- The Oxford Handbook of the History of Eugenics
- Introduction: Eugenics and the Modern World
- The Darwinian Context: Evolution and Inheritance
- Anthropology, Colonialism, and Eugenics
- Race, Science, and Eugenics in the Twentieth Century
- Eugenics and the Science of Genetics
- Fertility Control: Eugenics, Neo-Malthusianism, and Feminism
- Disability, Psychiatry, and Eugenics
- Eugenics and the State: Policy-Making in Comparative Perspective
- Internationalism, Cosmopolitanism, and Eugenics
- Gender and Sexuality: A Global Tour and Compass
- Eugenics and genocide
- Eugenics in Britain: The View from the Metropole
- South Asia's Eugenic Past
- Eugenics in Australia and New Zealand: Laboratories of Racial Science
- Eugenics in China and Hong Kong: Nationalism and Colonialism, 1890s–1940s
- South Africa: Paradoxes in the Place of Race
- Eugenics in Colonial Kenya
- Eugenics in Postcolonial Southeast Asia
- German Eugenics and the Wider World: Beyond the Racial State
- Eugenics in France and the Colonies
- Eugenics in the Netherlands and the Dutch East Indies
- The Scandinavian States: Reformed Eugenics Applied
- The First-Wave Eugenic Revolution in Southern Europe: Science sans frontières
- Eugenics in Eastern Europe, 1870s–1945
- Eugenics in Russia and the Soviet Union
- Eugenics in Japan: Sanguinous Repair
- Eugenics in Interwar Iran
- Eugenics and the Jews
- Eugenics Policy and Practice in Cuba, Puerto Rico, and Mexico
- The Path of Eugenics in Brazil: Dilemmas of Miscegenation
- Eugenics in the United States
- Eugenics in Canada: A Checkered History, 1850s–1990s
- Epilogue: where did eugenics go?
Abstract and Keywords
This article deals with the diffusion of eugenics in Brazil that occurred in the context of the social and economic problems associated with widespread infectious and parasitic diseases, and are often regarded as a serious obstacle to Brazil's successful transformation into a nation. It explains that Brazilian eugenics has brought together a wide range of professionals—physicians, journalists, and lawyers—and involves a series of different and sometimes contradictory responses to local challenges of national identity. It proceeds with the discussion of racial theories and Brazilian dilemmas at the end of nineteenth century and formulates the matrix for reflection on the possibilities of a civilized country. The strong association between eugenics and hygiene, with its emphasis on intervention in the environment and the regulation of, among other practices, alcoholism and sexual behavior is also addressed. This article presents eugenics as a heterogeneous intellectual and political movement and examines the national and the racial question.
Gilberto Hochman is Senior Researcher and Professor of History of Science and Health at Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). He has published A Era do Saneamento—As bases da política de saúde pública no Brasil (1998) and is coeditor of Cuidar, Curar (2004), and Políticas Públicas no Brasil (2007). He coedited special issues of Ciência & Saúde Coletiva (History of Health Workers, 2008), Canadian Bulletin of Medical History (Latin American and International Health, 2007), and História, Ciências, Saúde-Manguinhos (History of International Health: Latin American Perspectives, 2006).
Nísia Trindade Lima is Senior Researcher and Professor of History of Science and Health at the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), where she is Scientific Editor of Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Press. She has published Um sertão chamado Brasil (1999), is coeditor of Saúde e Democracia: História e perspectivas do SUS (2005), Louis Pasteur & Oswaldo Cruz: Inovação e tradição em saúde (2005), and Antropologia Brasiliana: Ciência e educação na obra de Edgard Roquette-Pinto (2008). She coedited special issues of História, Ciências, Saúde-Manguinhos (Pathways, Communications, and the Sciences, 2008), and Ciência & Saúde Coletiva (History of Health Workers, 2008).
Marcos Chor Maio is Senior Researcher and Professor of History of Science and Health at Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). He is author of Nem Rothschild, Nem Trotsky: Pensamento anti-semita de Gustavo Barroso (1992); coeditor of Raça, Ciência e Sociedade (1996); Ideais de Modernidade e Sociologia no Brasil (1999); Divisões Perigosas: Políticas raciais no Brasil Contemporâneo (2007); and editor of Ciência, Política e Relações Internacionais: Ensaios sobre Paulo Carneiro (2004). He coedited special issue of História, Ciências, Saúde-Manguinhos (Visions of the Amazon, 2000).
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