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date: 19 January 2020

Abstract and Keywords

This article focuses on the establishment of metropolitan institutions or metropolitan governance. It suggests that recent metropolitan governance failed to address the major obstacles facing metropolitan institution building, including the strength of local governments, the unwillingness of national states to seriously support metropolitan governance, and the lack of enthusiasm for metropolitan institutions in civil society. The article also argues that, unless there is a strong political leadership to carry the process forward and a political legitimacy of the metropolitan area, it is impossible to build enduring institutions at the metropolitan scale.

Keywords: metropolitan institutions, metropolitan governance, local governments, national states, civil society, political legitimacy

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