselden, Harry,9, 519, 549
Haldane, J. B. S.,87, 88, 222, 297, 545, 548
“half-caste” populations,7, 52, 198–199, 219–221, 251, 254
Hall, Prescott F.,159
Harmsen, Hans,327
health.See also hygiene; medicine; public health
Brazilian eugenics,497–499
pre-marital checks,454–456
women's, Iran,453
exhibitions,219
Heine, Wolfgang,141
heredity,4–11, 44
biological,80–81, 89
Cuba,478
Darwin,34, 43
DNA structure,92–93
evolution,38, 73, 81–82
feminist approaches to,176
Mendelian,16, 318, 328, 366
mental illness,117–119, 121
eugenics,4–11
hard,29, 37, 38, 82–84
Lamarckian,16–17, 34, 35, 37, 259, 334–335
language,311–312
marriage,437, 438, 463
nature and nurture,69–70, 72
pre-genetic conceptions,81
reproduction,176, 183, 186
Russia,413, 415–416, 418, 420, 421
soft,35, 37
Southeast Asia,311–312
variation,82, 83
Hernández Pérez, Eusebio,478
Herskovits, Melville J.,91
Hertz, Friedrich,321
Moderne Rassentheorien,321
Rasse und Kultur,321
Hertzog, J. B. M.,278
(p. 576) Herzl, Theodor,469–470
heterosexuality,183, 184
Himmler, Heinrich,320
Hincks, Clarence,530, 533
Hindus, Indian eugenics and,231–232, 240
Hirobumi, Ito¯,435
Hiroyuki, Kato¯,435
Hirsch, Max,319
Hirschfeld, Magnus,148, 175
Hirszfeld, Ludwik,70
Hisomu, Nagai,439
Hitler, Adolf,27, 218, 316, 319, 321, 323, 326
Hofmeyr, Jan,286
Hogben, Lancelot,19, 87, 88, 200, 222, 281
Hollingsworth, Leta S.,6
Holmes, Samuel,136
Holocaust,14–15, 192, 193, 194, 202, 203, 204, 471, 511
euthanasia,6, 202, 324
genocide,202, 204
Jews after,471
homiculture,17, 161, 477, 478
homosexuality,175, 179, 184, 185
Hong Kong,16, 260–261
birth control campaigns,266–269
Eurasian community,266–269
Eugenics League,104
Margaret Sanger,267
maternity,268
national character,260–261, 270
prostitution,266–267, 269
sex ratio,266
hormonal treatments,179–180
How–Martyn, Edith,102, 267
Hughes, A. G.,469
human extinction, dying races and,47–50
human genetics,372–373. See also prenatal testing
Britain,549
racial hygiene as,327
Human Genome Project,93, 548, 550
Hungary,399, 401–402, 407
independence,400, 401
Hungarian Society for Racial Hygiene and Population Policy,402
Hunt, James,47
Huntington's Disease,10
Hursthouse, Charles,48
Hutton, William,530
Huxley, Aldous, Brave New World,181, 545
Huxley, Elspeth,295
Huxley, Julian,87, 88, 168, 181, 218, 297
biology and genetics,72
eugenics and internationalism,167
heredity,219
population,165
transhumanism,181–182, 544–545
UNESCO manifesto,162–163, 543
We Europeans,72
Huxley, Thomas,44, 47, 54
Huxley Lecture,38
Hyatt, Alpheus,54
hygiene,8. See also health; racial hygiene
Brazil,498–499
China,260, 262–266
infant health and protection,161–162
Iran,449, 450–451, 452
social,419
hyperfecundity,391
Ichiro¯, Hatoyama,439
immigration
Australia and New Zealand,249
Brazil,505
Canada,52, 528–530
Chinese exclusion acts,158–159
colonizing states,135
Cuba,480–481
eugenic concern,120
eugenics and, restriction,52, 158–160
health inspection,159–160
infant health and protection,161–162
Israel,466, 469–471
Jewish,197
Malaya,304–305
Mexican, into U.S.,517
New Zealand,52
Palestine,470–471
Singapore,310
United States,518–519
immortality,180, 181
imperialism, anthropology and,44–45
India,127, 228–230
All-India Women's Conference,232
anti-colonial nationalism,232–233
caste,231–232
contraception,229–230
eugenics publishing,231
Family Planning Association,236
feminism,232–233
independent,235–237
Indian National Congress,232
international relationships,230
Madras Neo-Malthusian League,229
Muslims,232, 240
National Planning Commission,105
nationalism,232–233
neo-Malthusian organizations,101
population control,173
Sholapur Eugenics Education Society, India,103
Indiana State Reformatory,120
Indo-European Association,354, 356
infant care,453–454
infant health,336–337
infant mortality,250
infertility,3, 546–547
insemination, artificial,221–222
(p. 577) institutional design,142–144
intelligence testing,119, 251, 264, 277–278
interbreeding,85, 199–200, 356, 468
intermarriage,53, 196, 404
international, bio-regulation,158–160
International Eugenics Congress,87, 156, 337, 352, 415, 417, 481
International Federation of Eugenic Organizations,389, 422
International Institute for Intellectual Cooperation,161
International Planned Parenthood Federation/Committee,165, 230, 237
International Union for the Scientific Investigation of Population Problems,389
internationalism, eugenics,155, 156–158
interracial grafting,339
interracial marriage,186
intracellular pangenesis,82
in vitro fertilization,547, 550, 552
Iran,452–457
Conseil Sanitaire,450
Dar ol-Fonun,450
demographic problem,449, 451–452
hygiene,450, 452
marriage health certificates,454–456
medicine,450, 457, 458
modernization,450–451, 457
negative eugenics,449, 452, 454–456, 457
positive eugenics,449, 452–454, 456, 457
pronatalism,176, 335
puériculture,449–450, 451, 452–454, 457, 458
role of hygiene,450–451
role of women,452–454
social class,456–457
sterilization,454, 456
Ishmael tribe,515
Israel,463, 470, 472
immigration,466, 469–471
Italian East Africa,393
Italy,480
abortion,394
eugenics in Catholic southern Europe,377–378
eugenics under fascism,385–389, 392
human evolution,379
Italian Genetics and Eugenics Society,394
Italian Institute of Hygiene, Insurance, and Social Assistance,385
Italian Society of Genetics and Eugenics,389
Latin eugenics,389–391
medicine,381, 385, 392
place in world eugenics,378–379
Royal Commission for the Study of Post-war Problems,386
Royal Italian Society of Hygiene,389
Roman Anthropological Society,383
socialist movement,381–382
stem-cell research,394
Iudin, Tikhon,416, 417
Iyer, S. Sundaresa, How to Evolve a White Race,231
Izquierdo, J. Joaquin,178–179
Jacobs, Joseph,466
Japan
blood,433, 434–436
DNA data bank,430
eugenic marriages,182, 437, 438–440
Eugenic Exercise/Movement Association,433, 438
eugenic laws,107, 125, 430, 439–441, 546
family-state system,432
female citizenship,439
heredity,438
Japanese Race Hygiene Society,439
Legs and Feet Society,433, 438
Manifesto for Eugenic Japan,433–434
maternity,441
medicine,436
National Institute of Genetics,430
nationalism and new Japanese,430–434
popularizing eugenics,436–438
postwar and posthuman eugenics,431, 440–442
sex research,185
sterilization,439–440, 442
World War II and abortion,107
Jennings, Herbert,19, 87, 91
Jewishness,465–469
racial hygiene and,318–319
Jews.See also Holocaust
Arab197
children,55, 220, 469
definition,462, 466–467
involvement in eugenics,319
migration,197
Nazi regime,148
Yemenite,197
Jianren, Zhou,263–264
Jiro¯, Oka'asa,436
Joerger, Josef,138
Johannsen, Wilhelm,83–84, 366
Jones, David Caradog,223
Joyner, Hannah,520
Jukes family,48, 119, 182, 515
Julius Klaus Foundation,137
Justin, Eva,326
juvenile delinquency
Australia and New Zealand,251–252
Kenya,293
Kai-shek, Chiang,265
Kakushkin, Nikolai,419
Kallikak family,119, 182, 515
Kaminskii, G.,423, 424
Kammerer, Paul,317
Kant, Immanuel, Perpetual Peace,166
Kaufman, A. R.,104, 530, 533
Kauntze, William,291, 292
Kautsky, Karl,320
(p. 578) Kegel, Ernest,184
Kehl, Renato,494, 499, 500–501, 504
Keith, Arthur,200
Kellogg, John Harvey,339
Kemp, Tage,91, 163–164
Kentaro¯, Kaneko,435
Kenya,289–294
British colony,289
Society for the Study of Race Improvement,289, 290–291, 294–296
medical profession,290–294
medicine,290–294, 295
metropolitan responses,296–298
Nairobi's race improvers,294–296
Key, Ellen, The Century of the Child,366
Keynes, John Maynard,166–167
Khan, Ayub,237
Khan, Mohammed Hassan,451, 453, 457
Kinder der Landstrasse.See child-removal programs; Switzerland
King, Frederick Truby,244, 250
Knibbs, George,101, 246
Knox, Robert, Races of Man,275
Koch, Lene,63–64, 543, 550
Kohlbrugge, J. H. F.,349
Kol'tsov, Nikolai,18, 416, 417, 418, 419, 421, 422, 423
Konsulov, Stefan,402
Koumaris, Ioannis,402
Kraepelin, Emil,121, 486
Krontovskii, Aleksei,418
Kropotkin, Petr,415
Krzywicki, Ludwik,415
Kuelz, Ludwig,318
Laidler, P. W.,279
Lamarck, Jean Baptiste,82, 333, 486
Lamarckism,16–17, 82, 85. See also heredity
adaptation,82
France and colonies,334–336
Latin America,259
neo-Lamarckism,195, 455, 477
Russia,420–421
Landsteiner, Karl,70
Langen, C. D. de,354
Lapon, Lenny,544
Lapouge, Georges Vacher de,139
last-of-the-race myth,48–49
Latin America,195, 477
international emergence,389–391
Lamarckian genetics,259
Pan American League,479
puériculture,259
sterilization law,177
Latin International Federation of Eugenics Societies,156–157
Laughlin, Harry H.,62, 378
laws of inheritance,30, 34–36
League of Nations,155, 160–162, 401
Leakey, Louis,297
Leaming, Hugo,515
Lee, Richard,46
Lehmann, Julius,319
Leipoldt, C. Louis,281
Lemkin, Raphael,193, 197. See also Genocide Convention
Lenz, Fritz,64, 320–321, 327, 367
euthanasia,323
Human Heredity,67
Levi, Ettore,385–386
Levit, Solomon,421, 422, 423
Lien-teh, Wu,262
Lifu, Chen,265
Lindbergh, Charles,180, 338
Little, Clarence,102, 111, 156
Liublinskii, Pavel,415, 419
Lobato, Monteiro,498
Lockhart, William,261
Lodge, Henry Cabot,178
Lombroso, Cesare,51, 54–55, 486
London, Jack, People of the Abyss,38
Loria, Achille,380, 383, 388, 389
Lotsy, J. P.,349
Loving v. Virginia,186
Lubbock, John,51
Ludovici, Anthony,216, 218
Luisa Dolz, Maria,478
Lundborg, Herman,136, 141, 367
Luria, S. E.,91
McCormick, Katharine Dexter,483
McCulloch, Oscar,515
MacDonald, Ramsay,297
Macdonell, Sir John,166
MacMurchy, Helen,526–527, 529
The Almosts: A Study of the Feeble-minded,527
Madzsar, József,402
Maillet, Benoît de,333
Malaya,302–304
immigration,304–305
Malayan Communist Party,305
Malaysia,301, 305–308
United Malays National Organization,307
male,215–216. See also gender; masculinity
hormones,179–180
Male-Female Test,185
masculinity,178–182, 248
Malherbe, E. G.,282
Malthus, Thomas,5, 99, 332, 347, 451
Manitoba,528, 531
Manuil, Sabin,402
Maoris,47, 49, 254
Marañon, Gregorio,180
Marín, Luis Muñoz,483
Marr, Wilhelm,462
marriage
Australia and New Zealand,198–199, 249–250
consanguineous,10
counseling,185, 548
France,334
health certificates,338, 386, 454–456, 500
interracial,186
Jewish,463–464, 466, 467, 472
marital health law,322
mental illness,143–144
Mexico,484–485
promotion,5–6
Scandinavia,368
Swiss advice bureaus,149
U.S. states' laws,186
Martial, René,338
Martin, Victoria Woodhull,52, 176
masculinity,179. See also gender; male
maternity,108, 542, 546
allowances,250, 253
Brazil,502
Canada,527
France,340
Hong Kong,268
Japan,441
Russia,415, 418–419
working-class women,222
Matheson, Hilda,297
Matsunaga, Ei,430, 440
Maudsley, Henry,117
Mayer, Joseph,470
Mayr, Ernst,82
medical ethics,342
medicine,74, 117, 122, 157, 179, 259, 304, 497
Brazil,498–499, 502
Cuba,478, 486
eastern Europe,400, 401, 403–404
France,333, 340, 342
genocide,201
Germany,316, 319, 322, 327–328
Iran,450, 458
Italy,381, 385, 392
Japan,436
Kenya,290–294, 295
Netherlands,355
preventive,202, 244, 319, 322
Russia,415, 421–423, 425
Sweden,367
South Africa,285
United States,85, 517, 519
Meiji Restoration, Japan,432
Mendel, Gregor,54, 69, 82–83, 468, 486
Mendelism,182, 195, 203, 214, 278, 468
Brazilian eugenics,494, 501
Chinese geneticists,258–259
hereditary constitution,420–421
heredity,16, 318, 328, 366
human variation,318
Italy,381
marriage,484–485
Mexico,486
racial mixing,195
Sweden,367
theory of recessive,69–70
Mendoza, Salvador,486
Mengele, Josef,324–325
mental disability.See also feebleminded; sterilization
after World War II,124–128
Enlightenment ideals,117
genetics,126–127
mental deficiency,123, 293
problem families,125
retardation,88, 91
segregation,116–119
mental health and hygiene
Canada,530–531
United States,513
mental illness
German psychiatry,121
heredity,117–119, 121
marriage,143–144
mental institutions, euthanasia,125
Mercer, W. H.,49–50
Mexico,16, 477, 484–488
baby care,173
Bureau of Eugenics and Mental Hygiene,486
Mexican Eugenics Society for the Betterment of the Race,485, 486, 487
Mexican Puériculture Society,485, 486, 488
mestizo population,487–488
puériculture,179, 485, 486, 488
sterilization,485–486
Michele, Cesare,388
Mill, John Stuart,29, 32
environmentalism,32
Principles of Political Economy,29
Milner, Alfred,276–277
Minoru, To¯go¯,436
miscegenation,7, 52–54, 195, 435, 436, 493, 496, 497, 502, 505
Mivart, George Jackson,51
Mjøen, Jon Alfred,85, 87, 246, 366, 380
modernity,11–15, 43, 200, 202
Mohamad, Mahathir,306–307
The Malay Dilemma,306
Mohr, Otto Lous,85, 88, 89, 366
Moldovan, Iuliu,402
Montague, Ashley,89–90
Man's Most Dangerous Myth,89
Montoro, Octavio,480
Moore, Henry Monck-Mason,295
moral idiocy,144
Morel, Bénédict,117, 336, 380, 540
Morgan, Lewis Henry,
Systems of Consanguinity and Affinity of the Human Family,438
(p. 580) Morgan, Thomas Hunt,83, 85, 350
Mechanism of Mendelian Heredity,83, 86
Morselli, Enrico,380–381, 383, 384
Mercy-Killing: Euthanasia,383
motherhood,176, 215–216. See also marriage; maternity
Muckermann, Hermann,65, 71, 321, 500
Muir, Leilani,533
Muller, Hermann J.,87, 88, 91, 547
Murphy, Emily,531
Mussolini, Benito,157, 218, 387, 388
mutation,83
Myrdal, Alva,136, 141, 163, 369
Myrdal, Gunnar,136, 141, 369, 372
Nachtsheim, Hans,327
Namibia,279, 285
national character, Hong Kong and China,260–261
nationalism,11–12, 399
Afrikaner,282–284
and race,399
German,320
India,232–233
masculinized,179
New Japanese,430–434
nation state, eugenics,11–15
nativism,512
natural selection,4, 28, 30, 32–33, 37, 69, 80, 82, 83, 214
Nazi Germany,91, 120, 147–148, 192–193, 222, 321–322, 407, 463, 542–544. See also Germany
Blood Protection Law,322
Catholic Church,81, 143
doctors and genocide,193
gendered sterilization policies,146
homophobia,184
physicians,192
racial planning,325–326
racist policies,87, 88
Reich Citizenship Law,322
Reich Colonial Office,318
Reich Health Office,326
scientists,92, 192
segregation,322
sterilization,89, 141, 146, 202, 370–371
Nazism, hereditarianism,204
Neame, L. E., Asiatic Danger in the Colonies,52
negative eugenics,31, 86, 178, 218, 335, 338, 414, 420, 449, 456, 481, 518
Nehru, Jawaharlal,12, 235
Neiva, Arthur,505
neo-Malthusianism,451
Australia and New Zealand,253, 254
fertility restriction,99, 100
India,101, 228, 229, 236, 240
overpopulation,165
Netherlands,347, 348–352, 357–359
Central Committee of Collaborating Societies promoting Research in Human Heredity,352
Dutch Anthropogenetic Society,358
Dutch Eugenics Federation,352, 357
Dutch Society for Mental Hygiene,350
eugenics organizations in,352–353
medicine,355
pillarization,358–359
public health,349–350
Neville, A. O.,47, 53, 198, 199
New York
Cold Spring Harbor,478
Eugenics Record Office,9, 37, 500, 510, 512, 515
New Zealand,243–244
eugenicists,244–245, 246
immigration restriction,52
Inquiry into Mental Defectives and Sexual Offenders,177
Mental Defectives Act,246–247
reformers,245–246, 253
segregation,247–248, 251
women's activism,177
Niceforo, Alfredo,379
Nielsen, P.,285
Nietzsche, Friedrich, Übermenschen,545
Niger, French eugenics,342–343
Nilsson–Ehle, H.,367
Nitsche, Paul,323
Nixon, W. C. W.,267–268
Noble, Ralph,246
nomadism,137
Nordau, Max, Degeneration,470
North Carolina,517–518
State Hospital for the Colored Insane,520
Northcote, Geoffry,268
Norway,85, 365–366, 480, 485
Norwegian Genetics Society,365
Social Democratic party,363, 368
sterilization,89, 371–373
Notestein, Frank,235
Nova Scotia Hospital for the Insane,525
Noyes, John Humphrey,17. See also Oneida
Nuremberg trials, Germany,327. See also Doctors' Trials
Ocaranza, Fernando,485, 487
Okhmatmlad,418–419, 421, 425
Oneida,5, 17
Ontario,526–527, 532
Provincial Asylum for Idiots,527
Operation Reinhard death camps,202
Orshanskii, Isaak,415
Osborn, Frederick,72–73, 163, 167
Osborn, Fairfield,167, 168
Osborn, Henry Fairfield,156, 339
Ossewabrandwag movement,282
Ottesen–Jensen, Elise,366
overpopulation,101, 165, 414, 451, 481, 482–483
(p. 581) Pakistan,237
Family Planning Association,237
Palavicini, Felix,485
Palestine,470, 471
Hebrew Authors' Association,470
immigration,470–471
Labor Organization Sick Fund,470
Palestinian society, politicide,197
pangenesis,34–36, 82
Paterson, Albert,291, 292
Paz Soldán, Carlos Enrique,479, 499
Paul, Eden,217
Pearl, Raymond,19
Pétain, Philippe,337
Pearson, Charles, National Life and Character,246
Pearson, Karl,10, 37, 38–39, 55, 69, 83, 87, 134, 166, 214, 221, 414, 512
Academic Aspect of the Science of National Eugenics,71
Jewish eugenics,469
meaning of race,71
reproduction,109
sterilization,104
pedology, Russia,420
Pellepoix, Louis Darquier de,340
Penna, Belisário,498, 500
Penrose, Lionel,88, 222, 549
Pereira, Miguel,498
Perkins, Henry F.,516
Permanent International Commission on Eugenics,367, 417
Perrier, Edmond,337
Perrier, Elie,414
Perruche, Nicholas,342
Pétain, Philippe,337
Petrén, Alfred,366
phenotype,83, 84, 86, 91, 366, 421
phrenology,29
Piddington, Marion,244
Pike, Luke Owen,54
pillarization, Dutch society,358–359
Pillay, A. P.,103, 111, 230, 235–236
Pinard, Adolphe,161–162, 336, 451, 453, 458, 478
Pitt–Rivers, H. L. F.,393–394
Platt Amendment,477
Plauzoles, Just Sicard de,338
Ploetz, Alfred,17, 64–65, 315, 316, 317, 318–319, 357, 380, 436
Grundlinien einer RassenHygiene,64
Pöch, Rudolf,316
Poland,399, 401, 403
illiberalism,406–407
independence of Poles,400, 401
Polish Eugenics Society,401
Society for Combating Sexually Transmitted Diseases,401
Poll, Hermann,319
Pomare, St. Maui,244
Pope, procreation in Italy,386–387
Popenoe, Paul,100, 183–185
Popperdick, Hans-Helmut,325, 327
population,4–11, 18. See also overpopulation
birth control,99–104, 157
blood groups,70–71
colonialism,43–45, 47
cosmopolitan,166
environmentalists,167–168
“half-caste,”7, 198–199, 219–221, 251, 254
heredity,29, 30–31, 65, 68, 81, 86, 88, 90, 220
immigration,158–160, 469
International Congress on,391
International Union for the Scientific Study of,389, 393
laws of inheritance,30, 34, 37–38
management,203–204
mental disability,116–119, 121, 123–124
nation-building,12
problem,245
underpopulation,451
world,102, 155–158, 161, 163
Population Association,165
population control,52
new name for eugenics,233, 234
postcolonial South Asia,233–235
sterilization movement,164
world,163, 164–165
populist campaigns,8
Porter, William,49
Portugal,388, 390
positive eugenics,31, 86, 100, 178, 335, 449
posthumanism,544–545
prenatal testing,126, 372–373, 471–472, 546
Prichard, James Cowles,45, 50
primitivism,45, 47, 48, 54, 196
prostitution,419, 454, 481
Hong Kong,176–177, 266–267
Mexico,177
Protestants,105, 106, 108, 195
Canadian eugenics,524
U.S. eugenics,514
psychiatry,91, 122–128
Australia and New Zealand,251, 252
Canada,525
France,336
Italy,380
racial difference,124
recessive Mendelian inheritance,69–70
Russia,416
psychobiology, mental disorder,121
psychometric testing,277–278
psychotherapy, mental health,118
public health,3, 8, 14, 16, 246, 253, 400, 404, 478
Dutch eugenicists,349–350
health and education,497–499
reproduction,383, 385
sanitation,195, 213, 216
(p. 582) puériculture,154, 162, 179, 414, 418–419, 478, 479
concept,3, 102, 105, 451
France,17, 336–337, 340, 414, 418–419
Latin America,259
Mexico,485, 486, 488
U.S.,518
Puerto Rico,16, 477, 481–484, 488
Eugenics Board,483
population control,173, 482–483
public health,482–483
sterilization,481, 483–484
Qajar, Muzaffar al-Din Shah,450
Qatar Iran, hygiene,450
Qichao, Liang,260
Quebec,16, 525–526
Montreal Suffrage Association,525
race
after 1945,542–544
Australia and New Zealand,198, 253–254
betterment,10, 177
eastern Europe,403, 405–406
eugenics and,56, 62–64, 66–68, 87, 200, 405
France,334
Indian eugenics,231–232
intelligence and,292–294
nations and,154
purity,12–13
term,63, 64, 68, 71, 72
UNESCO declaration on,74, 89–91, 92
race mixing,85, 92, 195, 468, 502. See also “half-caste”; miscegenation
Britain,219–221
Dutch East Indies,354, 356–357, 365
race crossing project,219–220
race suicide,123, 349
birth control,100
Canada,528
racial difference,32–33, 46
psychiatry and,124
racial diversity, Southeast Asia,302–303
racial hygiene,64–66, 75–76n.21, 179, 436, 439
blood groups,70
genocide,193–195, 204
Jewishness and,318–319
term,17, 64, 136–137, 315, 317
racial nationalism,196, 403
racial poisons,315, 320
racial state, German history,328
racial utopia,392
racism,6, 200, 305
anti-racism,89
eastern Europe,405–406
genetics vs.,87–88
occupied France,339–341
Romania,406
United States,512–513
Rahuman, Mujibur,239
Rainer, Francisc,402
Rajwade, Laxmibai,232
Ramírez, Eliseo,487
Râmneanu, Petre,402
Ramos, Arthur,504
Ramos Delgado, Domingo F.,157, 161–162, 478–479, 481, 488
Rao, M.V. Krishna, Hindu Ideals of Health and Eugenics,231
Rassenhygiene,17, 64, 75–76n.21, 414, 423, 432
rational selection,214
Rau, Dhanvanthi Rama,236
Réaumur, René Antoine Ferchault de,333
Reche, Otto,71, 401
Reichler, Max,463–464
Reid, A. P.,525
religion.See also Catholic Church; Protestants
Catholicism,17–18, 102, 105–106, 108, 143, 201, 247, 379, 394, 514
eugenic,418
eugenic sentiment,379
evangelical Christianity,185
evolution and,36–37
Hinduism,231–232
Indian eugenics and,231–232
monogenism,46–47
polygenism,46–47, 53
Protestantism,17–18, 105, 106, 108, 143,514, 524
Russia,418
U.S. eugenics and,513–514
Repository for Germinal Choice,180–181, 546–547. See also sperm bank
reproduction.See also breeding, human; fertility control; maternity
heredity, and fitness,4–11, 15, 33
politics and technologies,545–546
promotion,5–6
reprogenetics,541, 550–551
Retzius, Anders,365
Rhoads, Cornelius,483
Rhodesia,285
Ribot, Théodule,414
Richet, Charles,338, 414
Ripley, William Z.,66
Ritter, Robert,322, 326
Roberts, Fraser,163, 549
Robin, Paul,336
Rodenwaldt, E.,354–357
Rodrigues, Nina,496–497
Rodríguez Cabo, Matilde,486
Röhm, Ernst,179
Rolleston, Humphrey,297
Romanes, George,54
Romania,382, 390, 399, 402, 403, 406, 407
assimilation,405
(p. 583) independence,400, 401
Institute for Hygiene,402
policy-making,402
race and racism,406
reproductive autonomy,176
Romero, Sílvio,496–497
Roosevelt, Theodore,179
Roquette–Pinto, Edgard,494, 501, 503, 504
Ross, Edward Alsworth,101
Rostand, Jean,341
Rout, Ettie,244
Royer, Clémence,335
Rubin, Israel,470
Rüdin, Ernst,69, 122, 141, 317, 351, 357
Rulfo, José,485
Ruppin, Arthur,196, 467, 471
Russia,16–17, 127, 413–423, 424–5. See also Bolshevik Russia; Soviet Union
human heredity,413
ideas and policies from other countries,414–415
Institute of Experimental Biology,417
maternity,415, 418–419
Medical-Surgical Academy,414
medicine,415, 421–423, 425
public health,418–419
religion,418
science and ideology,416–421
Rutgers, Jan,351, 414
Rutnam, Mary,238
Saavedra, Alfredo,485, 487
Salaman, Redcliffe Nathan,466, 469
Saleeby, Caleb,56, 69, 73, 217
Saint-Simon, Claude Henri de Rouvroy,332
Sami, Sweden,7, 87, 136, 367
Sandow, Eugene,249
Sanger, Margaret,101–102, 108, 110, 161, 176, 178, 267
sanitation
Brazil,498, 500
Canada,525
China,260–261
public health,195, 213, 216
Santamarina, Rafael,479, 485
Sarraut, Albert,335
Saskatchewan,528, 531
savages,43–47, 49, 54
Scandinavia.See also Denmark; Norway; Sweden
gender and sterilization,145–146, 148
marriage acts,368
social-democratic governments,363, 366, 368
sterilization laws,89, 105, 126, 128, 201, 363, 364, 365, 368–369, 370
Schallmayer, Wilhelm,65, 316
Scharlieb, Mary,215
Schlaginhaufen, Otto,137
Schneider, Carl,323
Schreiner, Olive,176, 276
segregation,3, 196, 293
Australia and New Zealand,247–248, 251
Britain,221–222
eastern Europe,405
intermarriage laws,196
mental disability and,116–119
Nazi eugenics,322
South Africa,196, 274–275, 277
Selborne, Lord,277
selective breeding,33–34, 37, 195, 379, 524
Seligman, C. G.,48
Selwyn–Clark, P. S.,268
Semashko, Nikolai,417, 419, 421, 424
Sequeira, James,290
Serbs,400, 401, 405
Serebrovskii, Aleksandr,418, 421, 422
Sergi, Giuseppe,379, 381, 384
serology, blood groups,70–71
Sevran, Pascal,343
sex advice,249–250
sexology,175, 182–185
sexuality.See also heterosexuality; homosexuality; reproduction
gender and,174–176
United States,518–519
Shah, Reza,450, 451, 457
Sharp, Harry,120
Shaw, George Bernard,215
Shifaq, Rizazadih,452
Shigenori, Ikeda,432, 433–434, 438, 439, 442
Shigeru, Yoshida,439
Shklovskii, Isaak,415
Shockley, William,181, 547
Shortridge, Samuel,195
Sidgwick, Henry,29, 31
Siegfried, Alfred,138, 139
Siemens, Hermann W.,66
Sinclair, Eric,251
Singapore,301, 308–310
Association of Women for Action and Research,309
Family Planning Association,309
immigration,310
People's Action Party,308
Sinsheimer, Robert,540
Sirks, M. J., General Genetics,349
Smith, Mary Ellen,531
Smuts, Jan,286
Snowman, J.,464
social Darwinism,200, 349, 359, 381, 484
socialist eugenics,422
South Africa,123, 275–282, 284–286
Abortion and Sterilization Act,107
Afrikaner nationalism,18, 282–284
Afrikaner National Party,18, 281, 282–284
apartheid,274–275, 282–284, 393
Boers,276–277, 355
Cape Colony,49
(p. 584) frontier laboratories,284–286
Immorality Act,278
institutions,279–282
medicine,285
Population Registration Act,284
psychometric tests,277–278
Race Welfare Society,103, 280
racial mixture,278–279
segregation,196, 274–275, 277
South African War,38, 213, 276
sterilization,202, 280–281
South Asia.See Bangladesh; India; Pakistan; Sri Lanka
international development agencies,235
population control and eugenics,233–235
Southeast Asia
Chinese,311–312
colonial inheritance,302–305
heredity,311–312
history of eugenics,301–302
Indonesia,311, 312
Malaysia,305–308
migration policy,311
multiracialism,310
population control programs,310–311
race mixing,303–304
Singapore,308–310
Soviet Union,16–17, 407, 424–426. See also Bolshevik Russia; Russia
Bureau of Eugenics,417
Circle of Materialist-Physicians,421
Civic Code,6, 419, 425
communist science,420–421, 422
end of eugenics,425
Institute of Medical Genetics,423
Moscow Society of Neurologists and Psychiatrists,418
Russian Eugenics Society,417, 423
socialist eugenics,422
State Museum of Social Hygiene,417
suppression of genetics,84, 421–423
Spain,180, 378, 388, 389, 477
Spencer, Herbert,54, 349, 384, 435, 484
Sri Lanka,238–239
Stalin, Joseph,421–423
Stamp, Josiah,218
Stanley, Leo,180
statistics,11, 379
Stefanovic´, Svetislav,402
Steincke, Karl Kristian,141, 369
Steinmetz, S. R.,349
stem-cell research,394
sterility,546–547
sterilization,3, 9, 81, 104–106, 110, 471. See also disability; feebleminded
Alberta,203, 524, 530–532
Australia and New Zealand,247–248, 251
Britain,125, 139–140, 221–222
British Columbia,530–532
California state institutions,184
Canada,9, 18, 125, 524
Catholic Church and,140, 481, 483
Cuba,479
Denmark,201, 365–366, 371–373
eugenic,91, 105, 145–146, 199–202, 520
France,201
gender,144–146, 202
Germany,89, 121, 122, 141, 146, 201, 202, 370–371
interwar period,120
Iran,454, 456
Japan,439–440, 442
Latin America,177
legislation,200–201
Mexico,485–486
Norway,89, 371–373
postwar,125–126
Puerto Rico,203, 481, 483–484
Red Deer Training School for Mental Defectives, Alberta,533
Scandinavian countries,89, 105, 128, 363, 364, 365, 368–369, 370
Social Democratic sterilization laws,201
South Africa,202, 280–281
Sweden,363, 371–373
Switzerland,144–146
United States,9, 120, 121, 125, 184, 201–202, 203, 516
U.S. Supreme Court Buck v. Bell,121, 516
Vaud,144
stirpiculture,17
Stoddard, Lothrop,246
Stopes, Marie,108, 110, 217, 230
Strindberg, August,365
Ströer, W. F. H.,357
struggle for existence,32
survival of the fittest,30, 49
Susumu, Ijichi,436
Sutter, Jean,341
Sutton, Harvey,244
Sweden,233, 365–366, 480, 485
abortion,370
genetic hygiene,371
genetics and medical research,367
Institute for Race Biology,136
medicine,367
Mendelian Society,365
National Board of Health,364
National Board on Social Welfare,136
racial biology and anthropology,136
Social Democratic party,363, 368
social-democratic welfare state,141
State Institute for Race Biology,367
sterilization,363, 371–373, 456
Swedish Society for Racial Hygiene,365
(p. 585) Switzerland,135–137, 141, 142–146
abortion,145
Bernese Women's Clinic,145
child removal practices,137–139, 143, 148, 149–150
federalism and eugenic policies,142–144
gendering the state,144–146
Heimatlosat,137
Kinder der Landstrasse,137–139, 148
politics and eugenics,141, 148
racial hygiene,135–137
sterilization,144–146, 177
travelers,137–138
syphilis,336, 386, 453, 455, 486, 500. See also venereal disease,
Tuskegee experiment,20
T4, euthanasia code,323
Tammes, Tine,349
Tandler, Julius,317, 319
Tatum, Edward,91
Taylor, Griffith,248
Taylor–Johnson Temperament Test,185
Tejeda, Adalberto,486
Terman, Lewis,185
Theilhaber, Felix A.,468
Third World League for Sexual Reform,185
Thurnwald, Richard,316
Toer, Pramoedya Ananta,311
Togo, German colony,318
Tokutaro¯, Yasuda,440
Toynbee, Arnold,53
transhumanism,181–182, 544–545
Travaglino, P. H. M.,354
Traverso, Enzo,544
Tredgold, A. F.,478
Tristram, Canon,48, 50
tuberculosis,6, 8, 262, 315, 336, 383
twins,324
Twitchin, Henry,218
Turner, Thomas Wyatt,516
Tuskegee experiment.See syphilis
Tylor, Edward,51
United Kingdom.See Britain
United Malays National Organization,307
United Nations,89, 155
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)89–91, 92, 162–164, 167–168, 283
campaign against racism,372
Declaration on race,74, 92
geneticists and,89–91
manifesto,162–163, 543
racial relations in Brazil,505
United States,413, 472, 477, 485. See individual states
abortion,518
American Breeders Association,85
American Eugenics Society,165, 513–514
Chinese exclusion acts,158–159
Comstock Laws,482
Creation Museum, Kentucky,27
disability,520
eugenics fairs,514–515
eugenics, race and place,516–518
federalism,142
gender,515, 517, 518–519
immigration acts,52, 159
immigration,517, 518–519
Institute for Family Relations,183, 185
medicine,85, 517, 519
mental health,513
Native Americans,196, 203
Nazi connection,511
periodization,518–519
popular culture,519
racism,512–513
religion,513–514
scholarship in 1980s and 1990s,512–513
sexuality,518–519
sterilization in,9, 120, 121, 125, 184, 201–202, 516
Public Health Service,517
unity of humanity,166
Uruguay,481
Urzaiz, Eduardo, Eugenia,181
Vahidi, M.-H.,453
Vandermonde, Charles Augustin,333
van der Spek, J.,350
van Herwerden, Marie Anne, Human Heredity and Eugenics,350
van Lonkhuyzen, J. J.,354
van Loon, F. H.,354
van Schouwenburg, Johan Christiaan,352, 354–355
van Treslong Prins, Paul Constant Bloys,355
van Wagenen, B.,378
Vargas, Getulio,504
Vasconcelos, José,487
vasectomy,120, 244
Vavilov, Nicolay Ivanovich,487
venereal disease,248, 249–50, 315, 386, 419, 454–455, 500. See also syphilis
Royal Commission on Venereal Diseases, Britain,214
Vermont,516–517
Verwoerd, Hendrik,282
Vidoni, Giuseppe,384
Vint, F. W.,293–294, 297
Virginia,516
viriculture,17
vitality, fecund populations,391
vital statistics,11
Vlieland, C.,303
Vogt, Carl,54–55
Vogt, Ragnar,366
Vogt, William,167
(p. 586) Volotskoi, Mikhail,417, 420
von Baelz, Erwin,434
von Gruber, Max,316, 414
von Hofsten, Nils,91, 367, 371
von Luschan, Felix,316
von Schönerer, Georg,316
von Trotha, Lothar,318
von Verschuer, Otmar Freiherr,324, 468
Vries, Hugo de,82, 83–84, 349
Wadia, Avabai,236
Wagner–Jauregg, Julius,401
Wallace, Alfred Russel,29, 36, 64
Wallace, Victor,246
Ward, Lester F.,71
Webb, Beatrice,215
Webb, Sidney,214, 215
Weinberg, Wilhelm,69, 319
Weismann, August,37, 54, 69, 82, 335
Weldon, W. F. R.,69, 83, 214
welfare,243, 251, 316
Brazil,494, 504
Canada,524
political ideology and,139–142, 146–147
Scandinavian,364, 369
Weimar, state,320–321
Wells, H. G.,215
Wernic, Leon,401
whites,176, 244, 248, 250, 385
poor,7, 280
South Africa,103, 277, 280
survival in the tropics,53, 200
White Australia policy,248
white colonies,45, 50, 123, 296
Wilson, Arnold,218
Wilson, Edmund,350
Wilson, Junius,520
Wilson, Woodrow,178
women.See also feminism; gender
and racial destiny,176
breeding,31, 176–178
citizenship,176
femininity and motherhood,175–176, 215, 250
maternity allowance,250
promiscuity,177
puériculture,452–454
sexuality and sexual difference,54–55, 177, 370
sterilization,144–146, 202
Women's Christian Temperance Union,249
Wood, George Arnold,248
World Health Organization,236
world population,163, 164–165
World War I,55, 66, 85, 193, 221, 398, 399, 403, 450, 451, 481
French eugenics,336, 337
German defeat,320
German hospitals,122
World War II,85, 89, 91, 92, 183, 201, 405, 407, 472
abortion,107
British eugenics after,222–223
denazification processes,407–408
French eugenics after,341–342
Jews after,471
Netherlands eugenics before and after,357–358
Xuanming, Hu,262
Xun, Lu,261
Yenish families,137, 138, 148
Yoshio, Takahashi, A Treatise on the Betterment of the Japanese Race,434
Youwei, Kang,260
Yu, Fujikawa,436
Yugoslavia,402
Association of Yugoslav Physicians,402
Yutaka, Fujino,437
Zhuoxuan, Ren,264–265
Zimbabwe,285
Zionist Federation,471
Zohar, Noam,464, 465
Zunz, Leopold,466
Zurukzoglu, Stavros,402