- The Oxford Handbook of the History of Eugenics
- Introduction: Eugenics and the Modern World
- The Darwinian Context: Evolution and Inheritance
- Anthropology, Colonialism, and Eugenics
- Race, Science, and Eugenics in the Twentieth Century
- Eugenics and the Science of Genetics
- Fertility Control: Eugenics, Neo-Malthusianism, and Feminism
- Disability, Psychiatry, and Eugenics
- Eugenics and the State: Policy-Making in Comparative Perspective
- Internationalism, Cosmopolitanism, and Eugenics
- Gender and Sexuality: A Global Tour and Compass
- Eugenics and genocide
- Eugenics in Britain: The View from the Metropole
- South Asia's Eugenic Past
- Eugenics in Australia and New Zealand: Laboratories of Racial Science
- Eugenics in China and Hong Kong: Nationalism and Colonialism, 1890s–1940s
- South Africa: Paradoxes in the Place of Race
- Eugenics in Colonial Kenya
- Eugenics in Postcolonial Southeast Asia
- German Eugenics and the Wider World: Beyond the Racial State
- Eugenics in France and the Colonies
- Eugenics in the Netherlands and the Dutch East Indies
- The Scandinavian States: Reformed Eugenics Applied
- The First-Wave Eugenic Revolution in Southern Europe: Science <i>sans frontières</i>
- Eugenics in Eastern Europe, 1870s–1945
- Eugenics in Russia and the Soviet Union
- Eugenics in Japan: Sanguinous Repair
- Eugenics in Interwar Iran
- Eugenics and the Jews
- Eugenics Policy and Practice in Cuba, Puerto Rico, and Mexico
- The Path of Eugenics in Brazil: Dilemmas of Miscegenation
- Eugenics in the United States
- Eugenics in Canada: A Checkered History, 1850s–1990s
- Epilogue: where did eugenics go?
Abstract and Keywords
This article shows how Darwinian theories and writings play a vital role in shaping scientific and popular attitudes on questions related to human breeding. It lays the theoretical groundwork for eugenics and a large number of statistical studies demonstrate national decline in Britain. Evolution is driven by a global struggle among such units for living space and raw materials. This article argues that the laws of inheritance applied to humans just as much as they did to other animals, and that mental and temperamental as well as physical traits were inherited from both parents. It further discusses the importance of laws of inheritance in improving human populations through breeding that were limited by ignorance of the laws of inheritance. The understanding to these laws increases the perspectives of this work.
Diane B. Paul is Professor Emerita at the University of Massachusetts-Boston, and Research Associate at the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University. Her publications include Controlling Human Heredity: 1865 to the Present (1995) and The Politics of Heredity: Essays on Eugenics, Biomedicine, and the Nature-Nurture Debate (1998). Current research interests include historical and policy issues related to newborn screening, the “nature-nurture” debate before Galton, and nineteenth- and twentieth-century attitudes toward first-cousin marriage. She has recently been Visiting Professor at the UCLA Center for Society and Genetics and the Department of Medical History and Bioethics at the University of Wisconsin-Madison.
James Moore is Professor of the History of Science at the Open University (Milton Keynes, UK). His books include The Post-Darwinian Controversies (1979), Religion in Victorian Britain (1988), History, Humanity and Evolution (1989), The Darwin Legend (1994), and, with Adrian Desmond, the best-selling biography Darwin (1991), which has been widely translated, and Darwin's Sacred Cause: Race, Slavery and the Quest for Human Origins (2009).
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