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date: 18 September 2019

(p. 877) Index

(p. 877) Index

A
A-B-C/behavioral stream recording, 194
Academic achievement
g-loaded attainment, 65–66
individual differences, 65–66
Academic Competence Evaluation Scales (ACES), 219
Academic enablers, 219–20
Academic interventions
instruction for science, 560
math instruction, 559–60
overview, 553–54
reading, 554–57
accessing research on effective, 554
integration with writing, 556
linguistic awareness, 554–55
morphophonemic orthography, 555–56
role of oral language in learning written language, 556
system issues, 556–57
writing, 557–59
accessing research on effective, 557
components from individual differences perspective, 557–58
components from on-line processing perspective, 558
systems issues, 558–59
Academic language acquisition, 49
Academic learning, parental contribution to, 560–61
Academic Performance Rating Scale (APRS), 219
Academic self-efficacy, classroom management and, 598
Academic skills, assessment of, 213 [link]
broad-band assessment measures, 212
curriculum based assessment (CBA), 207, 210–12
direct methods of, 206f, 207–18
direct observation, of student behavior, 207–10
group administered tests of achievement, 214
indirect methods of, 206f, 218–20
inter-observer agreement and inter-observer reliability, 208
narrow-band assessment measures, 212–13
norm-referenced standardized tests (NRSTs), 216–17
performance assessments, 217–18
portfolio system, 218
state-mandated achievement tests, 214–15
value-added assessment, 215–16
Accelerator behaviors, 276
Acculturation, 27
Achenbach System of Empirically-Based Assessment (ASEBA), 313, 448
Achievable goal, 3–4
Achievement for Latinos through Academic Success (ALAS), 602
Acquisition of knowledge, 3
Active engaged time (AET), 208
Active engagement, in appropriate learning activities, 266–67
Actuarial and rehabilitation psychology, 32–33
Adaptive cognitions, SWB and, 510–11
Adderall products
side effects, 702
Adults, SWB with, 511–16
acts of kindness, 513–14
character strengths, 512–13
goal setting and attainment, 515
gratitude, 511–12
hope, 514–15
problem solving, 516
Advocacy skills, in school psychology, 55–56
African Americans, 48
Aggression, 70
AIMSweb program, 835–36
Akullian, J., 76
Alpha value, 144
American Institutes for Research, 215
American Psychological Association (APA), 10, 17, 35, 37
competency areas, 58
disagreement with NASP, 54–55, 58
Division12 (Clinical Psychology), 56
Division 16 (School Psychology), 21, 56
guidelines for doctoral requirements, 21
practice standards, 21
training programs, 53–54
Anales de Psicología, 851
Analogical reasoning, 89
Analysis of variance (ANOVA) design, 106–7
Anderson, S., 126, 130
Anorexia nervosa, 316
Antecedent Variables Assessment Form (AVAF), 192–93
Anthropometric laboratory, 83
Anticonvulsants
efficacy in autism spectrum disorders, 720
efficacy in BPD, 715
efficacy in DBD, 714
FDA warnings and advisories, 708–9
side effects of, 710–11
Antidepressant (AD)
efficacy in autism spectrum disorders, 719
FDA warnings and advisories
atomoxetine, 703
atypical ADs, 705–6
MAOIs, 706
nefazodone (Serzone), 703–4
SNRIs, 705
SSRIs, 704–5
TCAs, 704
triptans, 704
Antihypertensives
efficacy in DBD, 714
FDA warnings for, 711
side effects of, 711
Antipsychotics (APs)
atypical. See Atypical APs
prescribing to school-aged children, 698
typical. See Typical APs
Anxiety, 70
Anxiety disorders, 316
Applied behavior analysis (ABA), 187
for ASD, 574–75
(p. 878) Applied psychology
events and conferences impacting, 13–17
founding of, 11–13
Witmer’s empirical approach, 12–13
before World War II, 13
Wundt’s approach, 11–12
Aripiprazole
side effects of, 708
Army Alpha test, 27
Army Beta test, 27
Arnold, N., 218
Arrowsmith School program, 183
ASEBA School-Age Forms, 321
Asperger’s disorder
and ASD, 569
Assessment techniques
data collection and management, 50
individual. See individual assessment
nondiscriminatory assessment, 51
nontraditional, 50
program evaluation, 50–51
and psychometrics, 49
traditional, 49–50
Atomoxetine
FDA warnings and advisories, 703
side effects for, 703
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 173, 208, 232, 285
behavioral symptoms of, 428
classroom interventions for students with, 428–39
alternative, 437–38
case study, 436–37
classroom expectations, 431
future prospects, 438–39
guidelines for, 429–30
response to intervention, 429
Tier 1, 430–31
Tier 2, 431–34
Tier 3, 434–36
DSM-IV-TR criteria for, 286 [link]
FDA indications for, 711–12t
gifted/talented students with, 461462
integrated treatment for, 721
non-stimulant efficacy in, 712–13
psychosocial alternatives to drug treatments of, 721
stimulant efficacy in, 711–12
Atypical ADs, 705–6
FDA warnings and advisories, 705–6
Atypical APs
efficacy in autism spectrum disorders, 719
efficacy in BPD, 715
efficacy in DBD, 714
FDA warnings and advisories for, 707
side effects of, 707
Autism Diagnostic Interview–Revised (ADI–R), 570
Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS), 569–71
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD), 718
Asperger’s disorder and, 569
characteristics of, 568
diagnosis of, 571–73
ADOS for, 571
differential, 572–73
drug efficacy in, 719–20
drug-induced side effects risk in, 700
FDA pediatric indications for, 719
identification of, 569–70
overview, 567–69
screening of, 570–71
treatment of, 573–75
comprehensive approaches, 574–75
evidence-based practice, 573–74
focused interventions, 575–88
Autocorrelations, 163
Automatic processing, 92
Axon, 172
B
“Backward” children, 28
Backward mask, 85
Baddeley, A. D., 87–88
Bardon, J. I., 18–19t, 31
Barnes, M. A., 217
Bayes, Reverend, 133
Bayesian framework of analysis, 105, 132–37
Bayesian notion of probability, 133
Beck Youth Inventories–2nd Edition for Children and Adolescents (BYI-II), 324–25
Behavior disorders, 316
Behavior Intervention Rating Scale (BIRS), 452
Behavior rating scales, 320–24, 448
Behavioral assessment and intervention techniques, 57
Behavioral Assessment System for Children, Second Edition (BASC-2), 313, 323–24, 448, 834
Behavioral consultation, 668–69
child-mediated, 670
conjoint, 670
effectiveness research, 670
goals of, 668–69
parent-mediated, 669–70
peer-mediated, 670
variations of, 669–70
Behavioral consultation, 30
Behavioral interventions, effective instruction and, 536
Behavioral Observation of Students in Schools (BOSS), 208–9, 834
Behavioral package, for ASD, 575–76
Behavioral problems, gifted/talented students, 462
Behavioral Stream Interview (BSI), 191–92
Bellini, S., 76
Bentler, P., 156
Benzodiazepines
efficacy in non-OCD anxiety disorders, 717
Binet, A., 27
Binet scale, 27
Binet-Simon Intelligence Scale, 26–27
Binomial effect size display (BESD), 524
Biochemical (methyl-CH3) influences, 70
Biofeedback
application of, 734
definition of, 733
description of, 734
efficacy in children, 733
Biofeedback machine, 734 [link]
Biological theories, of intelligence
brain size, 95
electroencephalogram (EEG) complexity, 95
glucose metabolism rate (GMR), 95–96
Jensen’s neural oscillation model, 96
Biologically based learning disabilities, 562
Biopsychosocial model, 729
Bipolar disorder
drug efficacy in, 714–15
FDA pediatric indications for, 714
Blinkhorn, S. F., 95
Blogs, in school psychology, 831–32
Blueprint III model, for training, 22–23, 56, 58–59
Board of Education, Sacramento City Unified School District vs. Holland case, 29
Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence, 92
Bond theory, 81
Bonferroni procedure, 127
Books, on school psychology, 19–20, 20 [link]
Boring, Edwin, 27
Bouchard, T. J., 65
Boulder Conference (1949), 14, 14 [link]
Box-Jenkins’ Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA), 163
Brain efficiency model of intelligence, 96
Brain size and intelligence, 95
BRAVE-ONLINE program, 838
(p. 879) Bray, William, 5
Bray, M. A., 76
British hierarchical model, of intelligence, 82–83
Broad-band assessment measures, 212
Brody, N., 63
Brown-Chidsey, R., 216
Bullying, 490
cyber, 492–93
interventions to prevent, 490–93
parent education, 492
policies and rules, 491
positive school climate, 491–92
student education, 492
supervision, 492
Buproprion
side effects of, 705–6
Bush, George W., 176
Busk, P. L., 162–63
C
Capacity building, 816–18
defined, 817
in international arenas, application, 817–18
Caplan, Gerald, 30
Carbamazepine
FDA warnings and advisories for, 709
side effects of, 710
Carr, E. G., 188
Carroll, John B., 83
Case conceptualization, 245–46
Case examples, of components of TA-C applied
Christina, 249–52
Damien, 254–57
Daniel, 248–49
Michael, 252–54
Case law, 746–47
Caspi, A., 71
Cattell, James McKeen, 85
Cattell, Raymond, 26
Caucasians, 48
Chall, J.S., 175
Challenging Orthodoxy in Special Education: Dissenting Voices, 524
Challenging the Refusal of Reasoning in Special Education, 524
Champagne, F. A., 70
Character strengths, SWB with adults and, 512–13
Chi-square value, 144, 156
Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), 320, 572
Child centered therapy (CCT)
with TF-CBT for PTSD, 497
Child-mediated behavioral consultation, 670
Child study, assessment, and measurement movement, 26–28
Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), 570
Childhood disorders, 687–92
lead exposure, 690–92
prevention programs, 691–92
research on risk and protective factors, 691
obesity, 687–88
prevention and early intervention programs, 688
research on risk and protective factors, 687–88
parental cocaine exposure, 688–90
prevention programs, 690
research on risk and protective factors, 688–89
Childhood traumatic grief (CTG), 497–98
Children, families, and schools, current status of, 860–61
behavioral outcomes, 862–63
demography, 860–61
educational outcomes, 861–62
mental health outcomes, 863–64
summary of, 864
Children, youth, and families
direct initiatives to improve outcomes of, 865–68
advanced methodological and statistical approaches, 867–68
empirically validated assessment, 865–66
evidenced-based practice, 866–67
indirect initiatives to improve outcomes of, 864–65
Children and adolescents, SWB with, 516–17
Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI), 154–56, 325–26
Children’s Intervention Rating Profile (CIRP), 452
Chronic illnesses, in children, 685–86
Chronic pain
definition of, 729
economic costs associated with, 730
Class size, 269–70
Classical Theory of Measurement, 160
ClassMaps framework, for classroom management, 594, 597–99
Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS), 271–72
Classroom Behavior Report Card Manual, 850
Classroom Environment Scale (CES), 271, 274–75
Classroom learning environments, study of
and active engagement in appropriate learning activities, 266–67
class size, 269–70
classroom observation assessment tools, 271–73
ecobehavioral approach to classroom observations, 276
ecobehavioral assessment, 276–77
and effective classroom management, 263–65
and effective learning outcomes, 262–63
and effective teaching behaviors, 263
emotional climate of, 267–68
grouping formats, 268–69
historical perspectives, 261–62
importance of evaluation, 260–61
physical features, 270
and quality of teacher–student relationships, 265–66
Classroom management
and ADHD students and, 430–31
brief history of, 594–96
ClassMaps framework for, 594
classroom changes to strengthen, 601–2
classwide goals for, 597–99
data-based, 599–602
examples of, 602–3
overview, 593–94
Classroom observation assessment tools, 271–73
Classroom structure, and ADHD students and, 430
Classroom Systems Observation Scale (CSOS), 272
Classwide classroom management
conceptual underpinnings, 596–97
Classwide Peer Tutoring (CWPT), 433
Clinical psychology, 13
and school psychology, 14
Clozapine, side effects of, 707
Cluster randomized design, 108
analysis using computer software, 111
Coach selection, SWPBS and, 657
(p. 880) Code for Instructional Structure and Student Academic Response (CISSAR), 209–10, 276
Cognitive-behavioral social skills interventions, 450–51
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), 230
application of, 731
basic elements of
behavioral strategies, 732–33
cognitive restructuring, 732
problem solving, 732
psychoeducation, 731
self-monitoring, 732
computer technology role in, 837–39
efficacy of, 730
individual counseling, 622
origins of, 730
Cognitive components, 89–90
Cognitive-contextual theories, of intelligence
Piaget’s stage theory of development, 93–94
theory of multiple intelligences, 92–93
triarchic theory of intelligence, 91–92
Cognitive correlates, 88–89
Cognitive theories, of intelligence
“cognitive components” approach, 89–90
cognitive correlates approach, 88–89
concept of “working memory,” 87–88
inspection time paradigm, 85–86
processing speed and aging, 90
simple/choice reaction time, 86–87
simple sensory testing, 85
Cohen, Jacob, 142
Cohesiveness Scale, 274
Collaborative approaches, to therapeutic assessment, 228–31
Finn’s model, 229–30
Fischer’s model, 228–29
research on, 230–31
steps of, 231
theoretical underpinnings of, 230
Collaborative empiricism, 230
Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning (CASEL), 642, 848
Colloborative strategic planning (CSP), 638–39
Combined Professional-Scientific Psychology, 23
COMIT, 842
Common language effect size (CLES), 526
Communiqué and School Psychology Review, 831
Community psychology, 13
Compactor, 466 [link]
Comparative Fit Index (CFI), 156
Comparison, 89
Competence, 4, 74
Componential processing, 92
Comprehensive TA-C model
child testing sessions and continued parent observation, 234–35
development of initial case formulation and informing the assessment questions, 235
follow-up session, 242
initial phone contact with parents to discuss referral, 232
interview to generate assessment questions/related background, 232–33
planning and conducting a family intervention session, 235–36
planning parent feedback/summary-discussion session, 236–39
preparing to provide assessment feedback to children, 239–41
providing child feedback, 241
sessions in, 231–32
summary/discussion (feedback) session with parents, 239
testing with the child and parent observation, 233–34
written feedbacks, 241–42
Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing (CTOPP), 214, 217
Compulsory schooling laws, 28–29
Computational operations
and math fact retrieval, 559
Computer-assisted cognitive-behavior therapy (CCBT), 837–39
Computer assisted instruction, for students with ADHD, 432–33
Computer-assisted program (C-DISC-4.0), 317
Computer-based programs for adolescents, 839 [link]
Computer technology, cognitive-behavior therapy, 837–39
Computerized interventions, pediatric psychologists use, 839–40
Computerized test scoring assistant, 841–42
Concrete operational stage, 94
Conditional probability, 144
Conditional probability recording (CPR), 195
Conferences, on school psychology, 14–15 [link]
Confidence interval, 112–14, 128
in parameter estimation, 144–46
Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), 154
Conjoint behavioral consultation, 670
Conquest of Happiness, 4, 74
Conscientiousness, 73
Consent!, 841
Consequence Variables Assessment Form (CVAF), 192–93
Conservation of energy law, 81
Consultation
instructional, 671
models of, 667–70
behavioral consultation, 668–70
mental health consultation, 667–68
organizational development, 671–74
models and stages of systems change, 672–73
overview, 666
problem solving, 674–80
Consulting family-service psychologist, 32
Content area enrichment, for gifted students, 473–74
Contingency contracting, students with ADHD and, 431–32
Contingency theory, and systems change, 632
Continuing education, in school psychology, 59
Continuum of services, gifted students, 468, 468f, 475–77
school based gifted programs, 476
services in, 476–77
Cooperative learning, 268
Corrective Reading program, 181
Cortisol level and maladaptive social behavior, 73
Counseling
group, 623–24
legal issues in school practice, 624–25
one-on-one, 620–23
cognitive behavioral approaches, 622
motivation enhancement approaches, 622
primacy of therapeutic relationship, 621
solution-focused brief therapy, 623
in school psychology, 620
Counseling psychology, 13, 16
Court cases
accessing education, 747–48
public education and least restrictive environment, 752–53
Creativity
giftedness and talent, 460–61
systems change and, 632
Credibility interval, 135
Critical periods of development, 172
Cronbach, L. J., 65
Cronbach alpha method, 159
Cross-cultural acceptance, 4
Crystallized intelligence (Gc), 26–27, 83
Cultural construction, of school psychology, 816 [link]
Cultural issues, in academic interventions, 561–62
Curricular enhancement, for gifted students, 472–73
Curriculum based assessment (CBA), 207
Curriculum-Based Measurement: A Manual for Teacher, 850
(p. 881) Curriculum based measurement (CBM), 347
Curriculum differentiation, 465
Curriculum enhancement, for gifted students, 472–73
Cutts, N. E., 17, 18 [link]
Cyber-bullying, 492–93
D
Daily report cards, for students with ADHD, 432
D’Amato, R., C., 17, 18–19 [link]
Darwin, C., 75, 85
Data based action plan, SWPBS and, 657–58
Data-based classroom management, 599–602
assessing classroom strengths and needs, 600
conceptual underpinnings of, 596–97
planning for classroom intervention, 600–601
Data collection decisions, 141–42
alpha value, 144
chi-square value, 144
conditional probability, 144
confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), 154
general linear models (GLM), 146
inferential statistical procedures, 142–43
intervention program, 145–46
linear models, 147–48
multilevel structure models, 151–52
nonlinear models, 148–50
parameter estimation, 144–46
path analysis, 153
proportionate reduction, in error (PRE) statistics, 142
pros and cons of various models, 157–58
sample statistic values, 143
sampling fluctuation hypothesis, 143, 145
significance testing, 143–44
standard normal distribution, 145
stratified sampling, 142
structural equation modeling (SEM), 152–53
type I and type II errors, 144
worst-case scenario hypothesis, 143
z-test, 144
zero relationship/difference, 144
Data management system, SWPBS and, 659–60
Data Recognition Corporation, 215
Decision-making. See also Data collection decisions; Statistical methods, for informed decisions
data for, 103
Dendrites, 172
Dendritic spines, 172
Deno, S. L., 211
Depression, 69
Derby, K. M., 197
Descriptive statistics, 127t, 131 [link]
for reading comprehension test, 145–46 [link]
Developmental Observation Checklist System (DOCS), 376
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders–Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR), 494
Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children-Version IV (DISC-IV), 291
Direct instruction (DI), 535–36
Direct observation, of student behavior, 207–10
Disabilities factors
instructional factors for students with mild, 529 [link]
Disabilities instructional practices
effective approaches for students with mild, 530 [link]
DISC-P, 316, 318
DISC-Y, 316, 318
Disruptive behavior disorders
drug efficacy in, 714
FDA pediatric indications for, 713–14
Disruptive behavior disorders, 285–88
adolescent-onset type, 288
childhood-onset type, 288
conduct disorder, 285–88
DSM-IV-TR criteria for, 287 [link]
Dittmer-McMahon, K. I., 198
Divalproex
side effects of, 710
Diversity issues, in academic interventions, 561–62
Diversity issues, related to home variables, 561–62
DNA methylation, 70–72
DNA sequence, 72
Doctoral and subdoctoral level training, in school psychology, 23–25
Doggett, R. A., 197
Drug Abuse Resistance Education (DARE), 690
Drug efficacy findings
in ADHD, 711–13
in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 711–13
in autism spectrum disorders, 718–20
in bipolar disorder, 714–16
in disruptive behavior disorders, 713–14
in major depressive disorder, 717–18
in non-OCD anxiety disorders, 716–17
in obsessive compulsive disorder, 715–16
in Tourette’s syndrome and Tic disorders, 713
Drug safety issues
antidepressants, 703–6
antihypertensives, 711
antipsychotics, 706–8
mood stabilizers, 708–11
stimulants, 702–3
DSM-IV, 322
Dufrene, B. A., 197
Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Learning Skills (DIBELS), 347, 377
Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) Data System, 835
Dyslexia, 172, 174–75, 335
E
E-book readers, in school psychology, 831
E-Journal of Applied Psychology, 838
Early childhood partnerships core programs, 376 [link]
Early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI)
ASD and, 568
Ecobehavioral approach, to classroom observations, 276
Ecobehavioral assessment, 276–77
Ecobehavioral System for Complex Analyses of Preschool Environments (ESCAPE), 276
Ecological approach, instructional consultation and, 671
Ecological behavioral (E-BASS), 209–10
Ecological theory, social skills, 445
Ecological validity, PBS and, 649
Educating Children with Autism, 573
Education and school psychology, 31
continuing, 59
Education for All Handicapped Children Act (PL 94–142), 289
Education licensure, in school psychology
state board of psychology, 25
state department, 25
Educational and psychological applications, individual differences, 73–76
Educational outcomes, focus on
in IDEA 97, 754–55
in IDEA 2004, 755–57
in No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), 757–59
Educational programs
expanding access and defining parameters for, 750
(p. 882) Educational services to students with disabilities. See Students with disabilities, educational services to
Educational system, 3
changes in, 48–53
Educational Testing Service (ETS), 215
Effect size, concept of, 114–19
Effect size statistics, 142
Effective classroom management, 263–65
Effective instruction, special education and, 537–40, 538 [link]
mathematics, 537–38
reading, 539–40
vocabulary knowledge and, 540
writing, 538–39
Effective learning outcomes, 262–63
Effective special education, 529–30, 543–44
nature of, 533
practice, problem of unique and exclusive methods, 532–33
related services and activities, 541–42, 542 [link]
Electroencephalogram (EEG) complexity, 95
Electromyographic biofeedback (EMG-BFB), 733–34
Email, in school psychology, 833
Emotional climate, of classroom environments, 267–68
Emotional counseling, for gifted students, 474
Emotional disturbance (ED), 69, 243
Emotional learning, preventive mental health programs and, 641–43
Emotional support, 267
Empirical evidence supporting SWPBS, 661–63
alternative school settings, 662
juvenile justice settings, 662–63
public school setting, 661–62
Encoding, 89
English language learner (ELL), 49, 277
evaluation of students with, 49
Enrichment clusters, SEM, 467–68
Enrichment Triad Model, 466–67
Epigenetics
individual differences, 70–73
Epilepsy, 172
Equivalence hypotheses testing, 129–32
confidence interval, 130
Essentially tau-equivalent assumptions, 159
Ethical Principles of Psychologist and Code of Conduct, 2002, 852
Ethical standards, for school psychology
decision making in ethically troubling situations, 764–65, 765 [link]
ethical codes in, 763
expectations for professional conduct, 763–64
integrity in relationships, 770–71
professional ethics
fairness and non-discrimination, 768
privacy and confidentiality, 767–68
responsible caring, 768–69
self-determination and autonomy, 767
responsibility to society, 771–72
Ethnicity, 3
Evidence-based instructional approach, math instruction, 559
Evidence-based interventions, 13–14, 377
Evidence-based practice, 777–78
for ASD, 573–74
Evidence-based research, to data collection, 141
Evolution of school psychology, 858–59
data-based decision making and multi-tiered problem solving, 868–69
influence of indirect and direct initiatives on, 868
Examination/Army Beta scale, 27
Examination for Professional Practice in Psychology (EPPP) test, 25, 56, 58
content areas, 58 [link]
Existential intelligence, 93
Exploratory factor analysis method, 141
Exploring Student Engagement in Schools Internationally, 815
External experience, 11
Externalizing behavior problems, assessment of
academic and self-management deficits, effect of, 384–85
age on onset, 299
assessment of, 387–95
attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 285
biological factors, 380–82
causes, 380–85
comorbidity of, 288–89
conceptualization, 379–80
deviant peers and social skills deficits, effect of, 384
disruptive behavior disorders, 285–88
evaluating behavioral response, 304–6
IDEA criteria for categories of emotional disturbance and other health impaired, 289 [link]
importance of supervising and monitoring, 399–400
internet resources, 307–8
interventions for, 395–99
level of functional impairment, 299–300
metrics for interpretation of behavioral response, 305
overview of, 284
parent interviews, 292–93
parent training for, 402–3
review of school records, 292
role of noncompliance, 385
school-based assessment, 289–306
selection of assessment tools, 302–4
severity of, 300–301
social skills training for, 400–402
special education classification, 289
stability and developmental nature of, 385–87
symptom criterion, 298–99
targets for intervention, 301
teacher interviews, 292
Extraversion, 67
F
F-distribution, 125
Factor analytic techniques, 80, 82, 154
Fagan, T. K., 17, 18t, 36
Fairness and non-discrimination, 768
False negative errors, 608
False positive errors, 608
Family-centered service, 782
Family issues, in academic interventions, 561–62
Family relationships, SWB and positive, 507–8
Fast ForWord®, 182–83
Fast-taped words (FTW), 436
FDA warnings and advisories, 701
atomoxetine, 703
atypical ADs, 705–6
MAOIs, 706
nefazodone (Serzone), 703–4
pediatric drugs, 699
SNRIs, 705
SSRIs, 704–5
TCAs, 704
triptans, 704
Federal laws and school psychology, 28–29
Federal legislation
educational services to students with disabilities, 748–50
expanding access and defining services, 750–52
Feed forward technique, 836–37
Finn, S. E., 229, 231, 233, 237
Fischer, C. T., 228
Fisher, Sir Ronald, 109, 143, 164
Fletcher, J. M., 217
Fluid intelligence, 26, 83, 90
Flynn effect, 79
(p. 883) Focused interventions, for ASD, 575–88
behavioral package, 575–76
joint attention, 579–80
modeling/video modeling, 581–83
naturalistic teaching strategies, 576–79
incidental teaching, 577
natural language paradigm, 577–78
pivotal response training, 578–79
peer training, 583–85
self-management, 585–88
applications of, 586–87
designing of, 587–88
Food Force, 841
Formal operational stage, 94
Frasier & Passow’s attributes, of giftedness and talent, 459 [link]
Free and appropriate public education (FAPE), 529
Fuchs, L. S., 211, 217
Functional Assessment Informant Record for Teachers (FAIR-T), 191–92, 200–203
Functional behavioral assessment (FBA), 611
A-B-C/behavioral stream recording, 194
basic principles, 190
brief, 195–98
brief history, 188–89
categories and subcategories of reinforcers, 189 [link]
conditional probability recording, 195
direct descriptive, 193–94
errors committed during, 196–97
essential components of, 190–91
functional behavior assessment observation form (FBAOF), 195
indirect procedures, 191–93
interval recording procedure (IRP), 195
questions about, 197–98
SMIRC model, 189–90
task difficulty antecedent analysis, 194–95
Functional Behavioral Assessment Screening Form (FBASF), 191–92, 199
Functional MRI (fMRI) scans, 171, 175
Furazolidone, side effects, 703
“Futures Conference” (2002), 37–39, 39 [link]
G
G-coefficient, 160
G factor theory of intelligence, 26
Gagné’s conception, giftedness and talent, 459–60
Gallo, L. C., 69
Galton, Sir Francis, 26, 85
Gang Resistance Education and Training Program (GREAT), 489
Gang violence, interventions for, 489–90
Gardner, H., 93
Gardner, M. K., 90
Gaussian curve and individual differences, 3
Gender, 4
General cognitive ability (g)
g-loaded attainment, 65–66, 73
individual differences, 64–65
and job performance, 66–67, 73
Spearman’s g factor, 81–82
General linear models (GLM), 146
General outcome measurement (GOM), 210
Generalizability Theory (G-theory), 160
Gf-Gc theory, 26–27
Gifted/talented students, 68
with ADHD, 461–62
with behavioral problems, 462
content area enrichment and curriculum enhancement for, 473–74
development of continuum of services to challenge, 475–77
school based gifted programs, 476
services in, 476–77
differentiation of regular curriculum for, 473
enrichment and curricular enhancement for, 472–73
future prospects for, 479
identification of high potential and, 462–63
instructional grouping practices for, 471–72
lack of challenges in regular classrooms, 469–70
with learning disabilities, 461
longitudinal research on programs, 474–75
research based interventions for, 463–68
continuum of special services, 468, 468 [link]
enrichment clusters, 467–68
regular curriculum, 467
social and emotional counseling and support, 474
special populations of, 461–62
underachievement in academically, 470–71
underachieving, 462
Giftedness and talent
case study, 457–58
definition of, 457–61
characteristics and operational, 458
creativity and creative productive, 460–61
federal, 458–59
Frasier & Passow’s attributes of, 459 [link]
Gagné’s conception, 459–60
Renzulli’s three-ring conception, 459, 459 [link]
overview, 456–57
Gilliam Autism Rating Scale (GARS), 570
Glass, G. V., 163
Glial cells, 172
Global Classroom Rating score, 272
Global Severity Index of the Symptom Check List-Revised (SCL-90-R), 317
Glucose metabolism rate (GMR), 95–96
Goal Attainment Scaling (GAS), 452
Goal Direction Scale, 274
Goddard, H. H., 27
Good behavior game, students with ADHD and, 433
“Good-enough” principle, 125
Goodness-of-fit method, 144
Google Docs, 833
Google Scholar, 830
Gottesman, I. I., 65
Gottfredson, L. S., 64, 66
Gottman, J. M., 163
Graden, J., 210
Graduate training, in school psychology, 56–59
Gratitude, SWB and
with adults, 511–12
with children and adolescents, 516–17
Gray Oral Reading Test,4th Edition (GORT 4), 214
Great Debate, 175
Greeley-Weld Independent School District #6, 35
Greenwood, C. R., 210
Gross domestic product (GNP), 67
Gross state product (GSP), 67
Group counseling, 623–24
Grouping practices, in effective instruction, 536–37
Guilford, J. P., 84
H
Haier, R. J., 95–96
Handbook of International School Psychology, 818
Handcooling biofeedback, 733
Handwarming biofeedback, 733
Hartmann, P., 67
Hauck, W. W., 126, 130
Health, 74
individual differences, 68–69
problems in youth, long-term effects of, 729
related prevention and wellness, 686–87
Healthy school climate, SWB and, 508–9
Heick, P. F., 208
Helmholtz Association, 11
Hendrickson, D. E., 95
Henington, C., 197
(p. 884) Heritability of intelligence, 64
Heterosis, individual differences, 69–70
Hick’s law, 87
Hintze, J. M., 208
Hitch, G. J., 88
Holzinger, Karl, 26
Home literacy, 560
Home-school relationships, 560–61
classroom management and, 598
home literacy, 560
parent-school relationships, 560–61
parental contribution to academic learning, 560–61
Hope, SWB and
with adults, 514–15
with children and adolescents, 517
Hopf, A., 76
Horn, J. L., 27, 83
Hu, L.-T., 156
Human Genome Project, 71
Human service psychology, 13, 35–36
activities with easy application to child, family, and educational settings, 34 [link]
Humphreys, L. G., 68
Hunt, Earl, 88–89
Hyman, I. A., 3, 31
Hypnotherapy
background, 737–38
description and application of, 738–39
I
ICED-I Can End Deportation, 841
IDEIA-2004, 176–77
Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities (ITPA), 528–29, 528 [link]
Implementation effectiveness, systems change, 635–38
extra-organizational factor, 638
implementer characteristics, 635–37
innovation characteristics, 635
organizational characteristics, 637–38
Implementation timeline, for SWPBS, 655–61
adopt evidence based practices, 658
coach selection, 657
data management system, 659–60
define expectations within school settings and routines, 658
develop and deliver explicit social skills lesson plans, 658
develop and invest in systems, 659
develop data based action plan, 657–58
engage in activities, 656
establish schoolwide student recognition program, 658–59
identify positively stated expectations, 658
implement, monitor, and revise action plan, 660–61
participate in professional development activities, 657
schoolwide staff recognition program, 660
secure staff buy-in, 657
team establishment, 656–57
teaming and meeting structures, 659
Incidental teaching, for ASD, 577
Individual assessments, in data collection decisions
A-B Design, 162
analysis of variance (ANOVA) approach, 160
classical parallel tests assumptions, 159
classification accuracy, 162
Cronbach alpha method, 159
discriminant validity, 161
essentially tau-equivalent assumptions, 159
Generalizability Theory (G-theory), 160
inferential analyses, 158–59
K-item test, 159
Kuder-Richardson Formula-20 (KR-20), 159–60
Kuder-Richardson Formula-21 (KR-21), 160
“observed score” of individual, 158–59
parameter estimation in, 160
rater/observer interchangeability, 161
reliability coefficient, 159–60
single-subject intervention, 162–64
Spearman-Brown prophecy formula, 159
standard error of measurement statistic, 160
standardized item alpha, 159
universe scores, 160
validity of, 161
Individual counseling, 620–23
cognitive behavioral approaches, 622
motivation enhancement approaches, 622
primacy of therapeutic relationship, 621
solution-focused brief therapy, 623
Individual decisions, data collection of
assessments, 158–62
observations and limitations, 164–66
single-subject interventions, 162–64
Individual differences
academic achievement, 65–66
educational and psychological applications to, 73–76
epigenetics, 70–73
Gaussian curve and, 3
general cognitive ability, 64–65
health, 68–69
heterosis, 69–70
job performance and occupational status, 66–68
Individual Education Plan (IEP) team, 29
Individual parameter estimates, of model, 156, 157 [link]
Individual Variables Assessment Form (IVAF), 192
Individualized Classroom Environment Questionnaire (ICEQ), 275
Individualized Education Programs (IEP), 188
Individuals with Disabilities Act Amendments of 1997, 754–55
Individuals with Disabilities Act Amendments of 2004, 755–57
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), 648
Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEIA), 29, 34, 48, 176, 314, 315t, 369–70, 429
Inference, 89
Inferential statistical procedures, 105–9
population parameters, 142–43
Innovation diffusion
defined, 633
and social systems, 633–34
Innovation implementation, systems change, 633–35
definition, 633
degrees of implementation, 634
innovation diffusion and social systems, 633–34
stages of implementation, 634–35
Inspection time paradigm, 85–86
Institutionalization, organizational development consultation, 673
Instruction, special education and
intensity of, 530–31
levels of, 531–33
practices, effective, 533–37, 534 [link]
behavioral interventions, 536
direct instruction, 535–36
grouping practices, 536–37
instructional arrangements, 537
meta-cognitive strategies, 533–35
mnemonic devices, 535
Instructional arrangements, special education and, 537
Instructional consultation (IC), 671
Instructional Environment Scale (TIES), the, 272–73
Instructional grouping practices, for gifted students, 471–72
Integrity in relationships, 770–71
Intelligence (p. 885)
crystallized (Gc), 26–27
fluid (Gf), 26
G factor theory of, 26
heritability of, 64
low, 69
Intelligence testing, 26
of Ivy League college students, 80
Inter-observer agreement
in academic assessment, 209
Internal experience, 11
Internalizing problems, assessment of
behavior ratings scales, 320–28
classification systems, 312–14
cost of children experiencing, 414
differences across cultural groups, 413–14
DSM-IV-TR disorders, 313–14, 314 [link]
and intervention, 416–20
methods, 415–16
narrow-band rating scales, 325–28
prevention, 416–24
process, 328–29
and social and emotional learning (SEL), 417–20
structured and semistructured interviews, 315–20
of students, 415
types of, 412–13
universal and indicated, 414–15
International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th edition (ICD-10), 316
International development, of school psychology
current status, 813–15
future of, 815–24
partnership and capacity building, 816–18
phase 1, existing models, 818–19
phase 2, learning culture, 819
phase 3, mission/goal determination, 819
phase 4, formative research, 819–21
phase 5, culturally constructed model, 822–23
phase 9, program sustainability and institutionalization, 823–24
phase 10, program translation/dissemination, 824
phase 6 through 8, local program design, implementation, evaluation/revision, 823
global influences, 810–13
overview, 810
WHO’s role in, 810–13
International School Psychology Association (ISPA), 763
International School Psychology Survey (ISPS), 813
Internet, in school psychology
access to resources, 830–33
blogs, 831–32
E-book readers, 831
Email, 833
internet search engines, 830–31
podcasts, 831
threaded discussion forum and online communities, 833
webinar, 832–33
overview, 829–30
Internet search engines, in school psychology, 830–31
Interpersonal family therapy for childhood depression (IFT), 422
Interpersonal intelligence, 93
Interval recording procedure (IRP), 195
Intervention program, 145–46
Intimacy, 4, 74
Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), 108
Intrapersonal intelligence, 93
IQ tests, 63, 67–68, 70, 161, 344
IQ–Achievement (Ach) approach, 176
Iyengar yoga, 735
J
Jensen, A. R., 64–65, 70, 86–87
neural oscillation model, 96
Job performance and occupational status
and general cognitive ability (g), 66–67
individual differences, 66–68
Job-specific knowledge, 67
Johnson, E., 218
Johnson, W., 65, 69
Joint attention training, in ASD, 579–80
Joint committee on standards for ethical evaluation, 797–98 [link]
Journals, on school psychology, 19–20, 20 [link]
Just noticeable differences (JND), 616
Justification, 89
Juvenile justice settings, empirical evidence supporting SWPBS, 662–63
K
K-item test, 159
Kammerer, Paul, 71
Kanazawa, S., 68
Kaufman Survey of Early Academic and Language Skills (K-SEALS), 377
Kehle, Gretchen, 5
Kehle, T. J., 76
Kelley’s regressed estimate, 135
Kennard, Margaret, 174
Kennard principle, 174
KeyMath, 3rd Edition, 214
Kiddie SADS-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL), 291, 319–20
Kindness, SWB with adults and, 513–14
Knowledge acquisition components, 92
Kolb, B., 173
Kranzler, J. H., 86
Krueger, R. F., 69
Kuder-Richardson Formula-20 (KR-20), 159–60
Kuder-Richardson Formula-21 (KR-21), 160
Kyllonen, P. C., 88
L
“Lady tasting tea” experiment, 109
Lakatos, Imre, 141
Lally, M., 86
Lamotrigine
FDA warnings and advisories for, 708
side effects of, 710
Lapsley, D. K., 125–26
Larsen, L., 67
Latinos, 48
Lead exposure, children, 690–92
prevention programs, 691–92
research on risk and protective factors, 691
Learning disabilities (LD), 12
assessment at cognitive and behavioral level, 334
causes of, 337–40
common testing measures, 335
definitions, 334
discrepancy criteria to, 342–44
gifted/talented students, 461
heterogeneity, 335–36
incidence of, 335
IQ–Achievement discrepancy model, 344–46
math disabilities, 337, 339–40
reading disabilities (RD), 335–37
RTI models, 346–47
scientifically based treatments, 340–42
specific, 342
using IQ test, 344
Learning Environment Inventory (LEI), 271, 274
Learning neural development. See Neurological basis, of learning
Least restrictive environment (LRE), 29, 537
Lee, D. A., 95
Legal issues, in school practice of counseling, 624–25
Legislative action, 746
Leipzig laboratory of physiology, 11
Lentz, F. E., 218
Leukemia, 72
(p. 886) Licensure and certification, in school psychology, 25–26. See also Education licensure, in school psychology
Lie scale, 67
Life, Freud’s characterization of, 64
Lifespan perspective, of PBS, 649
Lifestyle change, PBS and, 649
Linear models, 147–48
Linguistic awareness, 554–55
Linguistic intelligence, 92
Lithium carbonate
efficacy in BPD, 715
FDA warnings and advisories, 708
side effects of, 709–10
Logical-mathematical intelligence, 92
Long-term storage and retrieval (Glr), 27
Longitudinal study, of gifted students, 474–75
Lopez, E., 17
Low intelligence, 69
Lubinski, D., 63, 68
Lykken, D., 74
Lyon, G. R., 217
M
Mainstreaming, movement of, 28
as a “push in” model, 29
Major depressive disorder (MDD)
drug efficacy in, 717–18
FDA pediatric indications for, 717
side effects of TCAs in, 700
Mapping, 89
Marascuilo, L. A., 162, 163
Mashoodh, R., 70
Material significance, 125
Math disabilities, children with, 559
Math fact retrieval
and computational operations, 559
Math instruction, 559–60
accessing research on effective, 559
evidence-based instructional approach, 559
Mathematical ability
curriculum-based measurement (CBM), 352–53
logical reasoning, 359–62
number concepts, 357–59
role of school psychologist in assessment, 362–63
role of the clinical interview in assessing, 354–55
standard testing procedures, 353–54
theory of relational understanding of, 356–57
Matrix of communication flow, among instructors, students, and practitioners/experts, 845 [link]
Maximum likelihood estimator, 146
McDaniel, M. A., 68, 455 [link]
Meany, M. J., 72
Mental energy, 81
Mental health consultation, 30, 667–68
effectiveness research, 667–68
Mental Health in School & School Improvement: Current Status, Concerns, and New Directions, 848
Mental health intervention movement, 28
Mentorship, 58
Merzenich, Michael, 175
Meshing hypothesis, 65
Meta-cognitive strategies, effective instruction and, 533–35
Metacomponents, 89, 92
Methoxychlor, 71
Metropolitan Achievement Test, 8th Edition (MAT-8), 214
Mnemonic devices, 535
Model Licensure Act (MLA, 2007), 54
Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT), 570
Modus tollens argument, 134
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), 706
efficacy in major depressive disorder, 718
side effects of, 703, 706
Monozygotic twins, 72
Mood disorders, 70, 316
Mood stabilizers
efficacy in autism spectrum disorders, 720
FDA warnings and advisories, 708–9
side effects of, 709–11
Morphological awareness, 555, 557
Morphophonemic orthography
teaching regularities for decoding in, 555–56
Motivation enhancement approaches
individual counseling, 622
Movement time (MT), 87
Muller, Johannes Peter, 10
Multicultural issues, 782
Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC), 573
Multidisciplinary team, 29
in school psychology, 29
Multilevel structure models, 151–52
Multiple intelligences, theory of, 92–93
Multisystemic therapy, for school violence, 486–87
Munro, E., 87
Musical intelligence, 92
My Class Inventory, 274
Myelodysplastic syndrome, 72
N
Narrow-band assessment measures, 212–13
Narrowband behavior rating scales, 297 [link]
Nation at Risk: The Imperative for Educational Reform, A, 175
National Association for Gifted Children, 477
National Association of School Psychologists (NASP), 10, 17, 35, 37, 54, 685
blueprints for training and practice, 22–23, 28, 48, 56, 58–59
disagreement with APA, 54–55, 58
doctoral-level training program, 54–55
domains of competence in training and practice, 22
guidelines for doctoral requirements, 21
practice standards, 21
National certification in school psychology licensure, 25–26
National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE), 54
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (NHANES III), 691
National Longitudinal Study of Youth (NLSY), 69
National Organization for Victim Assistance (NOVA), 493
National Reading Panel (NRP), 179
National Youth Gang Suppression and Intervention Research and Development Project, 489
Nationally Certified School Psychology Psychologist (NCSP), 25
Natural ability, 85
Natural language paradigm (NLP)
for ASD, 577–78
Naturalistic intelligence, 93
Naturalistic teaching strategies, in ASD, 576–79
incidental teaching, 577
natural language paradigm, 577–78
pivotal response training, 578–79
NCATE/NASP standard, 58–59
Neag School of Education, 5
Nefazodone
side effects of, 703–4, 706
Negative mood, 154
Negative reinforcer, 191
Negative self-esteem, 154
Nettelbeck, T, 86
Neuroimaging, of brain regions, 174–75
Neurological basis, of learning
critical periods of development, 172
dyslexia, 174–75
expression of plasticity in human brain, 173–74
(p. 887)
neural development throughout lifespan, 172–73
potential benefits of combining models and methods, 178–79
practical difficulties, 175–76
RTI model, 177–78
specific learning disability (SLD), 176–77
Neuronal myelination, 172
Neurons, 172
Neuroticism, 67
Neurotransmitters, 172
No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), 48, 176, 214, 269, 369, 757–59, 786, 864
Non-cognitive traits, 67
Non-OCD anxiety disorders
drug efficacy in, 717
FDA pediatric indications for, 716–17
Nondirective supportive therapy (NST), 497
Nonlinear models, 148–50
Nontraditional school psychology, 31–33, 32 [link]
Norm-referenced standardized tests (NRSTs), 216–17
Northup, J., 196
Null hypothesis significance testing (NHST), 104
for balanced case, 111
of cluster randomized designs, 111
Fisher’s approach, 110
Neyman-Pearson approach, 110–11
one-way ANOVA model, 111
type I and type II errors, 109–10, 109t, 126
using computer software, 111
Nyborg, H., 64, 67
O
Obesity, childhood, 687–88
prevention and early intervention programs, 688
research on risk and protective factors, 687–88
Observational learning, social skills assessment, 450
!Observe, 834–35
Obsessive compulsive disorder
drug efficacy in, 716
FDA pediatric indications for, 715–16
Occipitotemporal pathway, 174
Occupational status, SWB and, 506–7
Occupational therapist, 29
Off-label prescribing, 699–700
Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), 489
Olanzapine, side effects of, 708
Olympia Conference (1981), 14t, 17
Online communities, in school psychology, 833
Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), 285–88, 288t, 316
Oral language, role in learning written language, 556
Oral reading fluency (ORF), 211
Organizational development consultation, 671–74
effectiveness research, 673–74
models and stages of systems change, 672–73
Organizational development (OD), 788
Organizational development consultation (ODC), 30, 788
Organizational or systems consultation (OSC), 787–88
Orthographic awareness, 555, 557
Oxcarbazepine
FDA warnings and advisories for, 709
side effects of, 710
P
p-value, 125, 127, 130
p-regressor, 106
Panacea mongers, 3
Paradigm shift,” in school psychology, 216
Paradox of, 9
Parameter estimation
confidence interval approach in, 144–46
data collection decisions, 144–46
individual assessment, 160
statistical modeling, 146
Parent education, to prevent bullying, 492
Parent-mediated behavioral consultation, 669–70
Parent-school relationships, 560–61
Parental cocaine exposure, 688–90
prevention programs, 690
research on risk and protective factors, 688–89
Parental contribution. to academic learning, 560–61
Participatory Intervention Model (PIM), 639
Partnership, 816–18
defined, 816
in international arena, application, 817
Passive engaged time (PET), 208
Path analysis, 153
Pavlov, I. P., 188
Pearson, Karl, 142, 144
goodness-of-fit method, 144
Pediatric drugs, “safety first” approach, 700–701
Pediatric psychologists, use computerized interventions, 839–40
Pediatric psychopharmacology, 698
Pediatric psychotropic research
controversies, 699–700
future directions in, 720
growth of, 698
school psychologists role in, 698–99
Peer-assisted learning strategies (PALS), 531
Peer-mediated behavioral consultation, 670
Peer relationships
classroom management and, 598
Peer relationships, SWB and positive, 508
Peer Social Behavior Code (PSB), 448
Peer training, for ASD, 583–85
written text treatment, 584–85
Pembrey, M. E., 72
Pemoline side effects, 702
Pennsylvania Action Research Network (PAARN), 848
Pennsylvania System of School Assessment (PSSA), 215
Percent of nonoverlapping data points (PND), 615
Perceptual motor training, special education and, 526–27
Performance components, 89, 92
Performance deficits, 443
Personality factors, 67
Pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD–NOS), 569
Petition Package for school psychology, 22
Pharmaceutical industry
influence on psychotropic research, 700
Phelps, L., 17
Phonological awareness, 557
Physical health, SWB and, 507
Physical therapist, 29
Piaget’s stage theory of development, 93–94
Pivotal response training (PRT)
for ASD, 578–79
(p. 888) Plasticity
and age, 174
expression, 173–74
and intervention, 174
Play the News, 840
Podcasts, in school psychology, 831
Point null hypothesis (PNHT), 125, 127, 131
Polypharmacy, 700
Population parameters, 145
Portable Observation Program (POP), 834
Positive and Negative Affect Scale for Children (PANAS-C), 506
Positive behavior support (PBS), 485
definitions of four critical features of, 654 [link]
evolution of, 647–51
from individuals to systems, 651
IDEA and references to, 649 [link]
legal foundation of, 648–49
overview, 647
prevention and, 650
school-wide, 661. See also School-wide positive behavior support (SWPBS)
scientific, theoretical, and philosophical foundations of, 647–48
setting-specific, 661–62
for social skills, 445–46
systems-based service delivery programs, 640–41
unique features of, 649–51
Positive manifold, 84
Positive school climate, to prevent bullying, 491–92
Practical intelligence, 93
Practical significance, notion of, 104
Practice of psychology, 56
Prader-Willi syndrome, 72
PRAXIS II exam, for school psychology, 59
Pre-referral intervention models (PIM)
special education and, 541
Preoperational stage, 94
Preschool ADHD Treatment Study (PATS) study, 702–3
Preschool and Kindergarten Behavior System Second Edition (PKBS-2), 376
Preschool Observation Code, 377
Preventive mental health programs, 641–43
RTI and, 643
SEL and CASEL, 642
Primary mental abilities, 81–83
Priming procedure, in ADHD, 430
Priori substantive theory, 165
Privacy and confidentiality, 767–68
Problem solving consultation (PSC), 674–80
across continuum of support mediating variables, 675 [link]
and evidence-based practice, 676–79
basic evaluation structure to document intervention, 677–79
documentation of integrity of intervention, 677
professional development/training for implementer, 677
well developed manual/guide for, 676
factors affecting implementation process, 678–79 [link]
progress monitoring procedures in evaluation of outcomes, 679–80
tier I, universal level, 674–75
tier II, selected level, 675
tier III, targeted level, 676
Problem solving models, of school psychology, 33–35
academic assessment and intervention, 216
Problem solving process, 13
decision making and change, 639
instructional consultation and, 671
and math instruction, 559
RTI and, 612–16
plan evaluation, 613–16
plan implementation, 613
problem analysis, 612–13
problem identification, 612
SWB with adults and, 516
systemic and structured planning and, 640
Procedural knowledge, 555
Processing speed and aging, 90
Processing speed (Gs), 27
Professional conduct, expectations for, 763–64
Professional development activities
SWPBS and participation in, 657
Professional organizations, in school psychology, 53–54
Professional psychology, 56
Program evaluation, 795–96
case study of, 796, 805
evaluation report, 804
focus of, 797
methods, 801 [link]
case studies, 802–3
expert opinion, 803
focus groups, 802
interviews, 800, 802
observations, 800
questionnaires and surveys, 802
results, 803–4
rubric for reporting, 804 [link]
and school psychology, 806
standards, 796–97
Program planning
and cultural factors, 789–91
defined, 788
and evaluation, organizational/systems consultation in, 787–88
features of, 788–89
methods of, 791–93
problems and pitfalls of, 793–95
and school psychology, 804–6
Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), 351
Project Prime Time, 269
Project STAR, 269
Projective tests, 226
Promoting Psychological Well-Being Globally, 815
Proportionate reduction, in error (PRE) statistics, 142
Pruning, 173
Psychoeducation, in TF-CBT, 495–96
Psycholinguistic training, special education and, 527–29
average effect size, by ITPA, 528 [link]
ITPA score in, 527–28
Psychological assessment, of children, 225
goal of, 226–28
influencing factors, 227
information gathering, or medical model approach, 226
Psychological consultation, 29–31
school-based consultation, 30
Psychological functioning, 3
Psychological health, 69
Psychological impact, of trauma, 494–95
Psychological report writing, technology used in, 841–44
Psychological variables, 3
Psychological well-being, 73–74
Psychologically-based treatments
biofeedback, 733–34
CBT techniques, 730–34
future direction of, 739–40
hypnotherapy, 737–39
relaxation and guided imagery, 736–37
yoga, 734–36
Psychologically healthy individual, 3
Psychology orthogenics, 13
Psychometric theories, of intelligence
Bond theory, 81
British hierarchical model, 82–83
fluid and crystallized ability, 83
primary mental abilities, 81–82
Spearman’s Two Factor theory, 80–81
structure of intellect theory of human abilities, 84
three-stratum factor analytic theory of cognitive abilities, 83–84
Psychometrics, 57, 80, 158
Psychomotor ability, 67
Psychopathology, 73
relationship with SWB, 505–6
Psychoticism, 67
(p. 889) Psychotropic drugs
prescribing to school-aged children, 697–98
Public Law 94–142, 23, 28
Public Law 105–17, 188
Public relations, 17
Public school setting, empirical evidence supporting SWPBS, 661–62
Q
Quality of life, PBS and, 649
Quételet, Adolphe, 85
Quetiapine
side effects of, 708
R
Race issues, in academic interventions, 561–62
Random effects model, 108
Randomized controlled trials (RCTs)
pediatric psychotropic research, 698
with TCAs for youth with MDD, 700
Randomized trials design, 127–28 [link]
Range null hypothesis testing (RNHT), 125–29
Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices, 87
Rayner, R., 188
Reaction time (RT). See Simple/choice reaction time
Reading, 554–57
accessing research on effective, 554
effective instruction and, 539–40
integration with writing, 556
linguistic awareness, 554–55
morphophonemic orthography, 555–56
role of oral language in learning written language, 556
system issues, 556–57
Reading comprehension test, 145
Reading fluency
effective instruction and, 540
Reading interventions, 179–80
Arrowsmith School program, 183
“Block Commander,” 183
Corrective Reading program, 181
Fast ForWord®, 182–83
“Listening Comprehension Builder,” 183
“Old MacDonald’s Flying Farm” task, 182
Reading Recovery (RR) program, 179
Shared Program components and needs, 182
What Works Clearinghouse (WWC), 183
Wilson Reading System, 181
Reading Next: A Vision for Action and Research in Middle and High School Literacy, 540
Reading Recovery (RR) program, 179
Referrals, to school psychologists, 28, 48
Regular curriculum differentiation, for gifted students, 473
Reinforced learning, social skills assessment, 450
Relaxation, for children and adolescents, 499
Relaxation and guided imagery (RGI), 735–36
Reliability, of direct observation data, 208
Reliability coefficient, 159
Reliable change index (RCI), 614
Renzulli’s three-ring conception, giftedness and talent, 459, 459 [link]
taxonomy of behavioral manifestations, 460 [link]
Reschly, D. J., 208
Research questions, related to school psychology, 20–21
Resources, 4, 74
Resources, Intimacy, Competence, and Health (R.I.C.H.) theory, 4
and individual differences, 74–76
validity of, 4
Response cost, interventions for ADHD, 434
Response execution, 89
Response time (RT), 86
Response to intervention (RTI), 33–35, 48, 177–78, 242, 370, 608–9, 777–78
ADHD and, 429
behavioral momentum and, 609
case example, 375–77
contrast between school-age and preschool, 374
early childhood, 371–72
early childhood partnerships core programs, 376 [link]
evolution of, 609–10
features of, 610–11
future prospective, 616–17
models for, 612–16
prevention-focused, 374–75
preventive mental health programs, 643
school-age, 370–71
social/emotional, 372–73
SWPBS and, 652–54
and three-tier model, 611–12
selected interventions, 611
targeted/intensive interventions, 611–12
universal interventions, 611
Responsibility to society, 771–72
Responsible caring, 768–69
Revised Children’s Manifest Anxiety Scale, 2nd edition (RCMAS-2), 326
Reynold’s Adolescent Depression Scale (RADS), 572
Risley, T. R., 163
Risperidone
side effects of, 707–8
Riverside Publishing, 215
Role definition, 15
Root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA), 156
Rothlisberg, B. A., 18–19 [link]
RTI problem solving model, core features, 653 [link]
Ruhl, K., 270
Russell, Bertrand, 4, 74
S
Sacramento City School District vs. Rachel H., 29
Salthouse, Timothy, 90
Sample statistic value, 143
Sampling distribution, of a statistic, 105
Sampling fluctuation hypothesis, 143, 145
Sampling theory, 81
SAT scores, 67
Scademic performance, SWB and, 506
Schemes, 94
Scholastic performance, 65
School accountability, focus on
in IDEA 1997, 754–55
in IDEA 2004, 755–57
in No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), 757–59
School based individual counseling, 620–21
School-based interventions
academic, 51
application of therapeutic assessment, 242–48, 243 [link]
case conceptualization, 245–46
case examples of components of TA-C applied, 248–57
considerations of, 246
construction of assessment questions, 243–44
consultation, 52
and development of specialty in, 56
form of active collaboration, 244–45
levels of feedback, 246–47
nondiscriminatory, 52
parent feedback, 247
social/emotional intervention and prevention, 51
teacher feedback, 247–48
use of a collaborative stance by the assessor, 243
for violence, 487–89
for violent and aggressive students, 487–88
(p. 890) School based psychotherapy, 778
School law, 745
School nurse, 29
School psychologists, 16, 23
advocating for reforms, 780–81
changes in roles of, 754
definition and role of, 47–48
distribution in the world, 23
diversity among, 49
doctorally trained, 47
domain areas in training of, 21
expectations of contemporary, 49
form of consultation, 30
holding APA membership, 23
impact of legislation and employment outlook, 52–53
problem solving approach, 38
in public schools, 35
referrals to, 28
role in pediatric psychotropic research, 698–99
role in social skills, 451–53
roles and functions of, 774
school-based practice, 47
scope of services of, 23–24, 29–30
and systems change, 632
in the U.S., 23
School psychology, 3, 5
education and training in
credentialing, 776–77
diversity of, 779–80
evidence-based practice, 777–78
training programs, 776
as empirically-based science, 17–19
ethical concerns in, 765–66
faddism in, 786
growth and development, 23
intervention-oriented services in, 769–70
School psychology, ethical standards for practice of
decision making in ethically troubling situations, 764–65, 765 [link]
ethical codes in, 763
expectations for professional conduct, 763–64
integrity in relationships, 770–71
professional ethics
fairness and non-discrimination, 768
privacy and confidentiality, 767–68
responsible caring, 768–69
self-determination and autonomy, 767
responsibility to society, 771–72
School psychology, legal principles affecting, 745
case law, 746–47
legislative action, 746
United States Constitution, 746
School psychology history changer, steps, 37–38 [link]
School Psychology Resources Online, 850
School psychology training programs, emerging areas of
evidence-based practice, 777–78
family-centered service, 782
focus on P–12, 781–82
multicultural issues, 782
response to intervention models, 777–78
school based psychotherapy, 778
School social work, 29
School violence, 484
bullying, 490
gang violence, interventions for, 489–90
multisystemic therapy for, 486–87
overview, 483–84
school-based interventions, 487–89
meta-analysis for, 488
principles for, 487–88
three tier model and promoting wellness in schools, 484–87
primary prevention level, 485–86
schoolwide positive behavior support, 485–86
secondary prevention level, 486
tertiary prevention level, 486–87
School-Wide Information System (SWIS), 834–35
School-wide positive behavior support (SWPBS), 640–41
critical features of, 654–55, 655 [link]
empirical evidence supporting, 661–63
alternative school settings, 662
juvenile justice settings, 662–63
public school setting, 661–62
implementation timeline for, 655–61
adopt evidence based practices, 658
coach selection, 657
data management system, 659–60
define expectations within school settings and routines, 658
develop and deliver explicit social skills lesson plans, 658
develop and invest in systems, 659
develop data based action plan, 657–58
engage in activities, 656
establish schoolwide student recognition program, 658–59
identify positively stated expectations, 658
implement, monitor, and revise action plan, 660–61
participate in professional development activities, 657
schoolwide staff recognition program, 660
secure staff buy-in, 657
team establishment, 656–57
teaming and meeting structures, 659
overview of, 651
and RTI, 653–54
tiers of support in, 651–54
primary tier, 651
secondary tier, 651–52
tertiary tier, 652
violence and, 485–86
Schools, as social systems, 630–31
Schoolwide Enrichment Model (SEM), 463–64, 466 [link]
enrichment clusters in, 467–68
identification in, 464–65
goal of, 464
overview of, 465–67
Renzulli Learning to implement, 468–69
teoretical background of, 464
Schoolwide Enrichment Model in Reading (SEM-R), 474
Schoolwide PBS, 661
Schoolwide staff recognition program, SWPBS and, 660
Schoolwide student recognition program, SWPBS and, 658–59
Scientific investigation, 70
Scientific knowledge, access to, 850–52
sharing of, 851–52
Screening Tool for Autism in Two-Year-Olds (STAT), 571
Seamann, M. A., 130
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), 704
efficacy in major depressive disorder, 717
efficacy in non-OCD anxiety disorders, 717–18
efficacy in OCD, 716
side effects of, 705
Self-concept, 230
Self-determination and autonomy, 767
Self-efficacy/self-discovery, 230
Self-enhancement, 230
Self-evaluation strategies, students with ADHD and, 435–36
Self-management interventions
for ASD, 585–88
applications of, 586–87
designing of, 587–88
students with ADHD and, 435–36
Self-monitoring strategies, students with ADHD and, 435
Self-regulated strategy development (SRSD), 533–34
Self-verification, 230
Semistructured Parent Interview (SPI), 293
Sensorimotor stage, 94
Serlin, R. C., 125–26, 130
Seroquel. See Quetiapine
Serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs)
efficacy in major depressive disorder, 718
side effects of, 705
Setting-specific PBS, 661–62
Sex-specific effects, 72
Shapiro, E. S., 208, 218
Shaw, J. H., 270
Shaywitz, Sally, 174–75
Sheridan, S., M., 17
Shivpuri, S., 68
Shooting Stars program, 35 [link]
Short-term memory (Gsm), 27
Significance testing, 143–44
Simon, Theodore, 27
Simple/choice reaction time, 86–87, 96
Simple sensory testing, 85
Situational theory, and systems change, 632
Skills deficits, 443
Skinner, M., 75
Slow-taped words (STW), 436
Small-group learning, 268
Snow, R. E., 65
Social and emotional learning (SEL) programs, 642
Social behavior, influencing factors, 72
Social change
video games role in, 840–41
Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ)
for ASD, 571
Social competence, defined, 443
Social counseling, for gifted students, 474
Social learning
preventive mental health programs and, 641–43
Social learning theory, 450, 830
Social maladjustment, 69
Social resources, SWB and, 506
Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), 570
Social significance, 125
Social skills
deficits, self-management of ASD and, 586–87
definition of, 444
external variable theory, 444
functioning in students, potential causes, 444–45
multidimensional assessment protocol, 447
overview, 442–44
and role of school psychologist, 451–53
theoretical models to guide research and practice, 445–46
ecological theory, 445
positive behavior support model, 445–46
Social skills assessment, 446–49
behavior rating scales, 448
direct observations, 447–48
operant conditioning techniques, 450
review of existing records, 448–49
teacher interviews for, 447
Social skills interventions, 449–51
Social systems
innovation diffusion and, 633–34
schools as, 630–31
Social validity, PBS and, 650
Socioeconomic issues, in academic interventions, 561–62
Sociooeconomic status (SES), 3, 68, 70
levels of cortisol, 73
Solution-focused brief therapy (SFBT), 623
Spatial intelligence, 93
Spearman, Charles, 26, 80–81
Spearman-Brown prophecy formula, 159
Spearman’s Two Factor theory, 80–81
Special education
accessing general education, 530
early intervention, 541
and intensity of instruction, 530–31
nature of, 531–32, 542–44
overview, 523–24
process training, 526–29
effectiveness of, 526 [link]
perceptual motor training, 526–27
psycholinguistic training, 527–29, 528 [link]
research traditions in, 524–26
new research paradigms, 525
paradigm wars, 524–25
research synthesis, 525–26
services, 33
Special education teacher, 29
Special populations, of gifted/talented students, 461–62
Specific learning disability (SLD), 48, 176–77, 342, 527
Three-Tier Identification Model, 178
Specific subskill (SS) mastery, 210
Speech therapist, 29
Speed of processing, 90
Spiritual intelligence, 93
Spring Hill Symposium (1980), 14t, 16–17
S.S.P. (Specialist in School Psychology), 24
Stakeholder participation, PBS and, 649–50
Standard error estimates, of model, 156, 157t, 166–67
Standard errors, 145
Standard normal distribution, 145
Standardized coefficients, 147
Standardized item alpha, 159
Standardized measures, of academic achievement, 212–17
Standardized root mean square residual (SRMR), 156
Standards for Training and Field Placement Programs in School Psychology, 451
Stanford Achievement Test Battery, 10th edition (SAT-10), 214
Stanford Revision of the Binet-Simon Intelligence Scale, 26
STARBRIGHT program, 840
State-Event Classroom Observation System (SECOS), 209
State–Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAIC), 326–28
Statistical Analysis System (SAS), 318
Statistical methods, for informed decisions
analysis of variance (ANOVA) design, 106–7
Bayesian framework of analysis, 132–37
cluster randomized design, 108–9, 111
coding schemes, 107
concept of effect size, 114–19
confidence interval, 112–14
equivalence hypotheses testing, 129–32
general linear model formulation, 107
inferential statistical procedures, 105–9
notion of hypothesis testing, 109–12
null hypothesis significance testing (NHST), 104, 109–12
population standard deviation, 106
power calculations, 119–25
random effects model, 108
range null hypothesis testing (RNHT), 125–29
sampling distribution, of a statistic, 105
sampling distribution of mean difference, 106
standard deviation of sampling distribution, 105
two-group posttest comparison, 131 [link]
Statistical significance testing, 104
Steege, M. W., 195–96
Sternberg, Robert J., 89–91
(p. 892) Stimulants
efficacy in ADHD, 720
efficacy in autism spectrum disorders, 719
efficacy in DBD, 714
FDA warnings and advisories about, 702
MPH and AMP formulations, 701
side effects and interaction effects, 702–3
Stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA), 86
Strategy training, students with ADHD and, 436
Stratified sampling, 142
Strattera. See Atomoxetine
Structural equation modeling (SEM), 152–53
Structure of intellect theory, of human abilities, 84
Structured and semistructured interviews, 315–20, 317–18t
Structured extracurricular activities (SEA), 509
Student education, to prevent bullying, 492
Student/Teacher Achievement Ratio program (STAR), 269
Student’s t-distribution, 106, 110, 125–26, 129
Students with disabilities, educational services to
court cases related to, 747–48
creating access to, 747
federal legislation for, 748–50
Studies on Hysteria, 12
Subjective well-being (SWB)
with children and adolescents, 516–17
gratitude and, 516–17
hope and, 517
enhancing child-focused factors correlated with, 509–11
enhancing systems-level factors correlated with, 507–9
functional roles in youth development, 507
importance in youth, 505–7
relationship with psychopathology, 505–6
outcomes correlated with, 506–7
overview, 504–5
promoting, 507–17
empirical studies, 511–17
implications on predictors and correlates, 507–11
school psychology and, 517–19
assessments, 518
interventions, 517–18
studies with adults, 511–16
acts of kindness, 513–14
character strengths, 512–13
goal setting and attainment, 515
gratitude, 511–12
hope, 514–15
problem solving, 516
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMSHA), 494
Substance abuse disorders, 316
SWPBS. See School-wide positive behavior support (SWPBS)
children and, 631–32
components and characteristics, 629–30
functioning, 629–30
schools as social, 630–31
Systematic direct observation (SDO), 207, 294–97
Systematic Screening for Behavior Disorders (SSBD) protocol, 446, 448
Systems-based service delivery, 638–40
collaborative strategic planning, 638–39
examples from school psychology, 638–43
overview, 628
participatory intervention model, 639
preventive mental health programs, 641–43
problem solving process
decision making and change, 639
systemic and structured planning and, 640
processes, 638–40
programs, 640–41
systems change, 632–38
systems concepts and theory, 628–32
Systems-based service delivery programs, 640–41
Systems change
contingency theory and, 632
implementation effectiveness, 635–38
extra-organizational factor, 638
implementer characteristics, 635–37
innovation characteristics, 635
organizational characteristics, 637–38
innovation implementation, 633–35
degrees of implementation, 634
innovation diffusion and social systems, 633–34
stages of implementation, 634–35
leadership and change agent role, 632–33
PBS and multi-component intervention, 650
school psychologists and, 632
situational theory and, 632
Systems theory and school psychology, 775 [link]
T
T-score scale, 156
t-statistic, 125, 129
t-test, 144
Tallal, Paula, 175
Targeted/intensive interventions, RTI and, 611–12
Task difficulty antecedent analysis, 194–95
Task/instructional modifications, students with ADHD and, 436
Teacher Report Form (TRF), 321
Teacher–student relationships, 265–66
classroom management and, 598
Teaching behaviors, effective, 263
Teaching regularities, for decoding in morphophonemic orthography, 555–56
Team establishment, SWPBS and,