Abstract and Keywords
Modern psychology emerged during three distinct periods of Finnish history. The first, the nascent phase, began when Finland was a Grand Duchy of Russia (1809–1917). During this period, psychology was a part of philosophy, and philosophers were not engaged in experimental research. The second wave occurred after Finland’s independence in 1917, and during the civil war that followed. After World War II, psychology in Finland gained its independence as a separate academic discipline, psychology became a profession, and the new psychologists turned from Finland’s traditional German ties to the influence of American psychology. By the end of the 1960s, psychology had become a well-established, even fashionable academic discipline. The breakthrough of the “modern society” and the Nordic-type of welfare state in the 1960s and the 1970s constituted the third historical period, a period that carried through to the post-industrial Finland of the 21st century.
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