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date: 22 April 2021

Abstract and Keywords

The history of psychology in Japan generally began in the 19th century. It is described in terms of five eras: pre- and early Meiji (ca. 1860–1900), late Meiji (1900–1912), Taisho (1912–1926), Showa before and during World War II (1927–1945), and Showa after World War II (1946–1970s). Modern psychology in Japan was imported from Western countries during the early Meiji era and developed since then. Psychology as a discipline, including the establishment of psychological laboratories at universities, was implemented in the Taisho era, which heralded a remarkable expansion of psychology, both academic and practically applied. Compared with Gestalt psychology’s strong influence before World War II, psychology studies and lectures in Japan after the war became more U.S.-oriented. The 20th International Congress of Psychology, held in Tokyo in 1972, provided a venue for Japanese psychologists to finally be welcomed as full participants in the international community of psychologists.

Keywords: History of psychology, Psychological laboratory, Westernization, Gestalt psychology, International Congress of Psychology, Japan

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