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date: 28 January 2020

Abstract and Keywords

This chapter discusses key human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) issues, developments, research, and clinical/policy implications for the United States. The first section focuses on psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) and biobehavioral HIV research. It summarizes critical information and biomedical research on HIV, and then reviews in some detail examples of PNI and biobehavioral HIV/AIDS research, especially research on plausible PNI mechanisms in HIV progression that is conversant with the basic science discoveries starting in the mid-1990s. The second section considers the much more voluminous record of psychosocial and behavioral clinical research, including interventions. It argues that this research, which has addressed almost exclusively two main areas— HIV behavioral prevention and adherence to HIV medications— would be more successful in terms of impacting these areas if this research and these interventions were better informed by biomedical research. Thus, a critical consideration of the impact of this research, as well as future research directions, will necessarily include references to significant biomedical research in the areas of HIV prevention and treatment.

Keywords: HIV infection, AIDS, psychoneuroimmunology, biobehavioral HIV research, HIV prevention, biomedical research

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