Show Summary Details

Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD HANDBOOKS ONLINE (www.oxfordhandbooks.com). © Oxford University Press, 2018. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Handbooks Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 28 January 2020

(p. 661) Index

(p. 661) Index

Abrams, Charles, 357
Accommodating Creative Knowledge—Competitiveness of European Metropolitan Regions within the Enlarged Union (ACRE), 498n4
accountability, 81
in bureaucracy, 156
of CAOs, 161
elections and, 87
with government by committee, 188
ICT and, 591
in local elections, 99
in local governance, 75–76
NGOs and, 198
social capital and, 305
UPE and, 534
vote choice and, 98
ACM, in Bologna, Italy, 635
ACORN, 403
Action Directe, 502
actors-centered institutionalism, 180
adapted city, 194
ad hoc decisions, 17, 36
administrative discretion, 137
administrative effectiveness, 300
affirmative action, 337
in France, 505
Africa.See also South Africa
civil society in, 577–81
decentralization in, 575–76
new regionalism in, 633
women in, 580
African Americans, 261, 649
as elected officials, 318–20, 319t
in Los Angeles, 508
marginalization of, 22
metropolitan governance and, 628
in neighborhoods, 257, 258, 263, 561
in New Haven, 23
service distribution and, 435
in suburbs, 611
in urban elections, 101
in U.S., 313–16
violence and, 502
agency, 21
collective, 255
faces-of-power and, 16–17
Harding and, 13–14
theory of, 38
agenda-setting, 6
domain theory and, 450–51
dynamism of, 451–59
globalization and, 458, 460
information processing and, 455–56
for interest groups, 457–58
in Miami, 452n14
by parties, 457–58
policies and, 442–61
power and, 442–61
regime theory and, 450–51
research patterns for, 456–59
aggregation rules, 246, 247, 249
agir urbain (urban acts), 285
AIDS, 397–98
Alatorre, Richard, 379
alcohol, 397
alien suffrage, 53
Alinsky, Saul, 25n6, 403
allocative efficiency, 31–33, 39
alternative lens, 73–74
ambient urban sustainabilities, 533
American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, 443
Amsterdam, 494
antiglobalization movements, 284–85
antigrowth movements, 452, 526
Anton, Thomas, 445–46
apartheid, 352
area-based initiatives, 238
arguing, 238, 238n9
Asian Americans, 92, 313–16, 318n3, 325, 508
Athens, 498
Atlanta, 16
bottom-up venue shopping in, 455
coalition-building in, 17–18
elections in, 21
elitism and, 54
faces-of-power in, 17
regime theory and, 449n11
urban growth in, 480
at-large electoral systems (AL), 320
attractiveness to investment, 570
Audit Commission, 433
Aurora, Colorado, 601
(p. 662) Australia, 162
authority rules, 246
autonomía local (local self-government), 573
Autonomous Community of Madrid (CAM), 634
Avian Flu, 532
Bacharach, Peter, 444, 452n13
Bachelor, Lynn, 455
Bail, Christopher, 373
balanced communities, 557–58, 558n10
Baltimore, 16, 403, 453n13
Banfield, Edward, 337, 444
Bangkok, 147
banlieues, 258, 506, 509
Baratz, Morton, 444, 452n13
Barber, Benjamin, 359–60
Barcelona, 491, 635–36
bargaining, 238, 238n9
competition and, 496–97
Harding and, 13, 14
urban growth and, 477–78
barrios, 277
Beacon Hill, 351
bedroom communities, 611
Bel Air, 351
Belgium
elections in, 89, 212
greens in, 222
immigrants in, 376
intergovernmental systems in, 143, 144
political parties in, 215, 221–22, 223t
violence in, 502
Belton, Sharon Sayles, 322
benign neglect, 337
Berlin, 491
Best Value, 166
Better Bedford Party, 218
better social outcomes, 298
bilateral agreements, 39
Birmingham, UK, 302
Black Baptist Pastors’ Conference, 403
blacks.See African Americans
Blair, Tony, 559
Blakely, Edward J., 361
blame, 98
blended democracy, 603
blind imperatives, 13
Bloomberg, Michael, 336n4, 379
Bologna, Italy, 635
bonding social capital, 297
boomerang effect, 458
Boston, 16, 339, 351, 480, 601
Boston By-Pass Party, 218, 220
bottom-up venue shopping, 454–55
boundary rules, 246, 247
bourgeois, 384
Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community, 296
Boys and Girls Clubs, 298
Bradley, Tom, 320, 511–12
Brand, Peter, 524
branding, 572
Brazil, 524, 571, 594. See also specific cities
bridges, 58
Bridges, Amy, 54
bridging social capital, 297
Bristol, 597
Britain.See also specific cities
balanced communities in, 557–58, 558n10
Best Value in, 166
bureaucracy in, 161–62
CCT in, 166, 190
comparative thinking/research in, 497
competition in, 488–99
deprivation in, 559
dialectical institutionalism in, 61
Economic and Social Research Council in, 497n3
e-democracy in, 594
elections in, 211–14
external reorganizing reforms in, 191
government by committee in, 199
immigrants in, 363, 367, 376
institutionalism in, 55
institutional reform in, 187
intergovernmental systems in, 135–36, 143
internal management reform in, 190
justice in, 557–61
leadership reform in, 188
local autonomy in, 72–73
metropolitan governance in, 120, 624, 627–28
METS in, 630
mixed communities in, 557–58, 558n10
multifunctional profile in, 181–82
Municipal Corporations Act in, 213
national elections in, 88
national political parties in, 217
network governance theory in, 61–62
policy entrepreneurship in, 453
political parties in, 213–14
Poor Laws of, 333
poverty in, 558
PPP in, 560
regional Development Agencies in, 636
social exclusion in, 559
sociological institutionalism in, 58
SUD in, 557–58
urban elections in, 89, 104
urban governance in, 75
urban growth in, 472
urban renaissance in, 558, 558n10
violence in, 502
voter turnout in, 91, 91f
welfare state in, 181–82
(p. 663) British National Party (BNP), 89, 94, 219
Brown, Lee, 320
Brown, Michael, 406–7
Brown, Willie, 322
Browning, Rufus P., 101
Brown v. Board of Education, 352
Brundtland Commission, 524
budget maximizing, 36
Buenos Aires, 147, 570
BUILD, 403
Bullard, Robert, 531
bureaucracy, 152–73
in Australia, 162
in Britain, 161–62
change in, 164–69
counterpart, 446
elected officials and, 159–63
employment in, 163–64
fragmentation in, 171
future research on, 169–70
in local governance, 156–64
in Los Angeles, 513–14
nature of, 154–56
in Paris, 514
partnerships in, 164
Burgess, Ernest W., 353–55
Burns, Nancy, 360
Bush, George W., 442, 504
C3CAT, 601
cabinet/collective form, 157
cabinet with leader, 188
Camberwell Party, 218
campaign contributions, 104
Canada.See also specific cities
agenda-setting in, 458
census metropolitan areas in, 569
immigrants in, 373, 376–77
metropolitan governance in, 120
Canada-US Free Trade Agreement, 126
candidate politics, 21
Canvey Island Independent Party, 218
capabilities, justice and, 549
capital.See also social capital
justice and, 552
capitalism
globalization of, 476–77
historical institutionalism and, 59
SUD and, 526
urban growth and, 475
capitalization, 430, 430n4
carbon control, 535
carbon emissions, 527
new regionalism and, 633
Carter, Jimmy, 555n8
Castells, Manuel, 274, 280, 590
Castro Street, 351
census metropolitan areas, 569
central government
autonomy of, 117–18
in developing countries, 146
intergovernmental systems and, 135, 146
vs. local government, 73
centralized authority, 39
centralized regional authorities, 41
chambers of commerce, 496
Charlotte, 373, 601
Chattopadhyay, Jacqueline, 386
Chevenment Act of 2000, 141
Chicago, 15, 17, 320
bottom-up venue shopping in, 454–55
competition of, 489
fiscal decentralization in, 18
heat wave in, 20
immigrants in, 373
neighborhoods in, 266, 354
social capital in, 301–2
suburbs in, 610
tourism in, 491
urban elections in, 100
Chicago School, 354
chief administrative officer (CAO), 157–59, 160, 161, 193–94
children, of immigrants, 374–75
Childs, Richard, 53
child welfare, 298
Chile, 570, 574, 579
China, 495–96, 569t
citadels, 351
Cities Competitiveness and Cohesion Research Programme, 497n3
Citistat analysis, 167
Citizen Assemblies, 550
citizen control, 249
citizen effectiveness, 232–33
citizen participation, 169
forms of, 246–48
in governance, 235–37
ICT and, 591, 603
justice and, 546
ladder of, 248
Citizens Action Commission (CAC), 23–24
Citizens’ Advice Bureau (CAB), 550
(p. 664) citizenship
in Europe, 473
in Germany, 375
immigrants and, 367, 375–80
local democracy and, 231–50
social exclusion and, 342–43
Citta Metropolitana, 633, 634, 635
CITY, 284
The City (Park and Burgess), 354
city action teams, 489
“The City as Growth Machine” (Molotch), 526
city-county consolidation, 41, 186
City Development Strategy (CDS), 571–72
The City in History (Mumford), 486
A City in the Republic (Bridges), 54
City Journal, 527
City Limits (Peterson), 446, 474, 614
City of Quartz (Davis), 359
City Summit, 525
City We Want, 286
civic capacity, 266
Civic Capacity and Urban Education project, 482
civic skills, 255
civil culture vs. rule of law, 180, 189–90
Civil Rights Act of 1968, 353
Clark, Terry, 642–43
classical bureaucrats, 160, 162, 164
clearance-based urban renewal, 450
Cleveland, 490
climate policy, 444, 524
Climate Protection Agreement, 442
Clinton, Bill, 261, 442, 555n8
closed-circuit television (CCTV), 604
cloud technology, 591
cluster analysis, 424–26
coalition-building
competition and, 494–95, 496
faces-of-power and, 17–18
in New Haven, 21
in place-shaping, 19
regime theory and, 449
Code of Ethics
of ICMA, 193
of National Association of Real Estate Boards, 357
co-determination theory, 61
cohousing movement, 362–63
Cole, Alastair, 449
collaborative service arrangement, 40–41, 41f
collective action, 260–66
collective actors, 236n5
collective agent, 255
collective goods, 30–31
collective place-shaping, 13–14
collectivity, 12
Columbus, Ohio, 403
Commission on Urban Problems, 24
committee-leader form, 157
Common Agenda, 367
communautés, 183, 200, 625, 625n1
communes nouvelles, 184
Community Action Agencies (CAAs), 261
community amenity policies, 426
community-based organizations (CBOs), 579
community benefits agreements, 26, 631
Community Development Block Grants (CDBG), 261
Community Development Corporations (CDCs), 261–63, 339
community informatics, 601–2
community power, 13–14, 54
ICT and, 590–91
relationships and, 12
Community Power Structure (Hunter), 25
compañera, 282
comparative friction, 461
comparative thinking/research, 5–6, 416–26
in Britain, 497
on competition, 495–97
emerging agendas for, 657–59
PPP and, 496
on urban growth, 476–79
competition, 486–99
allocative efficiency and, 33
bargaining and, 496–97
in Britain, 488–99
coalition-building and, 494–95, 496
comparative thinking/research on, 495–97
conditions of, 487–88
context and, 496
controversies about, 493–95
creative class and, 492, 497–98
decentralization and, 488, 494
decision-making processes and, 493
in developing countries, 570
efficiency and, 32
entrepreneurialism and, 488, 491, 494
in EU, 491
in Europe, 487–88, 491, 647–48
exit mechanism and, 33–34
FOCJ and, 36
fragmentation and, 494
in France, 489
globalization and, 486, 489–91
governance and, 492
immigrants and, 493
institutions and, 492
legitimacy and, 494
in local elections, 99
at local level, 33–37
metropolitan governance and, 121–22
mobility and, 33
in NPM, 166
organization for, 34–37
path dependency and, 492
policies and, 492
poverty and, 346, 346n8
(p. 665) race and, 488
rational choice institutionalism and, 57
rationalists and, 34
regime theory and, 493–95
regulation and, 494
research directions for, 497–99, 645–46
social cohesion and, 494
social exclusion and, 494
subsidies and, 496
suburbs and, 488
tax incentives and, 496
technical efficiency and, 33
theory of, 33–34, 491–93
urban growth and, 473, 489
urban renaissance and, 491
in U.S., 487–88, 647–48
voice processes and, 33–34
Competitive Cities: Succeeding in the Global Economy (Duffy), 570
competitive methods, 492
complex bundles, 18–19
complexity
multilevel metropolitan governance and, 122–23
in place-shaping, 19
composite actors, 245
Comprehensive Performance Assessment (CPA), 98, 433
Compulsory Competitive Tendering (CCT), 166, 190
concurrent vs. nonconcurrent elections, 63
condominio, 139
conjoined independents, 220
consensus, 22
conservatives
poverty and, 337–38
religion and, 402–3
in suburbs, 607
consolidation
city-county, 41, 186
vs. fragmentation, 29, 32
metropolitan governance and, 121–22, 627
constitutional discretion, 137
consultation, 248
consultative councils, 374
Consumer Price Index (CPI), 336
context
competition and, 496
institutions and, 493–94
justice and, 561–62
poverty and, 338–40
race and, 324–26
in regime theory, 450
for SUD, 531
for venue shopping, 457–58
context of opportunities, 255
contingency, 16
contracting back in, 167
contracting out, 167, 171
contract networks, 42
cooperation
FOCJ and, 36
irrationalism and, 37
at local level, 37–43
negative externalities and, 36
organization for, 38–43
polycentric government and, 37
rationalists and, 34
spillover effects and, 36
technical efficiency and, 38
theory of, 37–38
coordinate authority model, 136
Copenhagen, 494
corporate actors, 236n5
corporate representatives, 243
corporatist urban governance, 495
council and council-elected mayor, 188–89
councillors, 219–20
council-manager, 158–59, 193–94, 195t, 436
reform and, 53
in suburbs, 611
council/mayor, 187–88
councils of governments (COGs), 42, 615, 615n1
counterpart bureaucracies, 446
Crain, Robert, 16, 22n2
creative class, 276, 285, 399, 645
competition and, 492, 497–98
in Europe, 498
justice and, 556
Creative Class Struggle, in Toronto, 278, 278n2
creative knowledge regions, 498
Crenson, Matthew, 79, 452n13
crime, 433–34. See also violence
Crombie, David, 521
crossover voting, 320
crystallization, 213
Cubans, 367
cultural turn, 395, 650–51
culture
of fear, 361
of local governance, 584
meaning and, 395
of poverty, 337
research on, 650–51
culture wars, 394–407
future of, 405–7
policy entrepreneurship and, 453
religion and, 402–5
social movements and, 396–98
cumul des mandats, 189, 217, 384
Dahl, Robert, 11–12, 13, 14, 22–25, 26, 616
on civic skills, 255
pluralism and, 54
on social capital, 303
Davies, Jonathan, 449
Davis, Mike, 359
Dayton, Ohio, 322
death of distance, 471, 645
Decade of the City, 568
de-centered comparative analysis, 118–20
decentralization
attempts at, 572–77
in Chicago, 18
competition and, 488, 494
in developing countries, 567–85
in intergovernmental systems, 140–41
in Italy, 187
metropolitan governance and, 121
poverty and, 473
of power, 54
regulation and, 143
three moments of, 573–81
Tiebout and, 431–32
urban growth and, 469, 481
in U.S., 21
decision-making processes.See also agenda-setting
in Baltimore, 453n13
competition and, 493
elitism and, 54
faces-of-power and, 17
in government by committee, 187–88
on poverty, 453n13
Rawls on, 548
regime theory and, 449
in second order governing, 241–42
The Declining Significance of Race (Wilson, W.J.), 556
de factor segregation, 352
de jure segregation, 352
delegated power, 248–49
DeLeon, Richard, 450
deliberative democracy, 169, 240, 548, 551, 553t
demand problem, 30–31
democracy
blended, 603
deliberative, 169, 240, 548, 551, 553t
e-democracy, 593–94
grassroots, 256, 308
intelligence of, 235
liberal, 240
local, 231–50
managerial, 618, 620
representative, 13
transparency in, 81
democracy deficit, 187
democratic control, 75–76
Democratic Party, 211
democratization, 582–84
demographics, 470
demography is destiny, 368
Denmark
citizen participation in, 169
ICT in, 601
immigrants in, 375
intergovernmental systems in, 143, 144
metropolitan governance in, 630
violence in, 502
Denver, 601, 653n6
dependent variables, 95
deprivation
in Britain, 559
in Los Angeles, 508, 508n3
in Paris, 509
theory of, 504, 506
deregulation, 551
desegregation, 16, 22n2
Detroit, 504
information processing in, 455–56
religion in, 403
urban decline in, 490
violence in, 502
Detroit Area Study, 326n7
developing countries
CDS for, 571–72
competition in, 570
decentralization in, 567–85
economic influence of, 568–70
intergovernmental systems in, 145–48
research agenda for, 584–85
size of, 568
urban governance in, 582–84
urbanization in, 568
development.See urban growth
development partnership, 42
Devizes Guardians, 218
dialectical institutionalism, 60–61
dichotomy, 160, 160n5, 160n6
NPM and, 180
differentiated solidarity, 548
diffusion of innovations, 394
Digital Cities Survey, 599
Digital Divide: Civic Engagement, Information Poverty and the Internet Worldwide (Norris), 604
Dillon, John, 117
Dillon's Rule, 72, 117, 184
directly elected mayor-council, 193
directly elected mayor with cabinet, 188
directly elected mayor with council-appointed city manager, 188
direttore generale, 189
disabling poverty, 341
disaggregation of public sector, 166
discovery, 18
discretion, 137
discriminatory prices, 36
diseconomies of scale, 37
(p. 667) disincorporation, 452n14
dissimilarity index, 352
dissolution referendum, 452n14
distributive outcomes, 434–35
districts.See also special districts
school districts, 185, 185n3, 185n4
urban elections and, 102
The Disuniting of America: Reflections on a Multicultural Society (Schlesinger), 359
diversity
in British party politicization, 213
SUD and, 536
in urban politics, 6–7
diversity assurance, 357
division of labor, 167–68
Dixon, Richard, 322
Dogan, Mattei, 568
domain theory, 446–48, 450–51
Dominicans, in Providence, Rhode Island, 367
Doncaster First Party, 218
Dowding, Keith, 57
driving forces, 496
drugs, 397
Dudley Street Initiative, 339
Duffy, H., 570
Dunleavy, Patrick, 57
Easton, David, 444
ecological citizenship, 244
ecological masking, 526
ecological security, 536, 648
Ecologist party, 297, 298
econometric analysis, 437
Economic and Social Research Council, 497n3
economic prosperity, 298
economies of scale, 120, 123
ed and med sector, 19, 26
e-democracy, 593–94
edge cities, 611
Edinburgh, 494
educational performance, 298
efficiency.See also allocative efficiency; technical efficiency
competition and, 32
consolidation vs. fragmentation and, 32
of FOCJ, 36
governance and, 493
institutionalism and, 53
with Internet voting, 596t
irrationalism and, 37
public services and, 31–33
SUD and, 522
e-governance, 603
elasticity, 60
elderly, 20, 335
elected council plus council-elected executive mayor, 189
elected mayor, 199–200
elected officials
African Americans as, 318–20, 319t
Asian Americans as, 318n3
bureaucracy and, 159–63
Latinos as, 318–20, 319t
race of, 317–22
service distribution and, 435
social capital and, 299–300
elections.See also specific kinds of elections
in Atlanta, 21
in Belgium, 89, 212
concurrent vs. nonconcurrent, 63
in England, 211–12, 213–14
in New Haven, 22
political responsiveness and, 87–107
electronic petitions, in Bristol, 597
elitism, 118
Atlanta and, 54
decision-making processes and, 54
desegregation and, 16, 22n2
institutions and, 54
power and, 13
in suburbs, 608
Ellen, Ingrid Gould, 355
Emanuel, Rahm, 562–63
employment, 163–64. See also unemployment
Empowerment Zones, 261, 514
enclaves, 350–53
in Europe, 353
gated communities as, 360–63
globalization and, 359–60
in Los Angeles, 359
polarization and, 359–60
segregation and, 351–56
of WASP, 529
Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grants (EECBG), 443
Energy Star, 443
engagement, 297
England.See Britain
enlarging the pie, 136
Enlightenment, 548
enterprise zones, 489
entrepreneurial city, 14
entrepreneurialism.See also policy entrepreneurship; political entrepreneurs
competition and, 488, 491, 494
in U.S., 494
environmental justice, 531
equality.See also justice
social capital and, 297–99
e-services, 599–601, 600t
ethnicity.See race
EU.See European Union
(p. 668) Europe.See also specific countries and cities
citizenship in, 473
competition in, 487–88, 491, 647–48
council/mayor form in, 187–88
creative class in, 498
enclaves in, 353
external reorganizing reforms in, 191–92, 200
functional profiles in, 181–84
gated communities in, 362
immigrants in, 372–73
institutionalism in, 492
institutional reform in, 187
intergovernmental systems in, 141–44
internal management reforms in, 189–90, 200
leadership reforms in, 187–89
local governance in, 201
Marxism in, 279
metropolitan governance in, 627–28, 629–31
national political parties in, 218
neighborhoods in, 256–59
neoliberalism in, 491
neo-Schumpterians in, 492
new regionalism in, 633, 636
NPM in, 180, 200
post-Fordist economy in, 491
poverty in, 334n3, 339–43
reform in, 199
regime theory and, 493
social-centered policies in, 490
social exclusion in, 341–43, 346–47
social movements in, 279–80
territorial profile in, 181–84
urban growth in, 473, 479
urban regime theory and, 495
violence in, 501–17
welfare state in, 498
European Commission, 200, 344, 367, 479
European Framework Programmes, 344
Europeanization, 142, 453
European Social Model, 340, 340n7
European Union (EU), 79. See also specific countries
competition in, 491
INTERREG program of, 140
multilevel governance in, 124–26, 139, 454
policy entrepreneurship in, 453
poverty and, 344
social cohesion and, 491
territorial cohesion and, 473, 491
Everyday Life, 275
e-voting, 594–96, 594t
exit mechanism
competition and, 33–34
historical institutionalism and, 59–60
tax incentives and, 33–34
explicit standards and measures, 166
externalities, 36, 37, 41
external market orientations, in U.S., 197–98
external reorganizing reforms, in Europe, 191–92, 200
external shocks, 60, 65, 76
faces-of-power, 14–20
agency and, 16–17
coalition-building and, 17–18
decision-making processes and, 17
policy direction and, 16
preemption and, 19–20
suppression and, 19–20
Fair Housing Act, 353, 357
fairness, 155–56, 473
farm organizations, 297
feasibility, 19
federal countries, 116–17
Federal District, in Mexico city, 582
Federal Housing Administration (FHA), 356, 357
federalism, 138, 444, 444n2. See also fiscal federalism
feedback
from Citizen Assemblies, 550
policy, 455–56
tightness of, 536
Fenster, Mark, 363
financial discretion, 137
first order governing, 238
Fiscal Austerity and Urban Innovation (FAUI), 642–43
fiscal decentralization, 18
fiscal federalism, 34, 35, 41, 134–35
fiscal policy outcomes, 429–33
flexible political geometry, 233
Florence, Italy, 498
Florida, Richard, 278n2, 492
flypaper effect, 36
Forbidden Neighbors (Abrams), 357
Ford, Gerald, 261
Ford, Rob, 520n1
Ford Foundation, 626
Fordist economy, 475
formal institutionalism, 62–64, 140, 304
Form of Government Survey, 320
Fortress America (Blakely and Snyder), 361
1400 Governments (Wood), 626
fragmentation
in bureaucracy, 171
centralized authority and, 39
competition and, 494
vs. consolidation, 29, 32
diseconomies of scale from, 37
expenditures and, 34
with government by committee, 188
metropolitan governance and, 120, 121, 626
monopoly and, 34
negative externalities from, 37
neighborhoods and, 259
positive externalities from, 37
of power, 54
(p. 669) sociological institutionalism and, 58
suburbs and, 612–16
framing
meta-goverance through, 241
policy entrepreneurship and, 453
France.See also specific cities
Action Directe in, 502
affirmative action in, 505
banlieues in, 258, 506, 509
Chevenment Act of 2000 in, 141
communautés in, 183, 200, 625, 625n1
competition in, 489
Ecologist party in, 297
Green Party in, 297
immigrants in, 367, 376, 503
intergovernmental systems in, 137–38, 144
leadership reform in, 189
metropolitan governance in, 120
nationalization in, 489
policy entrepreneurship in, 453
poverty in, 341–42
PPP in, 191
problematique in, 334, 334n2, 341, 593–94
race in, 503
social exclusion in, 341–42
urban elections in, 90
ville entrepreneuriale in, 202
welfare state in, 341
Frankfurt, Germany, 524, 526–27
Frankfurt School, 395
Fraser, Nancy, 548
fraternal organizations, 297
fraternities, 297
freedom to choose, 524
free ports, 489
free-riding, 56
friction, 461
Friedman, Thomas, 443
fully independent councillors, 219–20
functional, overlapping, and competing jurisdictions (FOCJ), 36, 121
functional profiles, 181–86
in Europe, 181–84
in U.S., 184–86, 199
gambling, 402
gangs, 508–10
Gans, Herbert, 608
garden city, 558n10
Gary, Indiana, 79
gated communities, 360–63
Gates, Daryl, 512
Gay, Claudine, 386
gays, 276–77, 397
justice and, 562
marginalization of, 396
in San Francisco, 351, 398, 562
gender, 13. See also women
Harding and, 13
Gender and Multicultural Leadership Project, 318n3
general competence power, 137
Geneva, 595
Gerber, Elisabeth, 458n17
Germany.See also specific cities
autonomy in, 494
citizenship in, 375
Ecologist party in, 297
Great Coalition in, 634
Green Party in, 297
Greens in, 382
immigrants in, 376, 382–83
institutional reform in, 187
intergovernmental systems in, 142–43
internal management reform in, 190
Konzern Stadt in, 202
Länder in, 334n3
leadership reform in, 189
metropolitan governance in, 629–30
multifunctional profile in, 181–82
national political parties in, 215–16
neighborhood collective action in, 264–66
NGOs in, 187, 191
policy entrepreneurship in, 453
segregation index and, 257
Social City in, 265
subsidiarity principle in, 187
SUD in, 524
urban elections in, 89, 90
violence in, 502
voter turnout in, 91
VRS in, 633, 634
welfare state in, 181–82
gestion déléguée, 191
ghettos, 351
GLA, in Lisbon, 634
Glaeser, Edward, 527
Glasgow, 478, 487, 488, 490, 497
Global City Indicators Facility (GCIF), 585
globalization
agenda-setting and, 458, 460
of capitalism, 476–77
competition and, 486, 489–91
enclaves and, 359–60
Europeanization and, 142
manufacturing and, 490
social movements and, 273–74
urban governance and, 74, 76–77
urban growth and, 470, 471
global justice, 284, 287
glocal movements, 274, 285
Goetz, Ed, 447
good government groups, 297
Goodnow, Frank, 53
Gore, Al, 192–93
(p. 670) governance.See also specific kinds of governance
citizen participation in, 235–37
competition and, 492
constraints on, 72–73
culture of local governance, 584
democratic advantages and standards for, 235–37
democratic challenges of, 233–34
democratic qualities for, 236–37
efficiency and, 493
ICT and, 597–99
multilevel, 79–80
path dependency and, 499
research on, 655–56
sociological institutionalism and, 58–59
three worlds of action for, 237–42, 240f
governing alliances, 12
government by committee, 187–88, 199
government performance, 300
grassroots democracy, 256, 308
Great Coalition, 634
greatest happiness of the greatest number, 547
Great Society, 14, 336
Greece, 502
green jobs, 443
Green Party, 297, 298
Greens, 219, 222, 382
Gross, Jill Simone, 75, 77–78
gross domestic product (GDP), 569, 569t
growth.See urban growth
growth machines, 651
in Frankfurt, 526–27
SUD and, 525–30
in Toronto, 526–27
growth poles, 489
H1N1, 532
H5N1, 532
Habitat Agenda, 126, 525
Hambleton, Robin, 75, 77–78
Hamburg, 488, 494
hands-on professional management, 166
Hanseatic league, 115
Haraway, Donna, 536
Harding, Alan, 11, 13–14
Harrell, C.A., 168
Harrington, Michael, 335–36, 337
Harvey, David, 275, 280, 529
Hasidic Jews, 351
Hauff, Volker, 524
Hayward, Clarissa, 26
Head Start, 337
health and happiness, 298
heat wave, in Chicago, 20
hierarchy
of governance, 237n7
social capital and, 304
high-octane urbanism, 527n6
high reverberation subsystems, 452
Hispanics.See Latinos
historical institutionalism, 59–61, 62
Hochschild, Jennifer, 368, 386
homeowners’ associations, 362
Home Rule.See Dillon's Rule
homevoters, 97, 618
homosexuals.See gays
Hong Kong, 496
Honneth, Axel, 552
HOPE VI, 556, 560
Hopkins, Daniel, 458, 458n17
horizontal nesting, 115
Housing and Community Development Act of 1974, 556n9
housing choice vouchers, 556n9
Housing Market Renewal (HMR), 560
Houston, 320, 610
Howard, Ebenezer, 558n10
human ecology, 353–54
Hungary, 202
Hunter, Floyd, 13, 14, 25, 26, 54
Hunter, James Davison, 394
hybrid system, 194
identity-based politics, 649–50
imagineering, 521
immigrants, 73, 366–88
arrival cities for, 368–72, 370t
in Canada, 373
children of, 374–75
citizenship and, 367, 375–80
competition and, 493
in Europe, 372–73
in France, 503
future for, 386–88
parties and, 384–86
recognition and, 654
representation and, 381–84
urban governance and, 77–78
urban growth and, 470
in U.S., 367, 373–74, 377, 378t
voting and, 375–80
welcome for, 372–75
welfare state and, 78
in-between spaces, 528
inclusive-authority model, 136
income inequality, 545
in suburbs, 611
(p. 671) income redistribution, 121
incumbency, 105
Independent Republicans, 211
independent variables, 95
India, 147–48, 569t, 571, 576, 582
individual-level collective action, 38
Industrial Areas Foundation, 25n6
inequality.See justice
Influenza A, 532
informal groups, 43, 304–5
information and communications technology (ICT), 470, 471, 590–605
accountability and, 591
citizen participation and, 591
community informatics and, 601–2
community power and, 590–91
e-democracy and, 593–94
e-services and, 599–601, 600t
e-voting and, 594–96
expectations from, 592t
governance and, 597–99
interaction with, 591–92
PB and, 598–99
problematique and, 593–94
research agenda for, 602–5
information processing, 455–56
information rules, 246
infrastructure of play, 450
injustice, remedies for, 552
innovation
diffusion of, 394
in government performance, 300
in urban politics, 6–7
input-based accountability, 81
institutions
competition and, 492
context and, 493–94
elitism and, 54
multilevel governance and, 495
NPM and, 186–92
pluralism and, 54
policies and, 435–36
reform of, 186–92
in suburbs, 612
of urban elections, 89–90
urban governance and, 80–82
Institutional Analysis and Development (IAD), 246
institutional collective action (ICA), 37–38, 40
institutional friction, 461
institutionalism, 51–66
actors-centered, 180
in Britain, 55
dialectical, 60
in Europe, 492
formal, 62–64
future research on, 64–65
historical, 59–61
old and new, 52–56
rational choice, 56–57
sociological, 58–59
theories of, 61–62
insurgency strategies, 453
integrated poverty, 341
integration maintenance, 357
integration/malintegration
in Los Angeles, 508–9
in Paris, 509–10
intelligence of democracy, 235
Intelligent Community Forum, 602
intentional actors, 11–12
interaction
in bureaucracy, 159–60
with ICT, 591–92
inter alia, 529
Inter-American Development Bank, 579
intercommunalité, 183
intercontinental (“transatlantic”) analysis, 198–203
INTERREG program, 140
interests, justice and, 551
interest groups, 307, 457–58
interest holders, 243
intergovernmental systems, 133–49
in Britain, 135–36, 143
central government and, 146
decentralization in, 140–41
in developing countries, 145–48
in Europe, 141–44
fiscal federalism and, 134–35
formal institutionalism and, 140
in Latin America, 147
local autonomy and, 116–18
multilevel governance and, 138–39
in North America, 144–45
place-shaping and, 18
regulation and, 143–44
theory of, 134–40
in U.S., 136
interlocal agreements (ILAs), 185–86, 185n5, 197–98
internal management reforms, 189–90, 194–97, 200, 201
International City/County Management Association (ICMA), 168, 193, 197, 318–19, 319t, 320
International Journal of Urban Regional Research, 284
International Monetary Fund (IMF), 135, 277, 417n3
international relations, 124–26
International Social Survey Programme, 373
Internet, 471, 591
voting through, 595–96
intralocal competition and cooperation, 29–44
investment capital, 14
iron law of regimes, 448n9
irrationalism, 34–35, 36, 37
(p. 672) irreversible thresholds, 286
Istanbul, 523–25
Italy.See also specific cities
Citta Metropolitana in, 633, 634, 635
decentralization in, 187
intergovernmental systems in, 137–38
leadership reform in, 189
Red Brigades in, 502
social capital and, 296
urban elections in, 89
violence in, 502
Jackson, Kenneth, 357
Japan, 73
Jefferson, Thomas, 256
Jihad, 360
John, Peter, 449, 603
Johnson, Lyndon, 14, 336, 555
jointly supplied goods, 30–31
Jones, Bryan, 455
Jones, Victor, 625–26
Jones-Correa, Michael, 384, 386
Jordan, Meagan, 456
Journal of Community Informatics, 602
jus soli, 367
the just city, 5, 498, 554
research on, 654–55
justice
in Britain, 557–61
capabilities and, 549
capital and, 552
citizen participation and, 546
context and, 561–62
creative class and, 556
deliberative democracy and, 548
deregulation and, 551
environmental, 531
future research on, 562–63
gays and, 562
injustice remedies, 552
interests and, 551
issues with, 549–54, 553t
neoliberalism and, 546
policies and, 545–63
PPP and, 557
privatization and, 551
Rawls on, 547–49
representation and, 551
social movements and, 546
spatial, 530, 554
strategies for, 554–61
subsidies and, 557
SUD and, 525, 530–32
temporal, 531
transspecies, 531–32
urban regimes and, 546
in U.S., 555–57
Kantor, Paul, 490
Kasarda, John, 568
Kennedy, John, 335–36
Kennedy, Robert, 338
Kerner, Otto, 502
Kerner Commission, 502
Key, V.O., Jr., 302
King, Rodney, 507, 510
kiosk voting, 594
Kirk, Ron, 320
Klinenberg, Eric, 20
knowledge holders, 243
Kofri, Christiane, 382
Kohn, Margaret, 79
kommunstyrelse (executive committee), 188
Konzern Stadt, 202
Kooiman, Jan, 237
Kyoto Protocol, 442
L.A. School, 359
labor unions, 297
ladder of citizen participation, 248
laissez-faire, 525
Lake County, Illinois, 363
Länder, 334n3
landsting kommuner (upper local government level), 182
land use policy, 432
Latin America.See also specific countries and cities
barrios in, 277
civil society in, 577–81
competition in, 570
decentralization in, 576–77
intergovernmental systems in, 147
new regionalism in, 633
NGOs in, 579, 580
social movements in, 276, 578
Latinos, 325
as elected officials, 318–20, 319t
in Los Angeles, 508–9
service distribution and, 435
in urban elections, 101
in U.S., 313–16
voter turnout by, 92
leadership reforms
in Europe, 187–89
in U.S., 193–94
League of Women Voters, 298
Lee, Richard, 21, 22–25
LEED, 443
Lefebvre, Henri, 275, 545–46, 549, 568, 654
legal discretion, 137
Le Galès, Patrick, 115
legitimacy, 239, 239n10, 494
legitimation, 239, 239n10
Leitbilder, 237
leitmotiv, 636
(p. 673) lesbians.See gays
levels of analysis, 326
leviathan hypothesis, 34
liberal democracy, 240
liberal individualism, 549
Liberdade, in São Paulo, 351
libre administration, 573
lifestyle communities, 361
life supporting resources, 524
Lima, Peru, 578–79
Lincoln, Nebraska, 601
Lindblom, Charles, 14, 78, 235
Lisbon, 491, 634
literacy tests, 53
Liverpool, 487, 488, 490, 497
Local Agenda 21, 524
local autonomy, 72–73, 116–18
local democracy, 231–50
local elections, 99
local governance, 584
accountability in, 75–76
bureaucracy in, 156–64
democratic control in, 75–76
in Europe, 201
normative claims on, 75
reform and, 201–3
urban regime theory and, 78
Local Government Code of 1991, in Philippines, 582
LOCALMULTIDEM, 386
local taxation and expenditure policies, 426
location quotient, 469
logical positivism, 547
logic of appropriateness, 55, 237n8
logic of consequentiality, 55, 237n8
logrolling, 436
London, 487
metropolitan governance in, 625, 630
overspill housing in, 558
Los Angeles, 320, 322
African Americans in, 508
Asian Americans in, 508
Bel Air in, 351
bureaucracy in, 513–14
carbon emissions in, 527
deprivation in, 508, 508n3
enclaves in, 359
gangs in, 508
immigrants in, 373, 377, 379
integration/malintegration in, 508–9
Latinos in, 508–9
mobilization potential in, 508–9
Paris and, 507–17
political responsiveness in, 513–14
race in, 504
regime stability in, 511–12
religion in, 403
suburbs in, 610
triggering events in, 510
urban growth in, 480
violence in, 501–17
Losing Ground: American Social Policy 1950–1980 (Murray), 337
Louisville, 601
Low, Setha, 361
Luxemboug, 90
Lynchburg, Virginia, 601
Madrid, 634
Making Democracy Work: Civic Traditions in Modern Italy, 296
managed integration, 357
managed networks, 42
managerial democracies, 618, 620
managerialist urban governance, 495
Manchester, England, 478, 494, 527, 527n6
mandated agreements, 42
manufacturing, globalization and, 490
maps of meaning, 395
marble cake federalism, 34–35
Marcuse, Peter, 351
marginalization.See also segregation; social exclusion
of African Americans, 22
of gays, 396
poverty and, 15–16
marginal poverty, 341
market-centered policies, 490
market failure, 30–31
market liberalization policy, of European Commission, 200
Marschall, Melissa, 452
Marseilles, France, 478, 488, 497
Marshall, Dale R., 101
Marshall, T.H., 342
Marxism, 51, 64, 65, 395
in Europe, 279
Rawls and, 547
social movements and, 275–76
sustainable urban fixes and, 527n5
urban growth and, 475
mass production, 475
Mawhood, Philip, 573
mayor-council, 193, 195t, 436
McDonald, David, 572
McGee, James, 322
McWorld, 359
meaning, 395
meaning system, 244
means testing, 335
Medicare, 335
mega-events, 572
Merriam, Charles, 53
meta-goverance, 81, 237n7, 241
metropolitan councils (METS), 630
(p. 674) metropolitan governance, 624–39
African Americans and, 628
in Britain, 627–28
consolidation and, 627
in Denmark, 630
in Europe, 627–28, 629–31
fragmentation and, 626
in Germany, 629–30
in London, 630
in Minneapolis, 629
multilevel governance and, 120–24
in Portland, Oregon, 629
racial segregation and, 627
reform and, 628–31
in Sweden, 630
in U.S., 628–29
Metropolitan Government (Jones, V.), 625–26
metropolitan planning organizations (MPOs), 42, 615n1, 632
metropolitan table, 636
Mexico, 282, 580
Mexico City, 147, 277, 579
competition in, 570
GDP of, 569t
Miami
agenda-setting in, 452n14
competition of, 489
Cubans in, 367
violence in, 502
Migration Policy Group, 373
Millennium Development Goals, 126
Miller, David, 521n3
Miller, Lisa, 454
Milwaukee, 43
Minneapolis, 322
metropolitan governance in, 629
social capital in, 301–2
minorities.See race
Mintrom, Michael, 452
MIPEX index, 373
mixed communities, 557–58, 558n10
Mixed-Member Proportional (MMP), 90
mobility, 33
mobilization potential, 506, 508–9
Model Cities Agencies (MCAs), 261
modularity, 536
modus vivendi, 374
Mollenkopf, John, 76
Molotch, Harvey, 526, 529
monopoly, 34, 36
monster at our door, 536
Montreal, 624
Montreal Citizen Summit, 286
morality politics, 394, 398–402
Morality Politics in American Cities (Sharp), 401
Moving to Opportunity (MTO), 339, 556
Mugwumps, 211
Multi-city Study of Inequality, 326n7
multicultural societies, 353, 553t
multifunctional profile, 181–84, 185
multilateral interlocal agreements, 42
multilevel governance, 79–80, 114–27, 232–33
in EU, 454
institutions and, 495
intergovernmental systems and, 138–39
metropolitan governance and, 120–24
in nation-states, 115–20
policies and, 495
regime theory and, 451
regulation and, 495
multilevel metropolitan governance, 122–24
multiracial cities, 315, 315t, 316t
Multitudes, 285
Mumbai, 147–48, 569t
Mumford, Lewis, 486
Municipal Corporations Act, 213
Murray, Charles, 337
Musterd, Sako, 498n4
mutually binding agreements, 39
Naples, Italy, 478, 497
National Academy of Sciences, 336, 336n4
National Association of Real Estate Boards, 357
National Audubon Society, 298
national elections, 88, 211
nationalization
in British party politicization, 213
in France, 489
National Municipal League, 52–53
national policymaking, 14
national political parties, 212, 213, 216–18
in Britain, 217
in Europe, 218
in Germany, 215–16
nation-states, multilevel governance in, 115–20
NATO, 139
Nazism, 51
negative disconfirmation, 32
negative externalities, 36, 37
neighborhoods, 254–67. See also enclaves
African Americans in, 257, 258, 263, 561
in Chicago, 266, 354
collective action in, 260–66
as collective agent, 255
as context of opportunities, 255
in Europe, 256–59
further inquiries on, 266–67
inequality of, 256–60
as object of policy, 255
in Pittsburgh, 266
(p. 675) poverty and, 556
race and, 256–60, 326
research on, 653
social capital and, 259–60
Tiebout and, 432
in U.S., 256–63
violence from, 506
neighborhood effects, 259, 265–66, 338
Neighborhood Market Initiative, in Denver, 653n6
neighborhood racial stereotyping, 355–56
Neighborhood Revitalization Program (NPR), 302
neighborhood stabilization, 357
neoclassicism, 36
neoinstitutionalism, 54–55
approaches to, 56–61
neoliberalism
in Europe, 491
justice and, 546, 553t
laissez-faire and, 525
UPE and, 534
neo-Schumpeterians, 492, 492n1
Netherlands, 494
immigrants in, 375–76
neighborhood collective action in, 264–66
segregation index and, 257
network embeddedness, 40–41
network governance theory, 61–62, 237n7
network society, 590
neutral competence, 160, 161n8
Newark, New Jersey, 504
new built gentrification, 521, 521n3
New Castle, 490
New Deal, 335
New Deal for Communities (NDC), 560–61
New Governance, 168–69
New Haven, 22–25
African Americans in, 23
coalition-building in, 21
elections in, 22
faces-of-power in, 17
patronage politics in, 22–23
representative democracy of, 13
New Labour, 558n10, 559
New Orleans, 16
New Public Administration, 196
New Public Management (NPM), 164, 165–68
dichotomy and, 180
in Europe, 180, 200
in Hungary, 202
institutions and, 186–92
internal management reforms and, 189–90, 201
NGOs and, 179
privatization and, 179
reform and, 179–204
in U.S., 166–67, 180, 192–98, 201
new regionalism, 339, 631–36
in Barcelona, 635–36
community benefits agreements and, 631
in Europe, 633, 636
research on, 652–53
SUD and, 534n9
urban growth and, 477
in U.S., 631–33, 636
newspaper endorsements, 99
New urban sociology, 274
New York City
Bloomberg in, 336n4, 379
Citistat analysis of, 167
competition of, 489
gated communities in, 361
GDP of, 569t
Hasidic Jews in, 351
immigrants in, 373, 377–79
Tammany Hall in, 196, 211, 221
tourism in, 491
violence in, 502
Nickels, Greg, 442
Nixon, Richard, 261
nonexcludable goods, 30–31
nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), 118
accountability and, 198
in Germany, 187, 191
in Latin America, 579, 580
in Mexico, 580
NPM and, 179
social movements and, 281
in U.S., 197, 200–201
nonpartisan elections, 210–25
reform and, 53
in suburbs, 611
in U.S., 90, 105, 211, 221
vote choice in, 97
nontraditional political parties, 221–22
Norman, Rice, 322
normative claims, 75
Norris, Pippa, 604
North, Douglas, 573
North America.See also Canada; Mexico; United States
intergovernmental systems in, 144–45
urban growth in, 472
North American Free Trade Association (NAFTA), 470
North European pattern, 182–83, 257
Norway, 97, 143, 159
numerosity, 603
Nyerere, Julius, 575
Oak Park, Illinois, 358
Oates, Wallace, 134–35
Obama, Barack, 555n8, 562, 633
(p. 676) object of policy, 255
Office of Urban Policy, 633
Olympics, 572
Omaha, Nebraska, 403
O’Neill, Thomas P., 368
one person—one vote, 241
one-stop shops, 168
operative motivation, 526
opportunity, 16
in historical institutionalism, 60
MTO, 339, 556
political opportunity structures, 457
organization.See also specific types of organization
for competition, 34–37
for cooperation, 38–43
irrationalists on, 34–35
rationalists on, 34
Orshanky, Mollie, 336
The Other America (Harrington), 335, 337
output-based accountability, 81
output control, in NPM, 166
outsourcing, 170–71, 179, 191, 192
overlapping authority model, 136
in bureaucracy, 159–62
Oxhorn, Philip, 583–84
PACT, 403–4
Pamplona invasion, 578
pandemics, 536
parallel state, 360
Pareto efficiency, 33
Pareto preferred, 31
Paris
bureaucracy in, 514
competition of, 489
deprivation in, 509
gangs in, 509–10
integration/malintegration in, 509–10
Los Angeles and, 507–17
political responsiveness in, 514
regime stability in, 512–13
representation in, 509
segregation in, 509
tourism in, 491
triggering events in, 510
unemployment in, 509
violence in, 501–17
Park, Robert, 353–55
participatory budgeting (PB), 598–99
parties and elections variables, 96
partnerships, 42, 164, 248. See also public-private partnerships
party machines, 384
Pasotti, Eleanora, 572
passion of catastrophe, 536
patchwork quilt, 444n2
path dependency, 60, 492, 499
patronage politics, in New Haven, 22–23
Pattillo, Mary, 15, 26
payoff rules, 246, 247, 249
pension reform, 574
performance deficit, 187
performance management, 167
peripheral regions, 345
Peterson, Paul, 446–47, 474, 546, 548, 614
Philadelphia, 322, 490
Philippines, 582
Phoenix, 373, 615
Pittsburgh, 266, 487
placemaking, 572
place-shaping, 13–14, 18, 19
planetary structured coherences, 532
planet of slums, 536
Plessy v. Ferguson, 352
pluralism
Dahl and, 54
institutions and, 54
power and, 13, 14
suburbs and, 608
plural societies, 353
polarization, 359–60
police, 514–17
policies.See also specific kinds of policy
agenda-setting and, 442–61
competition and, 492
in complex bundles, 18–19
institutions and, 435–36
justice and, 545–63
multilevel governance and, 495
on social capital, 304
in U.S., 445
policy arenas, 38
policy begets politics, 446
policy direction, 16
policy entrepreneurship, 451–55
policy feedback, 455–56
policy liberalism, 300
policy networks, 43
policy outputs, 304
policy responsiveness, 100
policy spheres paradigm, 446n6
Policy Studies Journal, 460
polis, 231
political associations, 219, 220–21
political entrepreneurs, 22, 74
political machines, 52–53
rational choice institutionalism and, 57
political opportunity structures, 457
political parties, 210–25
agenda-setting by, 457–58
alternative to, 218–24
in Belgium, 215, 221–22, 223t
in Britain, 213–14
immigrants and, 384–86
(p. 677) in U.S., 216
political responsiveness
in bureaucracy, 159–60
elections and, 87–107
in Los Angeles, 513–14
in Paris, 514
Politics and Markets (Lindblom), 14
politique de la ville, 504–5, 514
poll taxes, 53
polycentric government, 34–35, 36, 37
Poor Laws, 333
population growth, 568
Portland, Oregon, 616, 629
position rules, 246
positive disconfirmation, 32
positive externalities, 37
post-Fordist economy, 475, 491–92
poverty.See also War on Poverty
in Britain, 558
competition and, 346, 346n8
conservatives and, 337–38
context and, 338–40
decentralization and, 473
decision-making processes on, 453n13
elderly and, 335
in Europe, 334n3, 339–43
in France, 341–42
marginalization and, 15–16
neighborhoods and, 556
neighborhood effects and, 338
powerlessness and, 20
religion and, 333n1
research on, 647–48, 654
social exclusion and, 333–47
today's situation with, 343–45
in U.S., 335–40
violence and, 504
welfare state and, 337
of women, 337–38
Poverty in the United Kingdom (Townsend), 559
power, 11–27. See also specific kinds of power
agenda-setting and, 442–61
collective place-shaping and, 13–14
collectivity and, 12
decentralization of, 54
elitism and, 13
fragmentation of, 54
intentional actors and, 11–12
over excluded, 15
pluralism and, 13, 14
regime theory and, 450
relationships and, 12, 21–25
research on, 644–45
social movements and, 274
sociological institutionalism and, 58–59
SUD and, 523
power-dependency model, 135
powerlessness, 20
power structure, 12
power to act, 21
Prairie Crossing, in Lake County, Illinois, 363
Pralle, Sarah, 458
preemption, 19–20
preference formation, 18, 19
principal-agent theory, 57
prisoners’ dilemma, 33
private goods, 30–31
private property rights, 559
privatism, 487
privatization, 434
justice and, 551
NPM and, 179
of sold waste collection, 197
in U.S., 198
of water supply, 198
privileged position, 78
problematique
in France, 334, 334n2, 341, 593–94
ICT and, 593–94
productive efficiency.See technical efficiency
professional societies, 297
progressive policy regimes, 434
Progressives, 211
pro-growth urban governance, 495
promises, 15–16
property taxes, 19
propinquity, 603
prostitution, 396–97
protest.See social movements
Providence, Rhode Island, 367
proximity, 470
public choice theory, 626–27
public goods, 30–31, 57
public housing tenants, 15–16, 17
public interest, 551
public policy
constraints on, 73
segregation and, 356–58
violence and, 514–17
public-private partnerships (PPP), 81
in Britain, 560
comparative thinking/research and, 496
in France, 191
justice and, 557
in Toronto, 521
public services
efficiency and, 31–33
intergovernmental systems and, 135
measurement of, 30–33
public value management, 169
pull force, 354
punctuated equilibrium, 60–61, 456
pure morality issues, 401
“A Pure Theory of Local Expenditures” (Tiebout), 626
push force, 354
(p. 678) quality of deliberation, 236
quality-of-life policies, 397, 498, 650
Quito, Ecuador, 281
racaille (riffraff), 510
race, 312–27. See also African Americans; Asian Americans; diversity; Latinos; segregation
competition and, 488
context and, 324–26
of elected officials, 317–22
in France, 503
future research on, 326–27
ICMA on, 318–19, 319t
levels of analysis with, 326
in Los Angeles, 504
metropolitan governance and, 627
neighborhoods and, 256–60, 326
research on, 649–50
social capital and, 304
suburbs and, 613
Tiebout and, 433
in urban elections, 99, 100–102
in U.S., 101–2, 313–16
voting and, 320–22
Young, I., on, 557
racial minority, 313
Racial Politics in American Cities (Browning, Marshall, and Tabb), 101
racism
reform and, 53
violence and, 502
radial extension, principle of, 354
rational choice institutionalism, 56–57, 358
historical institutionalism and, 60
rational choice voting, 96–97
rationalists
fiscal federalism and, 35
on organization, 34
Rawls, John, 547–49
Reagan, Ronald, 165, 261, 337
on competition, 488
realignment, in British party politicization, 213
reappraisal, in British party politicization, 213
reassuring police patrols, 516
recognition
immigrants and, 654
redistribution and, 548, 548n5
right to, 551
Red Brigades, 502
redistribution
justice and, 553t
metropolitan governance and, 121
Peterson on, 546, 548
recognition and, 548, 548n5
WSF and, 545
Young, I., on, 557
redlining, 258
reform, 53. See also social movements
in Europe, 199
formal institutionalism and, 63
of institutions, 186–92
local governance and, 201–3
metropolitan governance and, 121, 628–31
NPM and, 179–204
policy entrepreneurship and, 452
rational choice institutionalism and, 57
in U.S., 192–98
Regeneration Trust, 521
regime change, 449
regime stability, 507
in Los Angeles, 511–12
in Paris, 512–13
regime theory, 398–99, 448–50. See also urban regime theory
agenda-setting and, 450–51
Atlanta and, 449n11
coalition-building and, 449
competition and, 493–95
context in, 450
decision-making processes and, 449
Europe and, 493
multilevel governance and, 451
power and, 450
San Francisco and, 450
U.S. and, 493
regional class alliance, 529
Regional Development Agencies, 636
regional governance.See new regionalism
regional organizations (RGO), 42
regulation
competition and, 494
intergovernmental systems and, 143–44
multilevel governance and, 495
theory of, 491
urban growth and, 475–76
reinterpreted dichotomy, 160
Reinvention Movement, 196
relational power, 25n6
relationships.See also coalition-building
community power and, 12
vs. consensus, 22
faces-of-power and, 15
national policymaking and, 14
power and, 12, 21–25
in U.S. governmental sector, 22
relatively absolute standard, 336
religion
conservatives and, 402–3
culture wars and, 402–5
poverty and, 333n1
rent-seeking activities, 36
representation
immigrants and, 381–84
justice and, 551, 553t
in Paris, 509
urban elections and, 99–104
(p. 679) representative democracy, of New Haven, 13
research.See also comparative thinking/research
on agenda-setting, 456–59
on bureaucracy, 169–70
on competition, 497–99, 645–46
on culture, 650–51
on developing countries, 584–85
emerging agendas for, 642–59
on governance, 655–56
on ICT, 602–5
on institutionalism, 64–65
on just city, 654–55
on justice, 562–63
on neighborhoods, 653
on new regionalism, 652–53
on poverty, 647–48, 654
on power, 644–45
on race, 326–27, 649–50
on social capital, 305–9
on social exclusion, 654
on social movements, 286–88
on suburbs, 619–20, 653
on SUD, 651–52
on terrorism, 648
on urban elections, 105–7
on violence, 648
resource dependency, 62
responsive administrator model, 160, 161n8
responsive competence, 160
resurgent cities, 492
retrospective orientation, 98
revealed party-independent councillors, 220
La révolution urbaine (Lefebvre), 275
Rhodes, R.A.W., 135–36
rights, 551–52
rights holders, 242
right to good government, 53
right to self-government, 53
right to the city, 281–82, 546, 549, 654
Right to the City Alliance, 545
Right to the City Movement, 267
Rio de Janeiro, 570
Rio Summit, 524
Roanoke, Virginia, 601
Rome, 487
law of, 189–90
tourism in, 491
Royal Commission, in Toronto, 521
Roybal, Edward, 379
rule-following individuals, 55
rule of anticipated reactions, 100
rule of law vs. civil culture, 180, 189–90
rules in use, 62, 246
same-sex marriage, 402
San Antonio, 361
San Diego
antigrowth movements in, 526
carbon emissions in, 527
San Francisco, 276, 322
carbon emissions in, 527
Castro Street in, 351
gays in, 351, 398, 562
regime theory and, 450
suburbs in, 608
San Jose, 527
Santa Barbara, 526
Santiago, Chile, 570, 579
São Paulo, 147
competition in, 570
GDP of, 569t
Liberdade in, 351
Sarkozy, Nicolas, 510
SARS, 532
satisfaction, 32–33
Savitch, Hank, 490
Schlesinger, Arthur M., 359
Schneider, Mark, 452
Schönwälder, Karen, 382
school districts, 185, 185n3, 185n4
scientific management, 155
scope rules, 246, 247
SEATO, 139
Seattle, 322
bottom-up venue shopping in, 454–55
community informatics in, 601
second order governing, 239–40
decision-making processes in, 241–42
one person—one vote in, 241
Section 8 certificates, 556n9
security zones, 361
segregation
enclaves and, 351–56
metropolitan governance and, 627
in Paris, 509
public policy and, 356–58
in suburbs, 613
Tiebout and, 433
in U.S., 315–16, 353–54
Young, I., on, 557
segregation index, 257
Selbsverwaltung, 573
self-defense, 516
self-expression, 551
self-government, 40, 573
self-interest, 548
self-regardingness, 54
Sellers, Jeffrey, 450
Sen, Amartya, 346
señora, 282
sensitive urban zones (ZUS), 505, 514
Seoul, 633
Seoul Metropolitan Government, 624
separation, in bureaucracy, 159–61
(p. 680) service distribution, 434–35
setter model, 36
Seventy-Fourth Amendment, in India, 582
sex work, 396–97
Shah, Paru, 452
Shanghai, 495–96
GDP of, 569t
shared governance, 119
shared norms, 62
share holders, 242
Sharp, Elaine, 401, 405–6, 446n6
on policy entrepreneurship, 453
Sheffield, 487, 488
Sierra Club, 298
Singapore, subsidies and tax incentives in, 496
single-issue groups, 220
single member districts (SMD), 317, 320
Single Transferable Vote (STV), 90
sizeism, 183
Smart Community, 602
smoking regulation, 446
in U.S., 454
SMS voting, 595
Snyder, Mary Gail, 361
social and economic status (SES), 32
social autopsy, 20
social capital, 295–309
in Chicago, 301–2
consequences of, 298–300
controversies and questions of, 301–5
elected officials and, 299–300
equality and, 297–99
future research on, 305–9
hierarchy and, 304
ICT and, 601
implications of, 298
in Minneapolis, 301–2
neighborhoods and, 259–60
network embeddedness and, 40
policies on, 304
race and, 304
social movements and, 306–9, 306t
Social Capital Benchmark Survey (SCBS), 326n7, 402
social capital index, 296
social-centered policies, 490
Social City, 265
social cohesion, 338–39, 343, 344, 493
competition and, 494
EU and, 491
social connectedness, 299, 304
social exclusion.See also marginalization; segregation
in Britain, 559
citizenship and, 342–43
competition and, 494
in Europe, 341–43, 346–47
in France, 341–42
poverty and, 333–47
research on, 654
suburbs and, 607
today's situation with, 343–45
in U.S., 335–40, 346–47
Social Exclusion Unit (SEU), 559n13
Social Justice and the City (Harvey), 280
social movements, 273–88
culture wars and, 396–98
in Europe, 279–80
future research on, 286–88
globalization and, 273–74
justice and, 546
in Latin America, 276, 578
in Mexico, 282
mobilization for, 282–86
NGOs and, 281
social capital and, 306–9, 306t
in U.S., 279
for women, 279
social network theory, 38
social outcomes, 304
social production model, 74
Social Security, 335
social structures of cooperation, 297
social well-being, 437
sociological institutionalism, 58–59
limits of, 65
shared norms and, 62
soft factors, 498
sold waste collection, 197
solidarity
differentiated, 548
in Europe, 473
solidarity, trust, and tolerance, 297
solution sets, 455
sororities, 297
South Africa, 582
CDS in, 571
new regionalism in, 633
South European pattern, 183–84
Spain, 187. See also specific cities
violence in, 502
spatial fixes, 527
spatial holders, 242
spatial justice, 530, 554
in U.S., 556
special districts, 36, 360
centralized regional authorities and, 41
competition and, 488
in U.S., 185
special-purpose authorities, 360, 446, 488
spillover effects
cooperation and, 36
metropolitan governance and, 121
spoils system, 196
spontaneous order, 34
St. Louis, 490, 504
(p. 681) Stadtwerke, 192
stake holders, 243
starting conditions, 180
state elections, 211
status holders, 243, 244, 245
steering forces, 496
Steinacker, Annette, 452n14
stereotypes
neighborhood racial stereotyping, 355–56
suburbs and, 607
Stoker, Gerry, 62, 448n9, 449
Stone, Clarence, 73–74, 81
Street, John, 322
strong mayor form, 157, 160
strong ties, sociological institutionalism and, 58–59
structured coherence, 529
struggles, 13, 14
subsidiarity principle, 187
subsidies, 488
competition and, 496
justice and, 557
suburbs, 607–21. See also enclaves
African Americans in, 611
in Chicago, 610
competition and, 488
conservatives in, 607
council-manager in, 611
elitism in, 608
fragmentation and, 612–16
future research on, 619–20
in Houston, 610
income inequality in, 611
institutions in, 612
in Los Angeles, 610
nonpartisan elections in, 611
in Phoenix, 615
pluralism and, 608
race and, 613
research on, 653
in San Francisco, 608
segregation in, 613
social exclusion and, 607
stereotypes and, 607
succession, 354
sunk investment, 62
suppression, 19–20
sustainable urban development (SUD), 520–37
in Brazil, 524
in Britain, 557–58
capitalism and, 526
challenges to, 535–36
climate policy and, 524
context for, 531
diversity and, 536
efficiency and, 522
in Frankfurt, 524
in Germany, 524
growth machines and, 525–30
in Istanbul, 523–25
justice and, 525, 530–32
in Manchester, England, 527
new analytical trajectories for, 532–35
new regionalism and, 534n9
research on, 651–52
territorial cohesion and, 529
in Toronto, 520–23
urban regime theory and, 528
in Vancouver, 523–25
sustainable urban fixes, 527
justice and, 530–21
Marxism and, 527n5
Sweden
citizen participation in, 169
external reorganizing reforms in, 191
government by committee in, 199
ICT in, 601
immigrants in, 375
institutional reform in, 187
intergovernmental systems in, 143
internal management reform in, 190
metropolitan governance in, 630
multifunctional profile in, 181–82
urban elections in, 89
welfare state in, 181–82
Switzerland, 139, 143, 595
symbolic analysts, 645
syndicats, 183
system bias, 258–59
system capacity, 232–33
system effectiveness, 232, 234
Tabb, David H., 101
Tammany Hall, 196, 211, 221
Tampa Bay, Florida, 43
Tarrow, Sidney, 301
task forces, 489
tax abatements, 488
tax incentives
competition and, 496
exit mechanism and, 33–34
tax-service packages, 430
fiscal federalism and, 35
rational choice institutionalism and, 56–57
Tiebout and, 431
Taylor, Frederick, 155
technical efficiency
centralized authority and, 39
competition and, 33
cooperation and, 38
with public services, 31–33
technological citizenship, 244
temporal justice, 531
territorial cohesion
EU and, 473, 491
SUD and, 529
(p. 682) territorial profiles, 181–86
in Europe, 181–84
in U.S., 184–86, 199
territorial state-bypassing, 454
terrorism, 648
Teske, Paul, 452
Thatcher, Margaret, 14, 165, 478, 488–99, 627–28
private property rights and, 559
theory of change, 65
third face of power, 12, 15
Third World.See developing countries
Thompson, William C., 379
three worlds of action, for governance, 237–42, 240f
Tiebout, Charles, 358, 428, 431–33, 626
tightness of feedbacks, 536
timing, 16
tipping point, 355–56
Tocqueville, Alexis de, 79
Tokyo, 147–48
competition of, 489
subsidies and tax incentives in, 496
Tokyo Metropolitan Government, 624
Toronto
Creative Class Struggle in, 278, 278n2
growth machine in, 526–27
history of, 521n2, 521n3
immigrants in, 78
metropolitan governance in, 624
PPP in, 521
Regeneration Trust in, 521
Royal Commission in, 521
SUD in, 520–23
tourism, in post-Fordist economy, 491–92
town meeting, 193
Townsend, Peter, 559
transformation societies, 277
transnational corporations, 492
transparency, 170
in democracy, 81
with Internet voting, 596, 596t
transspecies justice, 531–32
triggering events, 507, 510
The Truly Disadvantaged (Wilson, W.J.), 338, 556
UK.See Britain
ultra vires, 72, 212
uncontrolled urbanism, 523
unemployment, 258, 487
in Paris, 509
in U.S., 556
violence and, 504
The Unheavenly City (Banfield), 337
Union of International Associations, 580
unitary interest, 447
United Cities and Local governments (UCLG), 573
United Conference on Environment and Development, 524
United Nations Advisory Committee of Local Authorities (UNACLA), 126
United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (UNCHS), 523–25
United Nations Population Division, 568
United States (U.S.).See also specific cities
agenda-setting in, 458
chambers of commerce in, 496
city-county consolidation in, 186
climate policy of, 444
competition in, 487–88, 647–48
decentralization in, 21
Digital Cities Survey in, 599
Ecologist party in, 298
elected mayor in, 199–200
entrepreneurialism in, 494
external market orientations in, 197–98
functional profile in, 184–86, 199
gated communities in, 362
governmental sector relationships in, 22
Green Party in, 298
ILAs in, 197–98
immigrants in, 367, 373–74, 377, 378t
intergovernmental systems in, 136
internal management reforms in, 194–97
justice in, 555–57
leadership reforms in, 193–94
local autonomy in, 72–73
market-centered policies in, 490
metropolitan governance in, 120–21, 628–29
multifunctional profile in, 185
multiracial cities in, 315, 315t, 316t
national elections in, 88
neighborhood collective action in, 260–63
neighborhoods in, 256–63
new regionalism in, 631–33, 636
NGOs in, 197, 200–201
nonpartisan elections in, 90, 105, 211, 221
policies in, 445
policy responsiveness in, 100
political parties in, 216
poverty in, 335–40
privatization in, 198
race in, 101–2, 313–16
reform in, 192–98
regime theory and, 493
school districts in, 185, 185n3, 185n4
segregation in, 315–16, 353–54
smoking regulation in, 454
social capital and, 296
social exclusion in, 335–40, 346–47
(p. 683) social movements in, 279
spatial justice in, 556
special districts in, 185
territorial profile in, 184–86, 199
unemployment in, 556
urban decline in, 490
urban elections in, 104–5
violence in, 501–17
voter turnout in, 91–92
unpatterned inequalities, 434
URBAN, 344, 491
Urban Affairs Review (UAR), 642n1
Urban Agendas, 281
urban concentration, 73
urban decline
in Detroit, 490
urban growth and, 468–82
in U.S., 490
urban development corporations, 489
urban development grants, 489
urban elections
accountability and, 87
campaign contributions for, 104
comparative perspectives on, 104–5
districts and, 102
importance/irrelevance of, 87–93
incumbency and, 105
institutions of, 89–90
methodological approaches to study of, 93–96
new directions for theory and research, 105–7
representation and, 99–104
in U.S., 100
vote choice and, 96–104
voter turnout in, 90–93
women in, 101–2
urban governance, 71–84
assessment of, 82–83
in Britain, 75
challenges to, 76–80
collective objectives and, 78–79
democratization and, 582–84
in developing countries, 582–84
globalization and, 74, 76–77
immigrants and, 77–78
institutions and, 80–82
legitimacy in, 494
market forces and, 78–79
modes of, 495
urban growth
bargaining and, 477–78
beneficiaries of, 479–80
capitalism and, 475
comparative thinking/research on, 476–79
competition and, 473, 489
decentralization and, 469, 481
demographics and, 470
economic dimensions of, 469–71
globalization and, 470, 471
immigrants and, 470
Marxism and, 475
new regionalism and, 477
political dimensions of, 471–73
political theory and, 473–76
proximity and, 470
quality of, 469
regulation and, 475–76
SUD, 522
urban decline and, 468–82
urban growth imperative, 458
urban Internationale, 124
urban political ecology (UPE), 533–34
The Urban Question (Castells), 280
urban regeneration grants, 489
urban regime theory, 61–62
core properties in, 494n2
Europe and, 495
justice and, 546
SUD and, 528
urban governance and, 73–74, 78
urban growth and, 474
urban renaissance, 260
in Britain, 558, 558n10
competition and, 491
urban resurgence, 470–71
urban revolution, 568
URBEX, 344
U.S. Conference of Mayors (USCM), 442, 442n1, 504
U.S. Green Building Council, 443
U.S. Policy Agendas Project, 461
USAID, 580
Valelly, Richard, 26
Vancouver, 371–73, 397, 405, 523–25
venue shopping, 453, 454–55
context for, 457–58
Verband Regio Stuttgart (VRS), 633, 634
vertical nesting, 114
vertical venue shopping, 454
veterans organizations, 297
videoconferencing, 471
Vienna, 498
Vietnam War, 337
Villaraigosa, Antonio, 322
ville entrepreneuriale, 202
violence, 501–17
African Americans and, 502
in Belgium, 502
in Britain, 502
in Denmark, 502
in Detroit, 502
in Germany, 502
in Greece, 502
interactive framework for, 505–7, 506f
in Italy, 502
(p. 684) in Miami, 502
from neighborhoods, 506
in New York City, 502
policing strategies and, 514–17
poverty and, 504
public policy and, 514–17
racism and, 502
research on, 648
in Spain, 502
theory and, 503–5
triggering events for, 507
unemployment and, 504
War on Poverty and, 504
violent crime, 433–34
virtual communities, 602
virtuous circle, 101
Vlaams Blok, 222
voice-options, 238, 239
voice processes, 33–34
volontariat, 183n2
volunteering, 297
vote choice, 96–104
voter turnout, 90–93, 91f
vote with their feet, 614
voting
immigrants and, 375–80
through Internet, 596
legitimation and, 239n10
race and, 320–22
SES and, 32
voting computers, 594
Warner, Sam Bass, 487
War on Poverty, 336, 337, 514
justice and, 555
violence and, 504
Washington, D.C., 429
Washington, Harold, 100, 320
WATERFRONToronto, 520–23
watershed partnerships, 42
water supply, privatization of, 198
weak ties, sociological institutionalism and, 58–59
Weber, Max, 11, 115
welfare-oriented urban governance, 495
welfare state
in Britain, 181–82
in Europe, 498
in France, 341
in Germany, 181–82
immigrants and, 78
justice and, 553t
multifunctional profile and, 181–82
poverty and, 337
public goods and, 31
in Sweden, 181–82
Wendon, Bryan, 454
Weyland, Kurt, 574
White Anglo-Saxon Protestants (WASP), 529
Williams, Raymond, 275, 395
Wilson, James Q., 444
Wilson, William Julius, 338, 352, 556
Wilson, Woodrow, 53
win, win, win, win strategy, 443
window of opportunity, 60
Wolfe, Michelle, 445
women
in Africa, 580
poverty of, 337–38
social movements for, 279
in urban elections, 101–2
Wood, Robert, 626
World Bank, 135, 139, 277, 571
World Charter on the Right to the City, 281
World Commission on Environmental and Development, 524
World Foundation for Smart Communities, 602
World Social Forum (WSF), 281, 545
World Trade Organization, 139
World Urban Forum, 281
worthy goods, 31
Wright, Deil S., 135, 136
Xinsheng Liu, 460
Young, Coleman, 455
Young, Iris Marion, 276, 548, 557
zeitgeist, 182
zero-tolerance policies, 396
zoning, 432, 616