Show Summary Details

Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD HANDBOOKS ONLINE (www.oxfordhandbooks.com). © Oxford University Press, 2018. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Handbooks Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 16 October 2019

(p. 1075) Subect Index

(p. 1075) Subect Index

Note: Page numbers followed by “f  ” and “t” denote figures and tables, respectively.

A
Abstraction, 495–98, 669, 676
in trait judgments, 328
Acoustic communication, 625, 643n2. See also Communication
Action(s)
expressed, 336
influenced by stimuli, 338–39
integrated versus un-integrated, 341–42
irrational, 342
overt, 336
and perception, dissociation between, 337–38
prompted by supraliminal stimuli, 339–41
rational, 342
recognition, of motor neuron system, 533
self-regulation of
goal-directed action, 733–34
inhibition of, 734
oculomotor orienting in, 734
unconscious, 336–38
Adenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), 719, 768–69, 788, 790, 792
Adolescence, 992–99
brain development during, 293–308, 995–97, 996f
age-related changes in, 297–99t
causality, 307
cortical grey matter and thickness, volume of, 304–5
functional activations, 306–7
functional connectivity, 303
genes and environment, role of, 307–8
intelligence and functional connectivity, relationship between, 303–4
myelination in white matter, volume of, 305–6
peer-peer interactions, 302–3
resistance to peer influences, 304
risk-taking behavior, 303
sensation-seeking behavior, 303
task performance, 302
cellular development during, 994f, 995
disengagement, development of, 230–31
early brain development and sensitive periods for learning, 993–95
executive function development of, 234
mentalizing, behavioral development of, 998
orienting, development of, 230
sex hormones, influence of, 998–99
social brain, functional development of, 997–98, 997f
Adult(s/hood)
Alzheimer’s dementia in, 767
Asperger syndrome in, 835, 865
autism spectrum disorder in, 232
autobiographical memory deficits associated with, 872–73
callous and unemotional traits in, 895, 896
disengagement, development of, 230–31
executive function development of, 234
orienting, development of, 230
psychopathy in, 895
ventromedial prefrontal cortex effect on social cognition, 937
Adult/Adolescent Sensory Profile (AASP), 869
Adult Asperger Assessment (AAA), 862
Adult-directed speech (ADS), 627. See also Speech
Affect, 158, 171, 196
defined, 196
unconscious, 197
challenges to, 205–6
limits of, 206
unnoticed, 206
unverbalized, 206
Affective components, of reward system, 181–82. See also Human reward system; Rewards
Affective neuroscience, 69
alexithymia and, 910–11
video games influence on, 1006
Affective sharing, 551
Affective states, unconscious, 197
Afference binding, 342, 343f. See also Binding
Aggression
instrumental, 896–97
proactive, 885
reactive, 885, 886, 896–97, 899
video game violence effects on, 1002–4
Aging
brain, socioemotional functioning in, 507–17
and decision-making behavior, 50
paradox of, 508
-related changes in neural function, 609–10
Agreeableness, 244. See also Five-factor model, of personality
Air Combat Maneuvering, 1005
Alcoholism
associated with alexithymia, 926
associated with antisocial personality disorder, 887
associated with chronic low-grade inflammation, 822
effects on interpersonal behavior, 407–8
Alerting system, 228–29
Alexithymia, 906–29
affective and cognitive features of, 907–9
and affective neuroscience, 910–11
anatomical neuroimaging findings in, 923–24
associated with lack of empathy, 925
construct, emergence of, 906–7
and emotional stimuli processing, links between, 911–12
etiological considerations of, 909–10
functional commissurectomy in, 910
functional neuroimaging studies
in clinical population, 922–23
in healthy participants, 912–22
as lack of socio-affective skills, 924–29
Machiavellianism and, 926–27
with posttraumatic stress disorder, 923
psychometrical approach in healthy individuals, 924–26
versus psychopathy, 927
and socio-cognitive skills, links between, 911
with somatoform disorders, 922–23
types of, 907–8, 910
Alien hand syndrome, 337
(p. 1076) Allogrooming, 569, 570–71, 572. See also Altruism
Alloparental behavior, 154. See also Behavior; Maternal behavior
Allostatic load, 570, 778, 795
Altruism, 40, 565–79. See also Empathy
allogrooming, 570–71, 572
animal evidence for, 569–70
biological models of, 568
consolation behavior, 571–72
decision making and, 573–75
defined, 567
evolutionary, 567, 572
food sharing, 570–71, 571f
human altruism in neuroimaging, evidence for, 575–78
intentional, 567
origins of, 568–69
psychological, 567, 573
reciprocal, 568, 569
relationship with moral sentiments, 481–83
terminology of, 567–68
Altruistic motivations, 479–81. See also Motivation
Alzheimer’s disease, 320, 456, 767, 938
American Journal of Bioethics–Neuroscience, 1016
Amphetamine, 703
effects on primate behavior, 6
effects on reward system, 1004
effects on social dominance, 721–23
Amsterdam Alexithymia Scale, 909
Amygdala, 82, 199f, 421f, 993f
activity associated with alexithymia, 921, 922
activity associated with antisocial behavior, 887, 888
activity associated with conduct disorder, 889
activity associated with fear recognition, 413
activity associated with impulsive aggression, 1016–17
activity associated with interpersonal self-esteem defense, 605f, 606–7
activity associated with racial categorization, 411–12, 735–36
activation, modulation of, 213
activity associated with deception, 967
bilateral neonatal ablation of, 632
damage associated with alterations in personality and behavior, 938–39
experimental odor activation in, 269, 269f, 369
extended, 200
hypoactivation associated with autism spectrum conditions, 835, 838
-prefrontal cortex down-regulation, 730–33, 735–36
primate, 684, 689–90
responsiveness to threat stimuli, 899, 901
role in attitude expression, 213–15
role in attitude formation, 216–17, 261
role in emotion recognition, 200, 254–58, 256f
role in emotion regulation, 278, 750, 753, 754f, 781
role in facial expression, 200, 399–400, 501
role in impression formation, 412–13, 424, 426–29
role in memory retrieval process, 328
role in regulating appetitive behaviors, 366
role in thought suppression, 368
secondary to herpes simplex encephalitis, bilateral lesion of, 171, 172f
sex-related functional asymmetry in, 64–65
during socioemotional processing, age effects in, 509–10, 512–14, 516
in subcortical circuits, 171
in thalamocortical-limbic circuits, 171
Analysis of variance (ANOVA), 56
Anarchic hand syndrome, 337, 341
Angular gyrus
activity associated with antisocial behavior, 888–89
activity associated with language acquisition, 629
Anhedonia, 155, 819
Animals. See also individual species
altruism in, 569–70
pair bonding in, 152–53
physiological responses to social threat, 788–89
response to babies’ faces, 436
response to face familiarity, 435
response to facial attractiveness, 438
response to facial expressions, 437
reward system in
motivational components of, 182
neural circuitry of, 179–80
Anomalous face overgeneralization (AFO), 439. See also Face overgeneralization
Anterior attention networks, 229, 233
Anterior attention system, 229–33. See also Attention
Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), 60, 72, 201, 229, 235, 421f, 993f. See also Cortex
activation in response to emotional stimuli, 910
activity associated with alexithymia, 913, 914, 922, 924
activity associated with autism spectrum disorder, 870
structural and functional abnormalities, 875
activity associated with deception, 963, 963f
activity associated with distancing, 284
activity associated with facial expression, 400
activity associated with reinterpretation, 283
activity associated with response control on task, 737
activity associated with social preferences, 950
activity associated with strategic thinking, 957
damage associated with alterations in personality and behavior, 364, 938
dorsomedial, 281
functional neuroanatomy of, 365–66
personality traits and, 246–49
primate, 684, 690–92
role in attitude change, 215–16, 219
role in distress vocalization, 588
role in emotion recognition, 260
role in maintaining positive self-image, 329–30
role in regulating appetitive behaviors, 367
role in regulating racial bias, 369
role in selective construal, 281, 282
role in self-recognition, 327
role in task distraction, 280
role in thought suppression, 368
during socioemotional processing, age effects in, 510–12, 514
ventral, 329–30
ventrolateral, 281
Anterior insula (AI), 60, 72, 421f, 993f
activity associated with deception, 966, 970
hypoactivation associated with autism spectrum conditions, 835
role in self-recognition, 327
Anterior temporal lobe (aTL)
activity associated with sentence processing, 671
role in moral motivations, 479
Anterolateral prefrontal cortex, 352. See also Lateral prefrontal cortex (p. 1077)
contributions to goal-directed social behavior, 356
goal-directed social behavior, evolutionarily adaptive neural architecture for, 355f
ontogenetic map of, 353, 353f
Anthropomorphism, 440, 835, 975, 979, 982, 984, 985
Anticipation
of continuity, 626–27
of emotional stimuli, 280, 510–11
human motor neuron system, 531
of pain, 327, 558
of public speaking, 606
recursive, 953
of rewards, 181–82, 187, 188, 214, 511
of social evaluation, 791
of threat, 609, 791–92
Antidepressants, 587–88
for depression, 819, 1019
Antisocial personality disorder (APD), 885–91, 896, 926
implications of, 890–91
neural basis of, 886–89
social neuroscience and, 886
in youths, 889–90
Antisocial Process Screening Device, 896
Ants, altruistic behavior in, 569
Anxiety, 72, 156, 171–73, 196, 197, 207, 244, 254, 593, 618, 748, 756, 790, 929
academic examination-induced, 820
anticipatory, 511
associated with behavioral inhibition, 236, 573–74
associated with skin conductance, 414
attachment, 591, 618
attention disengagement deficits and, 231–32
during deception, 967
executive function deficits and, 234–35
orienting and, 231–32
pain-related, 285
social, 155, 236–37, 286, 605, 606, 863
trait, 236, 237, 280, 281
Appearance-based impression formation, 426–28. See also Impression formation
Appetitive behaviors, self-regulation of, 366–68. See also Behavior
Appraisal, 274, 278, 808, 836. See also Reappraisal
cognitive, 557
critical, 11, 14–15
of MEG/EEG source models, 125–29
psychological processes related to, 808
statistical, 115, 119
Approach-avoidance disposition, 169–70, 169f, 174f, 198, 205
Approach-avoidance systems, higher neutral substrates mediating approach and, 170–74
Arginine vasopressin (AVP)
within central nervous system, behavioral effects of, 155
effect on social bonding, 154, 155, 157, 158, 159f, 160
endogenous, 155
exogenous, 155
intranasal administration of, 156
Arginine vasopressin receptor 1A (AVPR1A), 842
Arousal, 41, 155, 158, 197, 306, 365–67, 426, 499, 508, 517, 558, 614, 615, 866, 913
competitive, 201
emotional, 171, 214, 577, 751, 937
impact on learning, 656–57
physiological, 615
sexual, 201
video games influence on, 1006–7
Arterial spin labeling (ASL), 81–82
Articulatory development
importance of melody at the beginning of, 640–41
Artificial neural networks, 974
ArtRepair, 85
ASIMO, 975. See also Humanoid robots
Asperger syndrome, 835, 842, 850, 859–78, 928
associated with dysfunctional mirror neuron system, 868
associated with impairments in biological motion processing, 868
autobiographical memory deficits associated with, 872–73
cognitive style vs. socio-emotional disorder, 873–74
diagnostic criteria for, 860–61
differential diagnosis of, 861–62
executive dysfunction associated with, 869–71
functional connectivity abnormalities associated with, 875–78
versus high-functioning autism, 860, 861–62
imitation and, 866–69
outcome of, 862
prevalence of, 862
screening instruments for, 862
sensory processing abnormalities associated with, 869
social cognition and, 862–66
structural connectivity abnormalities associated with, 874–75
weak central coherence associated with, 871–72, 872–73
Asperger Syndrome Diagnostic Scale (ASDS), 862
Attachment
hidden regulators in, 151
mother-infant, 153
social, 151–60
theories of, 618
Attention
anterior, 229, 233–37
disengagement of, 228
executive, 227, 228–29, 233–37
impact on learning, 656–57
joint, 230, 234
obligatory, 229
perturbations in, 232–33
posterior, 229–33
re-engaging of, 228
selective, 280–81
shifting of, 228
visual, 229, 255
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 889, 898
social impairments, developmental origin of, 849
spectrum on behavioral and cognitive impairments, 851
video games and, 1008–9
Attention deployment, 278, 279. See also Emotion:regulation of
distraction, 279–80
selective attention, 280–81
selective construal, 281–82
Attention Network Task, 233
Attentional Blink paradigm, 873
Attitude, 212–22
change, 217–19, 895, 897, 898
expression, 212–16
formation, 216–17
political, 221–22
Attribution theories, of person perception, 419, 421–22
Auditory cortex, temporal voice area in. See Temporal voice area
Auditory-evoked potentials (AEPs), 385
Australian Scale for Asperger Syndrome (ASAS), 862
Autism Diagnostic Interview–Revised (ADI-R), 837
Autism spectrum conditions (ASC)
egocentrism in, 837
empathy in, 832
neural endophenotypes of social behavior in, 830–42
implications for, 841–42
social impairment, neural systems involved in, 837–40, 839f, 840f
theory of mind in, 832–36, 833–34t
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), 152, 155, 200, 231–32, 322, 536–37, 559–60, 686, 922, 924–25, 927–29
abnormal cerebral voice processing in, 383–85, 384f
(p. 1078)
attention disengagement deficits and, 231–32
in children, 661–63, 662f
default mode network activity in, 876–77
diagnostic criteria for, 849
executive function deficits and, 234–35
hypersystemizing theory of, 872
orienting and, 231
prevalence of, 850
social impairments, developmental origin of
on behavioral dimension, 849–50
on neurocognitive dimension, 850
spectrum on behavioral and cognitive impairments, 851
Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ), 841
Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire (ASSQ), 862
Autobiographical memories (AMs), 327–28. See also Memory(ies)
deficits associated with autism spectrum disorder, 872–73
Automatic imitation, 341. See also Imitation
Autonomic nervous system, 152, 153
activity associated with loneliness, 768
regulated by neuroendocrine factors, 158–59
stress-related activity in, 614
Aversive conditioning, 257, 887, 895, 897, 898, 901. See also Conditioning
Avoidance behavior, 155. See also Behavior
B
Babbling, 635f, 637–40, 637f, 639f
Babies’ faces
animal response to, 436
infant response to, 436
neural response to, 437
Baby face overgeneralization (BPO), 437. See also Face overgeneralization
Backward masking, 339
Bared-teeth display, 41. See also Facial expression
Baroreceptor cardiac reflexes, 165–66, 167f
Basal ganglia, 180, 229, 809
activity associated with Asperger syndrome, 874
damage associated with disgust, 257, 482
role in attitude change, 219
role in emotion recognition, 257
role in habit formation, 218–19
role in reinforcement learning, 217, 218
Beamformers, 122–23
Beck Depression Inventory, 63
BDI-13, 921, 925
Bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), 156, 172
Behavior
adaptive prosocial, 43
alloparental, 154
appetitive behaviors, self-regulation of, 366–68
approach, 155
avoidance, 155
bunching, 619
complex, in social neuroscience, 4–7
consolation, 571–72
consumption, 205
emotional. See Emotion(s)
evaluation of, 41
evolution of, 40–41
expectancy-consistent, 407–8, 408f
expectancy-violating, 407–9, 408f
goal-directed, 178–81, 348–57
male parental, 154
maternal, 154
positive, 152
preferential, 152
primate behavior, amphetamine effects on, 6
prosocial, 184, 568
repetitive, 871
risk-taking, 303
sensation-seeking, 303
sickness, 137
social, 152, 206–8
Behavioral Assessment of Dysexecutive Function, 460t
Behavioral development, of mentalizing during adolescence, 998
Behavioral experiments, in humanoid robots, 979–82
appearance of the agent, 982
motor interference effect, 980
motor priming effect, 980
movement kinematics effect on interference, 980, 983
rhythmic arm movements, 980, 981f
Behavioral game theory, 949. See also Game theory
Behavioral neuroscience, 1027
Behavioral surveys, 747
Behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), 938, 940
Behavior dysregulation
anterior cingulate damage and, 364
lateral PFC damage and, 363–64
ventromedial PFC damage and, 361–63
Belief learning, 955. See also Learning
Beliefs, 951–53. See also Iterated beliefs
equilibrium, 951
Benevolence, 481
Bermond-Vorst Alexithymia Questionnaire (BVAQ), 907, 909, 921–22, 925–26, 928
Bibliometry, 10
Big Five Inventory, 248
Binding, 342–43
efference, 342, 343f
efference-efference, 342, 343f
perceptual or afference, 342, 343f
Biocultural co-constructivism theory, 743
Biological models, of altruism, 568. See also Altruism
Biological motion processing
impairment in, associated with autism spectrum disorder, 868
Biological origins, of personality, 244–45. See also Personality
Blister model of wound healing, 142. See also Dermal wound healing; Wound healing
Blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal, 72, 76–80, 76f, 295, 302, 303. See also Functional magnetic resonance imaging
contrast-to-noise ratio, 83
hemodynamic response functions of, 77–78, 78f
influence of hemodynamic response on T2*-weighted signal in, 77, 77f
to measure regional brain activity, 81
rest intervals and jitter, 78–80
Blood oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) activity, 218
Body posture, 261
Body weight
effects on social rank, 719
Borderline personality disorder (BPD), 907, 926, 955
Boundary element method (BEM), 117–19
Box games, 952
Brain. See also Socioemotional functioning, in aging brain
activity
induced, 106, 112
ongoing, 103, 111, 112
anatomy of, 293–94
computational neuroanatomy of, 295–96
connectivity
analysis, using MEG/EEG, 112–13
connectome, 113
development, during adolescence, 995–97, 996f
evolution of relative brain size, in primates. See under Primates
function, 302–4
psychoactive drugs for manipulating, 1019–20
imaging, 1016. See also Functional magnetic resonance imaging; Magnetic resonance imaging; Positron emission tomography (p. 1079)
preferences, prediction of, 1018
premature adoption, risks of, 1018–19
threat to privacy, 1018
maturation, imaging-based evidence of, 304–7
mechanisms, neural basis of, 3–7
networks, 113, 128f
as organ of the soul, 9
regions involvement in moral cognition, 478f
social. See Social brain
socially adapted, 660–61
social visual, 398–400
structure-function correlation, 302
structure of
grey matter, age differences in, 299, 302
imaging, 294–95
white matter, age differences in, 296, 299, 300f, 301f
Brain-based lie detection, 1018
Brainstem
decerebration of, 169–70
model of cry production, 632
role in affective reactions, 199, 199f
Brainvox system, 54–55
Broca’s aphasia, 670–71
Broken mirror theory, 868
Brunner-Munzel test, 56
Bubbles method, 254–55, 255f
Bunching behavior, 619. See also Behavior
C
California Adult Q-set (CAQ), 909
Callous-unemotional traits, 890, 895–98
Canvas, 141
Cardiovascular disease (CVD), 152, 782
Cardiovascular function
social neuroscientific pathways linking social support to, 805
Card Sorting Tests, 460, 460t
Caregiving, chronic stress associated with, 818
Cartoon tasks, 463t
description of task, 468
links to functional outcome, 469
relationship to traumatic brain injury, 468–69
relationship to ventral frontal damage, 468–69
Caudate nucleus, 421f
effect on human reward system, 179, 179f, 180, 182, 184, 186
role in impression formation, 423
during socioemotional processing, age effects in, 511
Causality, 113
CB-i (Computational Brain Interface), 976–77, 976f, 978. See also Humanoid robots
Cell phone, 5
Cellular development, during adolescence, 994f, 995. See also Adolescence
Central coherence
weak, associated with autism spectrum disorder, 871–72
Central pattern generators (CPG), 977
Cerebral cortex, 293. See also Cortex
cellular composition of, 294, 294f
Cerebral spinal fluid (CSF), 703
Chameleon effect, 979
Charlie & the Chocolates Test, 463t
description of task, 464–65
relationship to functional outcome, 465
relationship to traumatic brain injury, 465
relationship to ventral frontal damage, 465
Child(ren/hood)
Asperger syndrome in, 868
autism spectrum disorder in, 231–32, 322, 661–63, 662f, 537, 834, 849–50, 936
bipolar disorder in, 897
brain development during, 293–308
age-related changes in, 297–99t
casuality, 307
cortical grey matter and thickness, volume of, 304–5
functional activations, 306–7
genes and environment, role of, 307–8
myelination in white matter, volume of, 305–6
conduct disorder in, 852, 886
developmental disorders in, 459
disengagement, development of, 230–31
disintegrative disorder in, 860
disorder, developmental divergence from, 852–53
executive function development of, 234
maltreatment effect on psychopathy, 899
mirror neuron system activity in, 532
mirror self-recognition of, 316–17
with negative temperamental reactivity, 235–36
oppositional defiant disorder in, 852
orienting, development of, 230
social preferences of, 951
traumatic brain injury in, 939
ventromedial prefrontal cortex effect on social cognition, 937
Childhood Asperger’s Screening Test (CAST), 862
Chimpanzee(s). See also Animals; Mammals; Monkeys
altruistic behavior in, 569
facial expression in, 44, 45–46
individuals and relationships, recognition of, 43
mirror self-recognition of, 316
social affordances, recognition of, 43
social cognition in, 40, 42
traits or behavior in, 40–41
Chi-square test, 56
Chronic diseases, 769
inflammation associated with, 820
Classical conditioning, 4, 216, 217, 271, 339, 888. See also Conditioning
CNR1 gene, 842
Cocaine
effects on social dominance, 722, 723
Cog, 986. See also Humanoid robots
Cognition
behavioral patterns associates with, 33–34
embedded, 492, 498–500
embodied, 492, 498
and emotion, 196
holistic versus analytic, 746–47
influence of loneliness on, 771
moral cognition, brain regions involvement in, 478f
motor, 977
off-loading, 499–500
social. See Social cognition
visuospatial, 1004–5
Cognitive appraisal. See also Appraisal
effects on brain response to other people’s suffering, 557
Cognitive change, 278, 282–84
distancing, 284
reappraisal, 283
reinterpretation, 283–84
Cognitive control
deficits associated with autism spectrum disorder, 873–74
video game effects on cognition associated with, 1005–6
Cognitive neuroscience, 69, 1027–28
of person perception, 405–11
of psychopathy, 897–98
of strategic thinking, 949–58
beliefs and strategic choice, 951–53
social preferences, 950–51
strategic awareness, 950
strategic teaching and influence value, 953–54
Cognitive self, 326, 327–29. See also Self
Coke®, 182
Collective unconscious, 315
Communication, 40, 668–77
acoustic, 625, 643n2
face-to-face, 318, 672, 673
mother-infant, 627–29
social cognition and, 44–45
vocal, 625
Comparison Question Test (CQT), 962–64, 966, 967
Compassion, 59, 349, 478, 481–83, 487, 552, 553, 561, 567, 772, 887
(p. 1080) Competence, 427, 429f, 440
communication, 471
cultural, 742, 744
emotional, 941
executive function, 35
immune, 6, 145
interpersonal, 547
language, 642
musical, 642
social, 227, 455, 457, 462, 463t, 470–72, 975, 984, 985, 992
Complex networks science, 113
Comprehension, 381, 382, 391, 406–7, 467–71, 658, 670, 671, 674–75, 834, 938, 997
neural mechanisms of, 675–76
Compulsive imitation, 536. See also Imitation
Concealed Information Test (CIT), 962, 963f, 964–67
Conditioning, 216–17
appetitive, 216
aversive, 257, 887, 895, 897, 898, 901
classical, 4, 216, 217, 271, 339, 888
evaluative, 339
fear, 172–73, 216
instrumental, 216
operant, 339
reinforcement, 216
Conduct disorder (CD), 852, 885–86, 889–90, 896
Confidence intervals, 125–26, 127f
Conscientiousness, 244. See also Five-factor model, of personality
Conscious emotions, 196. See also Emotion(s)
functional organization of, 202–4
in social behavior, 206–8
Consciousness, 314–15, 342, 207, 216, 314–15, 338, 342–43, 343f, 573
and action, dissociation between, 337
animal, 196
defined, 315
experiencing versus reflecting, 206
fetal, 196
neural correlate of, 202
Consolation behavior, 571–72. See also Behavior
Constitutive reductionism, 13
Contamination, in immune system, 137–38
Contempt, 252, 478, 482. See also Emotion(s)
Contingency, 237, 927, 956, 965
impact on learning, 44, 657, 659, 663
Convergence zones, 494
Cooing, 635f, 637–38, 637f
Cooperation, 22f, 40, 43, 340, 348, 350, 479, 480, 483, 484, 569, 573, 575, 607, 625, 766, 955, 1017
Coping, 34, 609, 618, 620
against negative consequences of
proactive, 808–10
with social challenges, 925
with stress, 155, 278, 718
with threat, 781–82
Co-registration, preprocessing fMRI data, 86
Coronary Artery Risk Factors in Young Adults investigation (CARDIA), 782
Coronary heart disease (CHD), 779, 782
Cortex
anterior cingulated. See Anterior cingulate cortex
frontopolar, 479
inferior occipital, 320
inferior temporal, 254
insular, 199f, 213
interoceptive, 558
lateral orbitofrontal, 480, 480f
lateral temporal, 328
medial occipital, 71
medial parietal, 421f
middle cingulate, 421f
occipitoparietal, 707
orbitofrontal. See Orbitofrontal cortex
parahippocampal, 708
posterior cingulate. See Posterior cingulate cortex
prefrontal. See Prefrontal cortex
primary visual, 71
retrosplenial, 957
somatosensory, 199f, 201–2, 257–61, 280
subgenual cingulate, 479, 480
superior temporal, 254
Cortical networks, role in affective reactions, 201
Corticostriatal reward system, 179–84, 179f. See also Human reward system; rewards
Corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF)
effects on pair bonding, 156, 157–58, 159f
Corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH), 788
Cortisol awakening response (CAR), 769
Cosmetic psychopharmacology, 1019
Cramer-Rao lower bounds (CRLB), 126
C-reactive protein (CRP), 783, 796, 797, 815, 817–22
Criminal law, 1022
Crydiagnosis, 632, 643n10
Cultural diversity, 742, 758
human, 742–43
Cultural neuroscience, 742–59
for basic and applied research, implications of, 758–59
culture-gene interactions, 754–58
framework, 744–46, 745f
influence on emotions, 751, 753, 754f
influence on social cognition, 753–54, 755f
influence on visual perception, 750–51, 752f
memory performance, cultural variation in, 751, 753f
neuronal recycling theory, 749–50
neuroplasticity theory, 750
neurovariation theory, 750
theory and methods in, 746–49
toolbox, 746f
Cultural niche construction, 743f
Cultural priming, 747, 754, 755f. See also Priming
Cultural psychology, 743, 745–47, 750, 751
Culture-by-gene pathway, variations in, 756–58, 757f
Culture-gene coevolutionry theory, 743f, 748–49
of individualism-collectivism, 756, 757f
Culture-gene interactions, 754–58
Cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). See also Monkeys
behavioral and neurobiological characteristics influencing social hierarchy formation in, 704–6
effects of social status on striatal dopamine d2 receptor bindingrelationship between social rank and locomotor activity in, 720–21
characteristics in, 721–22
CYP11B1, 842
CYP17A1, 842
Cyproheptadine, 703
Cytomegalovirus (CMV)
immune senescence and, 143
D
DB (Dynamic Brain), 976–78, 976f, 986. See also Humanoid robots
motor interference in, 980
rhythmic arm movements in, 980
Deception
countermeasures to lie-detection, 967–68
applications in psychiatry, 969–70
applications in psychotherapy, 969–70
ecological validity, problem of, 968
for forensic lie-detection, 968–69
emotion and, 966–67
functional magnetic resonance imaging of, 961–70
lack of specificity in, 964–66, 965f
models of, 962
seminal studies, 962–64, 963f
(p. 1081)
translation to clinical populations, 967
translation to individual subjects, 966
self-deception, 970
Decision-making, 217, 356, 574, 579, 837, 873, 1008
behavior, aging-related changes in, 50
cognitive-anatomical definition of, 485, 487
fronto-limbic top-down control models of, 487
fronto-temporo-mesolimbic integration models of, 487–88
influences of reward components on, 183–84, 185f
moral, in patients with antisocial personality disorders, 886–89
reinforcement expectancy-based, 901
Deductive inference, 354
Default mode network (DMN), 876–77
activity in autism spectrum disorder, 876–77
Deficit in attention, motor control, and perception (DAMP) syndrome, 851
Dendrites
apical, 98, 99f
basal, 98, 99f
Denial, 962, 970
Density maps, 295
Depression, 152, 155, 195, 196, 286, 318, 369, 468, 587, 748, 755, 907, 924, 925, 928. See also Major depression disorders
associated with chronic diseases, 820
pharmacologically-induced, 819
family environment associated with, 778
gene-environment interaction in, 14
inflammation associated with, 819–21
depression treatment, impact of, 819
in epidemiological and clinical studies, association between, 819–20
in patients with frontal damage, 469
selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor for, 1019
Dermal wound healing, 141–43. See also Wound healing
blister model of, 142
comparison with oral wound healing, 142–43
punch biopsies, 141–42
tape stripping, 142
Developmental coordination disorder (DCD), 851
Developmental disorders, 233, 459, 686, 848–55, 860, 873, 895, 901
developmental trajectories, diversity of
developmental convergence from taxonomic conditions, 852
developmental divergence from childhood disorder, 852–53
future directions of, 854–55
multidimensional model from developmental perspective, 853–54
taxonomic categories of, 852
Developmental factors
impact on social bonding, 159–60
Developmental language disorder (DLD)
social impairments, developmental origin of, 849
spectrum on behavioral and cognitive impairments, 851
Dexadrine, for manipulating normal brain function, 1019
Diastolic blood pressure (DBP), 792
Difficulties Describing Feelings (DDF), 912, 921, 925
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), 118, 295, 296, 299
for behavioral deficits, 57–58
fiber tracking with, 874
Digital filtering, 108, 109f
Dignity, 482, 1022
Dimensional Change Card Sort Task (DCCS), 234
Dipole fitting, 119–21
Disengagement of attention, 228–29. See also Attention
in clinical populations, 231–33
development of
in adolescence, 230–31
in adulthood, 230–31
in childhood, 230–31
in infancy, 230
Disgust, 24, 59, 60, 196, 202, 206, 252, 254, 255f, 257, 260, 261, 424, 480, 482, 493, 509, 517, 533, 555, 556, 558–60, 606, 864, 912, 998. See also Emotion(s)
Dispositional information, 419–20
Dissociation/association process, fMRI for, 71
Dissociation model, 736
Dissociative identity disorder, 204
Distancing, 284
Distraction, 279–80. See also Attention deployment
Dopamine
and attitude change, 219
effects on social dominance, 723
and pair bonding, 157
pathways, 179–80, 183
Dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4), 748
Dopaminergic neurotransmitter system, 704–7, 706f
effect of social isolation on, 704–5, 705f
effect of stress on, 704
effects of environmental enrichment on, 721–22
social status effect on prefrontal cortex, 705–7
social status effect on striatum, 705
Dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC). See also Anterior cingulate cortex
activity associated with dispositional sensitivity to rejection, 767
activity associated with interpersonal self-esteem defense, 605–6, 605f
activity associated with intrapersonal self-esteem defense, 602–4, 602f
responses to stress, 780
role in distress vocalization, 588–90
Dorsal medial prefrontal cortex, 421f. See also Medial prefrontal cortex
role in impression formation, 422, 424
Dorsal vagal complex (DVC), 158
Dorsolateral orbitofrnotal cortex (dlOFC), 218. See also Orbitofrontal cortex
Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), 221, 229. See also Lateral prefrontal cortex
activity associated with antisocial behavior, 887
activity associated with deception, 967
activity associated with social preferences, 950
activity associated with strategic thinking, 953
contributions to goal-directed social behavior, 354–56
goal-directed social behavior, evolutionarily adaptive neural architecture for, 355f
hypoactivation associated with autism spectrum conditions, 834–35, 837
ontogenetic map of, 353, 353f
personality traits and, 246–49
role in face expression, 400
role in imitative behavior, 546
during socioemotional processing, age effects in, 512
status-related differential neural response in, 708–9
Dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. See also Medial prefrontal cortex
during socioemotional processing, age effects in, 516
Double-arc melodies, in infant cries, 636, 637f
Down syndrome, 231
Dual inheritance theory, of human behavior, 742, 743
Duchenne smiles, 500. See also Smile(s)
Dynamic causal modeling (DCM), 92, 113, 877
(p. 1082) E
Early brain development and sensitive periods for learning, 993–99, 994f, 996f
Early life stress to adult health, pathways linking, 776–83
autonomic responses to stress, 782
coping with threat, 781–82
developmental origins of, 777–78
genetic antecedents of, 778–79
immune responses to stress, 782
lifespan model of, 777, 777f
model to risk factors for disease, relating, 782–83
neuroendocrine responses to stress, 782
psychosocial resources of, 779–80
stress responses, neural regulation of, 780–81
Ebbinghaus/Titchener illusion, 337
Ecological theory, 435
Ecological validity, problem of, 968
Economy of action, 619
Education
psycho-education, 141
science, video games influence on, 1007–8
social neuroscience impact on, 999
Effective connectivity analysis
using functional magnetic resonance imaging, 91–93
Efference binding, 342, 343f. See also Binding
Efference-efference binding, 342, 343f. See also Binding
Egocentrism, 244, 315, 836, 837
Electroencephalography (EEG), electromagnetic brain mapping using, 69, 97–129, 385, 554, 555, 748, 979, 1017
benefits of, 103, 104f
countermeasures to lie-detection, 968
data acquisition, 106–8
data pre-processing
advanced data correction techniques, 108–10
connectivity/complexity analysis, 112–13
digital filtering, 108, 109f
evoked responses across trials, 110–11, 111f
induced responses across trials, 112
electromagnetic fields, physiological sources of, 98–100, 99f
electromagnetic source imaging, 113–29
event-related paradigm design for, 106, 107f
for human mirror neuron system, 528–30, 532, 533, 537
instrumentation, 100–101, 101f
source modeling, 114–29, 114f
appraisal of, 125–29
beamformers, 122–23
confidence intervals, 125–26, 127f
dipole fitting, 119–21
distributed source imaging, 123–25, 124f, 125f
forward, 114
head tissues modeling, 116–19, 118f
ill-posed inverse, 115
inverse, 114–16
model selection, emergent approaches for, 128–29
neural generators models, 116
sensor array modeling, 116
signal classification approaches, 122–23
source localization vs. source imaging, 119, 120f
spatial-filters, 122–23
statistical inference, 126–28, 128f
subject preparation for, 103–6
Elephants. See also Animals; Mammals
brain mechanisms in, 5
economy of action in, 619
exchange of information, 670
impression formation in, 419, 420
self-recognition abilities in, 316
Embarrassment, 65, 228, 274, 317, 317, 481, 482, 788, 790, 887, 889, 938, 998
Embedded cognition, 492, 498–500. See also Cognition
Embedded Figures Test, 871
Embodied cognition, 492, 493, 498. See also Cognition
Embodied self, 326–27. See also Self
Embodiment, 986
approach to emotions, 202
of artificial brain, 974
Emotion(s), 49–50, 413–14. See also individual emotions
affect and, 196, 203
basic, 252, 255f, 261
cognitive appraisal of, 887
conscious, 196, 255–57
functional organization of, 202–4
in social behavior, 206–8
to consciousness, relation of, 195–208
cultural influence on, 751, 753, 754f
and deception, 966–67
defined, 277–78
embodiment approach to, 202
facial expression. See Facial expression:of emotions
feeling and, 196–97
and mirror neuron system, 533
moral, 478, 481
in moral judgment, role of, 58
of odor-evoked memory, 270–72
regulation of, 277–86, 369–70, 513, 614–20, 926–27
attention deployment, 278, 279–82
cognitive change, 278, 282–84
critical summary of, 285
future directions of, 285–86
hybrid strategies of, 285
levels of analysis, 278–79
in patients with antisocial personality disorders, 886
social baseline model of, 618–19
social processes as mediators of, 615–16, 615f
social processes as moderators of, 616–18, 616f
self-regulation of, 730–33
race-biased, 735–36
social, 252
unconscious, 197–208, 255–57
affect, elicitation of, 197
affective reactions to facial expressions, 204–5
affective states, 197
challenges to, 205–6
functional and evolutionary considerations, 197–98
limits of, 205–6
neural basis of, 198–99
in social behavior, 206–8
subcortical networks and basic affective reactions, 199–202
visual induction of, 111
Emotional awareness, 912
Emotional contagion and empathy, distinction between, 552
Emotional empathy, 568. See also Empathy
Emotional mediation hypothesis, 573
Emotional memory, 512–13. See also Memory
Emotional self, 326, 329–30. See also Self
Emotional stimuli
anticipation of, 510–11
exposure to, 511–12
Emotional stimuli processing and alexithymia, links between, 911–12
Emotion-attention interface, 227–37
future directions of, 237
Emotion-modulated startle-eyeblink method, 736
Emotion face overgeneralization (EFO), 437–38. See also Face overgeneralization
Emotion recognition, 252–62
in autism spectrum conditions, 833t
body posture and movement, 261
from facial expressions
conscious and unconscious emotions, 255–57
cortical processing, of faces, 253–61
identity formation, 253
in future, 261–62
(p. 1083) Emotion regulation questionnaire (ERQ), 510
Emotive sounds, 625, 627, 629, 631
Empathic concern, 61, 62, 481, 484, 552, 567, 571, 576, 841
Empathy, 531, 546–47, 551–61, 567–68, 571, 986. See also Altruism
in autism spectrum conditions, 832
cognitive, 568
deficits, 559–61
defined, 551–52
distinguished from emotional contagion, 552
distinguished from sympathy, 552
emotional, 568
factors of, 552
functional components of, 552
genetic effects on, 841
impaired, 898
lack of, associated with alexithymia, 925
mirror neurons, role of, 554–56, 568–69
modulation of, 556–58
motor theory of, 555
pain, 72
in patients with antisocial personality disorders, 886
in patients with neurological disease, 59–63
limitations of, 60–61
pain, 72
perception-action model of, 554, 568
role of insula in, 558–59
role of interoceptive cortex in, 558
shared neural networks for
brain responses to pain, 553–54
brain responses to smell, 553
brain responses to touch, 553
trust versus, 22f
Empathy Scale for Adults (ESA), 925
Endophenotypes, 755
candidate neural, 831–32
defined, 831
intermediate, 831
Enlightenment, 1021–23
Environmental affordances, 43
Envy, 186, 865, 950. See also Emotion(s)
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), 140, 144
Episodic memory, 266. See also Memory
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), 143
early antigen, 144
viral capsid antigen, 144
Equivalent current dipole (ECD) model, 116
Estrogen receptor gene (ESR2), 842
Ethanol, effects on social dominance, 723
Evaluative conditioning, 339. See Conditioning
Evaluative motivation, social neuroscience of, 164–75
approach and avoidance systems, higher neutral substrates mediating approach and, 170–74
Evaluative Space Model, of higher neuropsychological functioning, 174–75
higher level re-representations, 170
intermediate levels, decerebration of, 169–70
levels of organization, 165–66, 166f
liking aspects of, 170, 171
spinal reflex networks, 166–69, 170
wanting aspects of, 170, 171
Evaluative Space Model (ESM), of higher neuropsychological functioning, 174–75
Event-related potentials (ERPs), 106, 107f, 445–53, 510, 511, 1018
effects on automatic social categorization, 446–47
effects on malleable social categorization, 449–50
perceiver and target group membership, effects of, 447–49
person perception and, 405, 406–11
expectancy-consistent behavior, 407–8, 408f
expectancy-violating behavior, 407–8, 408f
implicit interpersonal attitude, 406–7
late positive potential, 406
race perception, 409–11, 410f
reactions to low-level physical differences, 449
research on intrapersonal self-esteem defense, 601t, 604
response to race, 738
response to social category information relate to behavior, 450–51
responses to race and gender information within faces, 449
Evocativeness, of odor-evoked memory, 270–72
Evolution in four dimensions, 12
Evolutionarily adaptive neural architecture, for goal-directed social behavior, 351–54. See also Goal-directed social behavior
Evolutionary altruism, 567, 572. See also Altruism
Evolutionary re-representation, 170
Executive attention, 227, 228–29. See also Attention
in clinical populations, 234–37
development of
in adolescence, 234
in adulthood, 234
in childhood, 234
in infancy, 233–34
Executive functioning, deficits in, associated with Asperger syndrome, 869–71
Executive functions
deficits in, 458–60
measures of, 459
nature of, 459–60
in patients with traumatic brain injury, assessment of
brain regions, involvement of, 461
common tests, 460
links to real-world outcomes, 461–62
normative data, 460–61
in patients with ventral frontal damage, assessment of
brain regions, involvement of, 461
common tests, 460
links to real-world outcomes, 461–62
normative data, 460–61
video game effects on cognition associated with, 1005–6
Expensive tissue hypothesis, 28, 30
Experimental psychology, 204. See also Psychology
Expertise, 531
Expressed actions, 336. See also Action(s)
Expression
attitude, 212–16
and emotion, 196
Extensor reflexes, 168, 170
Externally Oriented Thinking (EOT), 912
Extinction, 28, 180, 218, 732, 895
Eye-Direction Detector (EDD), 986
Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, 246
F
Face evaluation, data-driven model of, 428f
Face familiarity
animal response to, 435
infant response to, 435
neural response to, 436
overgeneralization, 436
Face inversion effect, 380
Face overgeneralization
anomalous, 439
baby, 437
emotion, 437–38
familiar, 436
species, 440
Face-to-face communication, 318. See also Communication
(p. 1084) Facial attractiveness, 413
animal response to, 438
anomalous face overgeneralization, 439
infant response to, 438–39
neural response to, 439
Facial beauty. See Facial attractiveness
Facial expression. See also Smile(s)
animal response to, 437
emotion face overgeneralization, 437–38
of emotions, 842. See also Emotion(s)
humanoid robots, 983, 983f
in patients with Asperger syndrome, 862–66, 866f
importance of, 45–46
infant response to, 437
neural response to, 438
positive, 199
social bonding and, 154
subliminal, 197, 204–5
supraliminal, 213
unconscious affective reactions to, 204–5
Facial identity, 394, 398
Facial maturity, 396–97
Facial mimicry, 501, 555
Facial paralysis, 555
Fairness, 13, 17, 61, 184, 186, 353, 356, 472, 607. See also Emotion(s)
Fake cries, 643–44n13
False belief tasks, 463t
description of task, 462–64
links to functional outcome, 464
relationship to traumatic brain injury, 464
relationship to ventral frontal damage, 464
False discovery rate (FDR), 90–91
thresholding approach, 56
Familiar face overgeneralization (FFO), 436. See also Face overgeneralization
Family dementia caregiving, chronic stress associated with, 818
Family-wise error rate (FWER), 90
Fatigue, 73, 74, 106, 137, 498, 815, 818, 819
Faux pas recognition task, 456, 463t, 472, 938, 940
description of task, 469–70
links to functional outcome, 470
relationship to traumatic brain injury, 470
relationship to ventral frontal damage, 470
Fear conditioning, 172–73, 216. See also Conditioning
Fear recognition, 255, 413
Feeling and emotion, 196–97
Feeling-as-information, 197
Fenfluramine, 703
Fictitious play model, 954
Finite element method (FEM), 117–19
Finite impulse response (FIR), 108
First impressions in animal/infant face perception, origins of, 434–40
First person perspective (1PP), 330–31
Five-factor model (FFM), of personality, 244–49. See also Personality
universality of, 245
FKF Applied Research, 1017
Flexor (pain) withdrawal reflexes, 168, 170
Flibanserin, 1020
Fluoxetine, 704
FMRIstat software, 85
Food and Drug Administration, 1020
Food sharing, 570–71, 571f. See also Altruism
Foraging skills, 29
Forebrain, 293
Formants, 644n20
Forward inference, 1017
Forward modeling problem, MEG/EEG source estimation, 114
Fourier transform, 81
Fractional anisotropy (FA), 875
Frame-Line Test (FLT), 750–51
Frontal eye fields (FEF), 840
Frontal lobe lesions
associated with alterations in personality and behavior, 935–36
effect on social cognition, 936–37
role in self-awareness, 320
Frontal operculum (FO)
hypoactivation associated with autism spectrum conditions, 835, 838
Fronto-limbic top-down control models, of moral reasoning/decision-making, 487
Frontopolar cortices (FPC). See also Cortex
role in altruistic/self-serving motivations, 480f
role in moral motivations, 479
Frontotemporal dementia (FTD), 888
Fronto-temporal positivity to voices (FTPV), 385–86, 386f
Fronto-temporo-mesolimbic integration models, of moral reasoning/decision-making, 487–88
Fruit fly, social isolation impact on, 5. See also Animals
Full width of the kernel at half its maximum height (FWHM), 87
Functional and evolutionary considerations, of unconscious emotions, 197–98. See also Unconscious emotions
Functional connectivity
abnormalities associated with Asperger syndrome, 875–78
analysis using functional magnetic resonance imaging, 91–93
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), 49, 69–94, 70f, 97, 295, 302, 303, 747, 979, 1016. See also Magnetic resonance imaging
for action observation
humans versus robots, 982
adaptation design of, 73–74
for Asperger syndrome, 865
imitation impairments in mirror neuron system, 868
for cognitive control deficits associated with autism spectrum disorder, 873
conceiving and designing, 70–71
for conduct disorder, 890
data acquisition
accelerated imaging, use of, 83
arterial spin labeling, 81–82
BOLD signal, 81
costs and benefits of, 82t
MR basics, 80–81
repetition time, minimizing, 83
susceptibility artifacts, minimizing, 82–83
for deception, 961–70
applications in psychiatry, 969–70
applications in psychotherapy, 969–70
countermeasures to lie-detection, 967–68
ecological validity, problem of, 968
for forensic lie-detection, 968–69
lack of specificity in, 964–66, 965f
models of, 962
seminal studies, 962–64, 963f
translation to clinical populations, 967
translation to individual subjects, 966
for dispositional sensitivity to rejection, 767
experimental design of, 74–80, 75f
block designs of, 76–77, 76f
event-related designs, 76f, 77–78
optimized experimental designs, 80
rest intervals and jitter, 78–80
for facial expression of emotions
humans versus robots, 982
functional versus effective connectivity analysis, 91–93
general linear model
contrasts, 88
first-level analysis, 87–88
group analysis, 88–89
model-building, 89, 90f, 91f
goals of, 71
of human mirror neuron system, 528–30, 533, 534, 536
(p. 1085)
for imitative behavior, 544–47
information-based mapping of, 74
for intentional deception, 1017–18
for interpersonal self-esteem defense, 605f
for intrapersonal self-esteem defense, 601t, 602
to measure age-related socioemotional processing, 510–12
to measure person perception, 405
multiple comparisons, 89–91, 91f
for negative affective response to other people’s suffering, 556
for neural responses to threat, 780
pattern classification, 529
pattern classification-compatible design of, 74
for prediction and psychological inference, 72
preprocessing fMRI data, 83–87, 84f
co-registration, 86
image reconstruction, 85
motion correction, 86
normalization, 86–87
slice timing correction, 86
smoothing, 87
visualization and artifact reduction, 85–86
for process dissociation and association, 71
repetition suppression, 529, 530
for repetitive behavior associated with autism spectrum disorder, 871
for self-regulation of race-biased emotion, 735
for social brain’s functional development during adolescence, 997–98, 997f
statistical parametric map, 89–90
structure-function mapping of, 71
subtraction design of, 72–73
factorial design, 73
multiple subtraction design, 73
parametric variation design, 73, 73f
for voice gender cerebral processing, 389
for weak central coherence associated with autism spectrum disorder, 872
Functional neuroimaging studies, of person perception, 411–14
emotion perception, 413–14
impression formation, 412–13
social categorization, 411–12
Functional organization, of conscious states, 202–4
global workspace, 202–3
sleep murders, 204
vegetative state, 203–4
Function explanation, for trait/behavior, 41
Fusiform face area (FFA), 749
in processing facial expression, involvement of, 253, 254, 383, 411, 685, 695, 876
response to face familiarity, 436
Fusiform gyrus
activity associated with racial categorization, 411–12
hypoactivation associated with eye gaze fixation, 865
in response to facial emotion
face recognition, 254, 399, 863
identity recognition, 253, 400
subliminal presentation of sad faces, 921
G
Game theory, 949
behavioral, 949
Gaussian kernel, 87
Gender
differences
during unconsciously presented fearful faces, 257
in HPA response to social threat within interpersonal interactions, 792
in human empathy, 568, 571
in pair bonding, 154–55
in relationship between intelligence and functional connectivity, 303–4
effects on event-related brain potentials, 447
emotion and, 395–97, 864
impact on reappraisal, 286
information in voice, perception of, 388–91, 390f
judgments versus valence judgments, 282
race and, 409, 446–50
Gene × environment interaction, 716, 724, 755, 778
Gene expression, 769–70
in leukocytes, 770
General aggression model (GAM), 1002–3, 1002f, 1007
developmental and personality processes of, 1003f
General linear model (GLM)
contrasts, 88
first-level analysis, 87–88
group analysis, 88–89
model-building, 89, 90f, 91f
Generalized lesionsymptom mapping (GLSM), for behavioral deficits, 58
Generosity, 483, 767, 1020
Gene-to-behavior pathways, models of, 755–56, 756f
Gestalt Closure test, 871
Glucocorticoids
regulation of inflammatory activity, 794–95
resistance, 823
Goal-directed action, 733–34, 737. See also Action(s)
Goal-directed behavior, 178–81. See also Behavior
evolutionarily adaptive neural architecture for, 351–54
prefrontal cortex and, 348–57
Go-No-Go task, 265, 302, 460t, 461, 870, 963
Granger causal models, 93
Granger-causality assessment, auto-regressive modeling for, 113
GRAPPA, 83
Gratitude, 184, 478, 482, 483f, 576. See also Emotions
Grey matter, 293–94
age differences in, 299, 302
cortical, and synaptic pruning, 304–5, 305f
Group ICA of Functional MRI (GIFT) toolbox, 85
Group selection, 568
Guillain-Barre syndrome, 555
Guilty Knowledge Test (GKT), 962–64, 963f
Guinea pigs. See also Pigs
impact of opiates on separation distress, 157
H
Happe’s Strange Stories Test, 463t
description of task, 466
links to functional outcome, 467
relationship to traumatic brain injury, 466–67
relationship to ventral frontal damage, 466–67
Happiness, 196, 197, 252, 254, 261, 427, 552, 555, 691, 809, 864, 877. See also Emotion(s)
Hayling Sentence Completion, 460–61, 460t
Head tissues modeling, 116–19
spherical approximation of, 117, 118f
Health behaviors, associated with inflammation, 823f
Hebbian learning, 531–32, 535, 984, 986. See also Learning
Hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) assay, 140
Heritability, 841
Herpes simplex 2 (HSV-2), 143, 145
Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), 143, 144–45
HHOP network, 987
(p. 1086) Higher level re-representations, 170
High-functioning ASD (HFASD), 851
versus Asperger syndrome, 860, 861–62
associated with dysfunctional mirror neuron system, 868
associated with impairments in biological motion processing, 868
autobiographical memory deficits associated with, 872–73
cognitive style vs. socio-emotional disorder, 873–74
diagnostic criteria for, 860–61
differential diagnosis of, 861–62
executive dysfunction associated with, 869–71
functional connectivity abnormalities associated with, 875–78
imitation and, 866–69
outcome of, 862
prevalence of, 862
screening instruments for, 862
sensory processing abnormalities associated with, 869
social cognition and, 862–66
structural connectivity abnormalities associated with, 874–75
weak central coherence associated with, 871–72 872–73
Hindbrain, 293
Hippocampus, 421f
HIV/AIDS, 798, 806
5-HTTLPR gene, 748–50, 756, 757f, 778
Human infants’ crying, 624. See also Human infants’ vocal sounds, melodic development of; Infants
and animal sounds, relationship between, 626
motivation to investigate, 625–26
Human infants’ vocal sounds, melodic development of, 631–41. See also Melody
babbling, 635f, 637–40, 637f, 639f
cooing, 635f, 637–38, 637f
double-arc melodies, in infant cries, 636, 637f
melody at the beginning of articulatory development, importance of, 640–41
melody complexity, modular composition of, 638, 640
multiple-arc melodies and rhythmical variations, 636–37, 637f
neonates’ crying, basic melody types of, 633–35, 63335f
word production, 637–38, 637f, 639f
Human neuroscience, 747–48
Human reward system, 178–89. See also Rewards
affective components of, 181–82
components on learning and decision-making, influence of, 183–84, 185f
future directions of, 187–89
influences of activity on affective evaluation of, 182
motivational components of, 182–83
neural circuitry of
dopamine pathways, 179–80
orbital frontal cortex, 180
overview, 179
striatum, 180
prediction errors, 180, 183–84
social rewards. See Social rewards
Human rights, 1022
Humanoid Robotics Project (HRP), 975
Humanoid robots, 974–88
behavioral experiments in, 979–82
designing, 984–88
Uncanny Valley hypothesis, 975, 984–85
learning by observation of conspecifics, 977–78
mentalizing, 985
motor cognition with, 977
neuroimaging experiments in, 982–83
overview of, 975–77
social cognition model, implementing, 985–86
mechanisms of, 986–88
social competence of, 984
as testbeds
motor resonance in social cognition, 978–79
resonance applied to robots, 979
Humans. See also Human reward system; Mammals
brain mechanisms in, 5
core imitation circuitry in, 544–45
empathy, 546–47
imitative learning, 545–46
homologous expression in, 41, 42, 45
imitative behavior in
evolutionary and methodological considerations of, 543–44
vocal learning and, 547–48
impact of social isolation on, 5
mirror neuron system in
anticipation, 531
auditory, 530–31
correlation with empathy, 531
existence of, 528
goals and means of, 530
localization of, 528–30
object and non-object directed actions of, 530
neural correlates of social pain in, 588–90
social bond formation in, 152
5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), 703, 704
Hypersystemizing theory, of autism spectrum disorder, 872
Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, 768, 823
response to social threat, 787–90, 792, 793, 795, 796
social-rank related differences in, 719–20
stress-related activity in, 614
I
ICub, 976f, 977. See also Humanoid robots
Identities and expressions, intersecting, 394–400
Identity formation, emotion and, 253
I language, 669. See also Language
Ill-posed inverse modeling problem, MEG/EEG source estimation, 115. See also Inverse modeling problem, MEG/EEG source estimation
Image reconstruction, preprocessing fMRI data, 85
Imitation, 318, 321
automatic, 341
synchronic, 326
learning, 745, 977
biomimetic approaches to, 986
and Asperger syndrome, 866–69
Imitative behavior and mirror neuron system, 533–34
compulsive, 536
core imitation circuitry, 544–45
empathy, 546–47
imitative learning, 545–46
evolutionary and methodological considerations of, 543–44
neonatal, 532
neural precursors of, 543
vocal learning and, 547–48
Immune function
social neuroscientific pathways linking social support to, 806
Immune response
chronology of, 135–37
to vaccination, 138
Immune system
contamination, 137–38
disease, 137–38
immune response, chronology of, 135–37
infection, 137–38
Implicit Association Test (IAT), 220, 222, 369
Impression formation, 412–13, 419–30
appearance-based, 426–28, 428f, 429f
and intentional prediction, relationship between, 428–30
interaction-based, 424–26
secondhand information-based, 420–24 (p. 1087)
content-specific representations, 424
subsequent neural responses to others, changing, 423–24
social versus nonsocial, 422–23
Inclusion of Other in Self scale (IOS), 497
Inclusive fitness, 568
Independent component analysis (ICA), 92, 110, 545–46
Indignation, 478, 480–83, 483f, 487
Individualism-collectivism, 746, 748, 750, 754
culture-gene coevolution of, 756, 757f
Individuals, recognition of, 42–43
Induced brain activity, 106, 112. See also Brain activity
Infants. See also Human infants’ crying; Human infants’ vocal sounds, melodic development of; Newborn infants
autism spectrum disorder in, 231, 849
communicate with, using melody, 627–29
disengagement, development of, 230
effect of ventromedial prefrontal cortex on social cognition, 937
executive function development of, 233–34
hominine, 627
melody, inherent appreciation of, 629–31
mirror neuron system activity in, 532
orienting, development of, 229–30
response to babies’ faces, 436
response to face familiarity, 435
response to facial attractiveness, 438–39
response to facial expressions, 437
Infant-directed speech (IDS), 627–29. See also Speech
Inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), 840, 993f
activity associated with deception, 963, 963f, 968
role in emotion perception, 555
role in self-face recognition, 319
role in self-recognition, 327
Inferior frontal sulcus (IFS), 840
Inferior occipital cortex, role in self-face recognition, 320. See also Cortex
Inferior occipital gyrus (IOG), role in face expression, 400
Inferior parietal lobe
activity associated with deception, 963, 963f
role in self-face recognition, 319–20
Inferior temporal cortex. See also Cortex
primate, 694–95
role in emotion recognition, 254
Infinite impulse response (IIR), 108
Inflammation, 814–24
acute, 814, 815f
associated with depression, 819–21
associated with chronic diseases, 820
depression treatment, impact of, 819
in epidemiological and clinical studies, association between, 819–20
pharmacologically-induced, 819
associated with negative emotions, 820, 821f
behavioral pathways linking, 822
physiological pathways linking, 822–23
associated with social relationships, 821–22
associated with stress, 820–21
acute, 817–18
chronic, 818–19
modular mechanisms linking, 823
physiological pathways linking, 824f
chronic, 814, 816, 816f
health behaviors associated with, 823f
and mood, bidirectional relationships between, 820
Influence model, 954
Innate immune cells, 136
Institute for Scientific Information (ISI), 23
Instrumental aggression, 896–97. See also Aggression
Insula, 201–2
activity associated with social preferences, 950
activity associated with strategic thinking, 956–57
in empathy, role of, 558–59
role in body posture and movement, 261
role in emotion recognition, 257–61
role in task distraction, 280
Insular cortex, 199f. See also Cortex
role in attitude expression, 213
Intelligence, 302, 320, 381, 837, 860, 900
and functional connectivity, relationship between, 303–4
Machiavellian, 29, 30, 39–40, 46
strategic, 952, 956, 957
Intentional altruism, 567. See also Altruism
Intentional deception, 1017–18
Intentionality competencies, in primates, 34–35, 35f. See also Primates
Intentional trait inferences, 408
Intentionality Detector (ID), 986
Interaction-based impression formation. See also Impression formation
experience-based, 425–26
for predicting others’ intentions, 424–26
Interethnic ideology, 758
Interferon (IFN)-α, 819, 823
Interferon (IFN)-γ, 820
Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), 793, 815, 817–20, 823
Interleukin-2 (IL-2), 819
Interleukin-6 (Il-6), 789, 793, 796–98, 806, 815, 817–23
Interleukin-8 (IL-8), 818, 822
Interleukin-10 (IL-10), 815
Intermediate phenotypes, 831, 832f. See also Endophenotypes
Intermittent explosive disorder, 897
International Affective Picture System (IAPS), 282, 407, 510–13, 913, 914, 922
Interoceptive cortex in empathy, role of, 558. See also Cortex
Interparietal sulcus (IPS), 993f
Interpersonal behavior, alcohol’s effects on, 407–8. See also Behavior
Interpersonal Reactivity Index
Perspective Taking subscale, 62
Interpersonal self-esteem defense, 604–7
future directions of, 609
implications of, 609–10
negative associations with striatum, 605f, 607
positive associations with amygdala, 605f, 606–7
positive associations with dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, 605–6, 605f
on positive self-evaluations, 607–8
on social exclusion, 608
Interpersonal warmth, 497–98. See also Warmth
Intersubjective coordination
impact on learning, 657–59, 657f
Intonation, 630, 631, 637, 643n8, 676. See also Language; Speech
Intraparietal sulcus (IPS), 749
Intrapersonal self-esteem defense, 601–4
future directions of, 609
implications of, 609–10
negative associations with dorsal anterior cingulate cortex activity, 602–4, 602f
negative associations with orbitofrontal cortex activity, 601, 602f, 603, 604
positive associations with medial prefrontal cortex activity, 602f, 603, 604
on positive self-evaluations, 607–8
on social exclusion, 608
Inverse modeling problem, MEG/EEG source estimation, 114–15
ill-posed, 115
Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), 64, 510
Iowa Scales of Personality Change, 63
Iterated beliefs, 951–53. See also Beliefs
Iterative-reprocessing model, 173–74
(p. 1088) J
Jealousy, 207, 252, 710. See also Emotion(s)
K
Keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), 139
Kin selection, 569
theory of, 568
L
Language, 668–77
comprehension, 670
neural mechanisms of, 675–76
evolution of, 641–42, 668–70
motor neuron system, role of, 534–35
form and meaning of, 668
I language, 669
and music, relationship between, 626–27
new motor theory of, 670–74
origin of, 627
production, 670, 671
protolanguage, 641
spoken, 674–75
Language acquisition
arousal as mechanism, 656–57
attention as mechanism, 656–57
critical period for, 650–51, 650f
in human infants, 625
intersubjective coordination as mechanism, 657–59, 657f
language learning, social interaction effects on, 656
phoneme, 651
problems in, 650
sense of relationship as mechanism, 659–60
social learning, neurobiological foundations of, 663
socially adapted brain as mechanism, 660–61
social mechanisms in, 649–64
statistical learning, 652–54, 653f, 654f
social interaction effects on, 654–56, 655f
timing of learning, 652, 652f
word learning, 651–52
Language learning, social interaction effects on, 656. See also Learning
neurobiology of, 663–64
Late positive potential (LPP), 406
Latency
error-related negativity, 235, 237
saccadic, 231
Latent herpes viruses, monitoring reactivation of. See also Viral reactivation
assessment of, 144
virus-specific antibody levels, quantification of, 144–45
principle and relevance of, 143–44
Lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus (LGN), 398
Lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). See also Cortex
role in altruistic/self-serving motivations, 480, 480f
Lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC). See also Prefrontal cortex
anatomy of, 351, 352f
anterolateral, 352, 353, 353f
Brodmann map of, 351, 351f
contributions to goal-directed social behavior, 354–57, 355f
damage and behavior dysregulation, 363–64
dorsolateral, 353, 353f, 355f
evolutionarily adaptive neural architecture for, 351–54, 355f
functional neuroanatomy of, 365
ontogenetic map of, 353, 353f
role in emotion regulation, 370
role in maintaining positive self-image, 330
role in memory retrieval process, 328
role in regulating appetitive behaviors, 367
role in regulating racial bias, 369
role in thought suppression, 368
during socioemotional processing, age effects in, 512
ventrolateral, 351, 353, 353f, 354, 355f
Lateral temporal cortex. See also Cortex
role in memory retrieval process, 328
Learning
associative, 184
belief, 955
feedback-based, 183, 186, 189
Hebbian, 531–32, 535, 984, 986
imitation, 545–46, 745, 977
impact of arousal on, 656–57
impact of attention on, 656–57
impact of intersubjective coordination on, 657–59, 657f
impact of sense of relationship on, 659–60
impact of socially adapted brain on, 660–61
influences of reward components on, 183–84, 185f, 186
intact, 183
language
social interaction effects on, 656, 663–64
by observation of conspecifics, 977–78
passive avoidance, 895, 898
reinforcement, 954, 955
reversal, 218, 895, 897, 898
reward-based reinforcement, 977
second-language, 650–51
social gating hypothesis, 656
statistical, 652–54
social interaction effects on, 654–56, 655f
stimulus-reinforcement, 898
stimulus-response, 183
timing of, 652, 652f
vocal, 547–48
word, 651–52
Learning disabilities (LD)
social impairments, developmental origin of, 849
spectrum on behavioral and cognitive impairments, 851
LEAS, 913
Left-hemisphere dominance, for self-face recognition, 326. See also Self-face recognition
research
Lesion method research, in cognitive neuroscience, 49–65
applications of
empathy, 59–63
moral judgment, 58–59
sex differences, 63–65
case study approach, 52–53, 54
challenges to, 51
difficulties of, 51
group study approach, 53–54
limitations of, 51–52, 56–58
multiple case study approach, 54
techniques, 54–56
Lesion studies, 747
of antisocial personality disorders, 888
for ToM deficits in neurological patients, 935, 937–39
on intrapersonal self-esteem defense, 601t
Lexithymia, 907, 909
Library, 340
Liebermeister test, 56
Lie-detection, 963, 964–66, 965f
countermeasures to, 967–68
ecological validity, problem of, 968
forensic, 968–69
in psychiatry, 969–70
in psychotherapy, 969–70
Locomotor activity, social-rank related differences in, 720–21
Loneliness, 765–72. See also Social isolation
embodied, 767–71
evolutionary model of
implications and extensions of, 766–67
neural basis of, 50
regulatory loop, 771–72, 772f
LORETA method, 124
Loving-kindness, 552
Luminex systems, 140
Lymphoid immune cells, 137
M
Macaque monkey,. See also Monkeys
social behavior of, 683–84, 686–88
stereotypic thoughts, control of, 733
(p. 1089) Machiavellian intelligence, 29, 30, 39–40, 46. See also Intelligence
Machiavellian intelligence hypothesis, 29, 30
Machiavellianism and alexithymia, 926–27
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 70f, 97, 294–95
of adolescence brain development, 995–97, 996f
for behavioral deficits, 54–55
for conduct disorder, 889
data acquisition, 98
diffusion-tensor imaging, 118
diffusion-weighted, 70f, 80
echo-planar, 70f, 81
for functional connectivity abnormalities associated with Asperger syndrome, 875
geometrical registration, multimodal, 104, 105f
T1-weighted, 70f, 80, 81
T2-weighted, 70f, 80, 81
T2*-weighted, 77, 78f, 80, 81
Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), 295
Magnetization transfer ratio (MTR), 296, 306
Magnetization-transfer imaging (MT), 295
Magnetoencephalography (MEG), electromagnetic brain mapping using, 69, 97–129, 554, 747, 979
benefits of, 103, 104f
data acquisition, 106–8
data pre-processing
advanced data correction techniques, 108–10
connectivity/complexity analysis, 112–13
digital filtering, 108, 109f
induced responses across trials, 112
phase-locked evoked-response potentials across trials, 110–11, 111f
electromagnetic fields, physiological sources of, 98–100, 99f
electromagnetic source imaging, 113–29
event-related paradigm design for, 106, 107f
geometrical registration, multimodal, 104, 105f
for human mirror neuron system, 528–30
instrumentation, 101–3, 101f
scales of magnetic fields in, 103f
source modeling, 114–29, 114f
appraisal of, 125–29
beamformers, 122–23
confidence intervals, 125–26, 127f
dipole fitting, 119–21
distributed source imaging, 123–25, 124f, 125f
forward, 114
head tissues modeling, 116–19, 118f
ill-posed inverse, 115
inverse, 114–16
model selection, emergent approaches for, 128–29
neural generators models, 116
sensor array modeling, 116
signal classification approaches, 122–23
source localization vs. source imaging, 119, 120f
spatial-filters, 122–23
statistical inference, 126–28, 128f
subject preparation, 103–6
working with ultra-sensitive sensors, 102
Main effects model, of social support, 805, 805t, 807, 809
Major depression disorders, 246, 369, 370, 577, 717, 759, 821, 1019. See also Depression
Male parental behavior, 154. See also Behavior; Maternal behavior
Mammals. See also Chimpanzee(s); Elephants, Humans; Mice; Monkeys; Pigs; Rabbit; Rats; Whales
generalized emotional brain in, 199f
pair bond formation in, 152–53
separation distress in, 588
MAO-A genetic polymorphism, associated with aggression, 779
MAP-3 tool, 55
Massage therapy, for stress, 141
Maternal behavior. See also Behavior
social-bond formation, 154
Maximum a posteriori (MAP), 123
Medial occipital cortex, 71. See also Cortex
Medial orbotofrontal cortex. See also Orbotofrontal cortex
activity associated with social preferences, 950
Medial parietal cortex, 421f. See also cortex
Medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), 157, 172, 993f. See also cortex
activity associated with alexithymia, 914, 921f
activity associated with antisocial behavior, 887
activity associated with beliefs and choices, 951
activity associated with intrapersonal self-esteem defense, 602f, 603, 604
activity associated with predicted reward, 954
activity associated with strategic thinking, 953, 956
dorsal, 330, 421f, 422, 424
effect on human reward system, 179–82, 179f
role in altruistic/self-serving motivations, 480f
role in emotion recognition, 254, 260, 261
role in emotion regulation, 369–70
role in impression formation, 422, 424–27
role in maintaining positive self-image, 329, 330
role in memory retrieval process, 328, 329
role in political attitude, 222
role in self-evaluation, 320–21
role in social status-related cognition, 710–11
during socioemotional processing, age effects in, 510–12, 514–16, 515f, 515t
ventral, 184, 421f, 480f
ventromedial, 352, 361–63, 365, 367
Mediational model, of emotion regulation, 615–16, 615f. See also Emotion:regulation of
Melodic software, 85
Melody, 624–43. See also Human infants’ vocal sounds, melodic development of; Music
anticipation of continuity, 626–27
inherent appreciation of, by infants, 629–31
as message, 641–42
motherese, social and communicative function of, 627–29
Memory
autobiographical, 327–28
emotional, 512–13
episodic, 266
odor-evoked, 265–75
performance, cultural variation in, 751, 753f
transactive, 500
Mental states, imaging, 1017–18
Mentalizing. See Theory of mind
Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy, 413–14
Methamphetamine
effects on social dominance, 723
Mice, social isolation impact on, 5. See also Animals; Mammals
Midbrain, 293
Middle cingulate cortex, 421f. See also Cortex
self-referential processing in, 837
Middle temporal gyrus (MTG)
role in maintaining positive self-image, 330
(p. 1090) Miltown, for manipulating normal brain function, 1019
Minimum-norm (MN) model, 124–25
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2, 63
Mirror neuron system (MNS), 321–22, 341, 494, 525–37, 669, 978–79
activity in children, 532
activity in infants, 532
dysfunctions of, 536
associated with autism spectrum disorder, 868–69
emotions and, 533
for empathy, role of, 554–56, 568–69
in humans
existence of, 528
localization of, 528–30
in monkeys, 525–28, 526f
action discrimination, 528
auditory, 528
object directed actions of, 526–27
occlusion of, 528
motor
action recognition, 533
imitation, 533–34
language, evolution of, 534–35
learning by observation, 535
prediction, 535
support mentalizing, 535–36
object and non-object directed actions of, 530
anticipation, 531
auditory, 530–31
correlation with empathy, 531
goals and means of, 530
pain and, 533
plasticity and development
expertise, 531
Hebbian learning, 531–32
neonatal imitation, 532
training, 531
primate, 692–93
touch and, 532–33
Mirror-recognition, 316–17, 320
Mirror touch synesthesia, 536–37
Mobius syndrome, 555
Moderational model, of emotion regulation, 616–18, 616f. See also Emotion:regulation of
Modular composition, of melody complexity, 638, 640
Monkeys. See also Animals; Chimpanzee; Cynomolgus monkeys; Macaque monkey; Mammals; Rhesus macaque; Squirrel monkeys; Titi monkey
altruistic behavior in, 569
consolation behavior in, 571
formation of social hierarchy in, 717, 718
imitative behavior in
evolutionary and methodological considerations of, 543–44
neural precursors of, 543
vocal learning and, 547–48
impact of social isolation on, 5
mirror neuron system in, 525–28, 526f
action discrimination, 528
auditory, 528
object directed actions, 526–27
occlusion of, 528
motor neuron system in, localization of, 554
sensitivity to speaker’s vocal identity, in right anterior temporal lobe, 388
social preferences of, 950–51
traits or behavior in, 40–41
voice selectivity in auditory cortex, 382, 383f
Monte-Carlo simulation, 126
Mood and inflammation, bidirectional relationships between, 820
“Mood as information” model, 573
Moral versus psychopathy, 22f
Moral judgment, 58–59
Moral knowledge
cognitive-anatomical definition of, 484–85, 484f
context-dependent and -independent forms of, 485, 485f
Moral motivations, 479–84. See also Motivation
altruistic and self-serving motivations, 479–81
cognitive-anatomical definition of, 479
Moral reasoning
cognitive-anatomical definition of, 485, 487
fronto-limbic top-down control models of, 487
fronto-temporo-mesolimbic integration models of, 487–88
Moral responsibility, 1021–22
Moral sentiments, 478
functional imaging studies of, 482–83, 483f
other-critical, 482
relationship with altruism, 481–83
Moral value, 479
Morphine
effects on social dominance, 723
Motherese, social and communicative function of, 627–29
Mother-infant attachment, 153. See also Attachment
Motion correction, preprocessing fMRI data, 86
Motivation
altruistic, 479–81
moral, 479–84
self-serving, 479–81
Motivational components, of reward system, 182–83. See also Human reward system; Rewards
Motor interference effect, 980
Motor priming effect, 980
Motor resonance, in social cognition, 978
Motor theory, of empathy, 555. See also Empathy
μ-Opioid receptor gene, 767, 778
Mu rhythm suppression
over sensorimotor cortex during action perception, 554–55
Multicolinearity, 77
Multilevel analysis, 12
Multiple-arc melodies and rhythmical variations, 636–37, 637f
Multiple determinism, 6, 12
Multiple signal classification (MUSIC), 122–23
Music and language, relationship between, 626–27. See also Melody
N
Naloxone, 156
Narcissism, 317
National Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI), 1022
National Institutes of Health, 683
Natural selection, 743f, 744, 748
Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), 435, 628, 662
Negativity bias, 168, 169f, 170
Neglect and psychopathy, 898, 899
Neocortex
behavioral patterns associates with, 33–34
volume, executive function competencies associated with, 34–35, 35f
NEO Five-Factor Inventory, 247
Neonatal imitation, 532. See also Imitation
Neonates’ crying, basic melody types of, 633–35, 633f, 635f
NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R), 246–48
Neophobia, 155
Neural basis, of emotional processing, 198–99. See also Emotion(s)
Neural commitment, 651
Neural endophenotypes. See also Endophenotypes
of social behavior in autism spectrum conditions, 830–42
Neural generators models, 116
Neural network, 325, 326, 328, 330, 331, 978
Neural response
to babies’ faces, 437
to face familiarity, 436
to facial attractiveness, 439
to facial expressions, 437
Neuroeconomics, 69
(p. 1091) Neuroendocrine function
social neuroscientific pathways linking social support to, 805–6
Neuroethics, 1015–23
of brain imaging, 1016, 1018–19
emergence of, 1015–16
of human rights, 1022
of imaging mental states, 1017–18
of imaging psychological traits, 1016–17
of moral responsibility, 1021–22
of neuroendocrine manipulation, 1020–21
psychopharmacology and brain stimulation, developments in, 1019–20
of religion and spirituality, 1022
of self and personal identity, 1022–23
Neuroethics, 1016
Neurogenetics, 748–49
Neuroimaging experiments, in humanoid robots, 982–83
arms and hand movements, 982
facial expressions of emotions, 983, 983f
Neuroimaging Informatics Tools and Resources Clearinghouse (NITRC), 94
Neuroimaging studies, of social rewards, 184, 186. See also Social rewards
Neuromarketing, 1017
Neuronal recycling theory, 749–50
Neuropeptide hormones, 154
Neuroplasticity theory, 750
Neuropsychological perspectives, of social neuroscience, 49–65
Neurovariation theory, 750
Newborn infants. See also Infants
perceptual preferences for melodies and rhythms, 630–31
NF-κB, 770, 821, 823
Nihilism, 1021–23
NLGN4X, 842
Nonadditive determinism, 6, 12
Non-congruent neuron system, 526, 527
Nonhuman primates, social cognition in, 41–42. See also Primates
Non-rapid eye movement (NREM) parasomnias, 203
Non-verbal learning disability, 851
versus Asperger syndrome, 861–62
Normalization, preprocessing fMRI data, 86–87
NR3C1 gene, 770
NTRK1, 842
Nucleus accumbens (NAcc), 157, 171, 158, 199f
effect on human reward system, 179–81, 179f
role in affective reactions, 200, 201
role in attitude expression, 214, 215
role in body posture and movement, 261
role in memory retrieval process, 328
role in regulating appetitive behaviors, 366, 367
Nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), 158
O
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), 861
Occipitoparietal cortex. See also Cortex
status-related differential neural response in, 707
Oculomotor orienting, in self-regulation of action, 734. See also Action(s)
Odor-evoked memory, 265–75. See also Memory
characteristics of, 269–74
emotionality, 270–72
evocativeness, 270–72
rarity, 272–73
vividness, 270
methodology and findings, history of, 266–69
phenomenology of, 274
Off-loading cognition, 499–500. See also Cognition
Olfaction, 265, 553
and emotion, neuroanatomical connection between, 272
Ongoing brain activity, 103, 111, 112. See also Brain activity
Ontogeny explanation, for trait/behavior, 41
Openness to experience, 244–49. See also Five-factor model, of personality
Operant conditioning, 339. See Conditioning
Opiates, 587–88
Opioids
effects on social dominance, 723
and pair bonding, 156–57
Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), 852, 886
Optimism, 779, 781
Oral wound healing, 141. See also Wound healing
comparison with dermal wound healing, 142–43
Orbital prefrontal cortex. See also Prefrontal cortex
damage associated with alterations in personality and behavior, 937
Orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), 82, 421f. See also Cortex
activity associated with antisocial behavior, 887, 888
activity associated with intrapersonal self-esteem defense, 601, 602f, 603, 604
activity associated with reversal learning, 897
dorsolateral, 218
effect on human reward system, 179–83, 179f
medial, 950
personality traits and, 247
primate, 693–94
response to face familiarity, 436
role in attitude change, 218–19
role in attitude expression, 213
associated with subjective evaluation, 215
role in attitude formation, 217
role in body posture and movement, 261
role in emotion recognition, 253–54
role in face expression, 399, 400
role in reward-based reinforcement learning, 977
role in selective attention, 281
ventromedial, 218
Orienting, 227, 228–29
in clinical populations, 231–33
development of
in adolescence, 230
in adulthood, 230
in childhood, 230
in infancy, 229–30
endogenous, 228
exogenous, 228
impaired, 232
nonsocial, 231
perturbations in, 232–33
reflexive, 230
social, 231
volitional, 230
Overt actions, 336. See also Action(s)
Oxytocin (OT), 154, 186, 842, 1020–21
effect on social bonding, 154, 155, 158–60, 159f
exogenous, 156, 160
intranasal administration of, 155–56
Oxytocin receptor (OXTR), 766–67, 842
P
P2, 975. See also Humanoid robots
P3, 975. See also Humanoid robots
Pain
empathic brain responses to, 553–54, 556, 557
cognitive appraisal effects on, 557
and mirror neuron system, 533
Pair bonding, 33. See also Social bonding
Paired-associate cross-modal paradigm, 267, 267f, 271
PANAS scale, 200
Parabrachial nucleus (PBN), 199, 199f
(p. 1092) Paracingulate sulcus
hypoactivation during self-introspection, 836
Parahippocampal cortex. See also Cortex
status-related differential neural response in, 708
Paramecia, positive affect in, 198
Parasympathetic nervous system, 152
Parkinson’s disease, 183
Partial Least Squares (PLS), 92
Partial volume effect, 924
Passive avoidance learning, 158, 895, 897, 898. See also Learning
Pavlovian conditioning. See Classical conditioning
P-beauty contest, 953
Pentobarbital
effects on social dominance, 723
Pepsi®, 182
Perament and Character Inventory, 246
Perception, 498–99
dissociation between action and, 337–38
person. See Person perception
self-regulation of, 734
visual, 750–51, 752f
voice, 378–91
Perception-action model
of altruism, 568. See also Altruism
of empathy, 554. See also Empathy
Perception of Affect Task (PAT), 911
Perceptual symbol systems (PSS), 493–95, 498
Periaqueductal gray (PAG), 199f
role in distress vocalization, 588
Person perception, 404–14. See also Perception
cognitive neuroscience studies of, 405–11
functional neuroimaging studies, 411–14
emotion perception, 413–14
impression formation, 412–13
social categorization, 411–12
social neuroscience perspectives of, 405
Personal identity, 1022–23
Personality, 243–49
biological origins of, 244–45
defined, 243–44
five-factor model of, 244
and neuroscience, integrating, 247–49
resting-state neural correlates of, 246–47
Perspective-taking, 40–42, 62, 260, 285, 318, 356, 467, 552, 561, 567, 568, 865, 938, 940, 941, 956, 957, 986
Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS), 850, 851, 860
Phonagnosia, 380–81
Phoneme, 651
Phylogeny explanation, for trait/behavior, 41
Physical pain and social pain, overlap between
individual differences hypothesis, 591, 592f
linguistic evidence, 587
manipulation hypothesis, 595f:social pain potentiation effects, 592–93
aggressive behaviors, 594–95
physical pain potentiation effects, 594
physiological stress responses, 595
social pain regulation effects, 593–94
neural evidence, 588–90, 589f
pharmacological evidence, 587–88
Picrosirius red staining, 142
Pigeons, mirror self-recognition of, 316
Piglets, social isolation impact on, 5. See also Animals
Pigs. See also Animals; Guinea pigs; Mammals
impact of social isolation on, 5
Pity, 482
Plasticity and development, mirror neuron system
expertise in, 531
Hebbian learning, 531–32
neonatal imitation, 532
training for, 531
Political attitude, 221–22. See also Attitude; Social looking
Population genetics, 759
Positivity effect, 508, 510–13
Positivity offset, 168, 169f
Positrom emission tomography (PET), 69, 97, 747, 979
for action observation
humans versus robots, 982, 984, 985
for functional connectivity abnormalities associated with Asperger syndrome, 875
of human mirror neuron system, 528, 529
for limbic activation during, 967
Posner model, of attention, 228. See also Attention
Post healing period, 142
Posterior attention networks, 229
Posterior attention system, 229–33. See also Attention
cingulated
Posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), 421f. See also Cortex
activity associated with antisocial behavior, 888–89
activity associated with strategic thinking, 953
role in body posture and movement, 261
role in impression formation, 424
role in maintaining positive self-image, 329
Posterior insula, role in self-recognition, 327
Posterior parietal lobe, 229
Posterior prefrontal cortex, 201. See also Cortex; Prefrontal cortex
Posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), 993f. See also Superior temporal sulcus
hypoactivation associated with autism spectrum conditions, 835
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 369, 370, 897
alexithymia with, 923
associated with inflammation, 820
Power, 496–97, 498
Prairie voles, pair bonding in, 152, 153. See also Animals
dopamine receptors, effects of, 157
impact of developmental factors on, 159
social isolation, effects of, 155
Precuneus
activity associated with autism spectrum disorder, 836
activity associated with strategic thinking, 952, 956–57
activity associated with emotions, 399
intelligence and functional connectivity in, 303
Prediction and psychological inference, fMRI for, 72
Prefrontal cortex, 199f. See also Cortex
activity associated with antisocial behavior, 886–87
-amygdala down-regulation, 730–33, 735–36
anterior ventral, 480
associated with distancing, 284
associated with reinterpretation, 283–84
damage and behavior dysregulation, 361–64
effect on humans reward system, 180
functional neuroanatomy of, 364–66
and goal-directed social behavior, 348–57
evolutionarily adaptive neural architecture, 351–54
intrinsic and extrinsic connectivity of, 730, 732f
ontogenetic map of, 353, 353f
orbital, 937
posterior, 201
right ventrolateral, 780
role in affective reactions, 200, 201
(p. 1093)
role in attitude expression, 213
associated with subjective evaluation, 215–16
role in emotion regulation, 369–70
role in facial expression, 400
role in intentional control, 730, 731f
role in maintaining positive self-image, 329–30
role in memory retrieval process, 328
role in regulating racial bias, 369
role in selective attention, 280
role in selective construal, 281
role in self-awareness, 320
role in task distraction, 280
role in thought suppression, 368–69
ventral, 479
ventrolateral, 280, 281, 283, 512, 963, 965
Pretend play, 326
Pride, 184, 196, 206, 252, 317, 478, 481, 482–83, 483f, 576. See also Emotion(s)
Primary reinforcers, 178, 181. See also Rewards
Primary visual cortex, 71. See also Cortex
Primate social behavior, neurobiology of, 683–95
neural systems approach to social brain, 684–86
social brain, putative structures of
amygdala, 689–90
anterior cingulate cortex, 690–92
inferior temporal cortex, 694–95
mirror neurons, 692–93
orbitofrontal cortex, 693–94
social processing, model of, 688–89, 688f
Primates
behavior, effects of amphetamine on, 6
evolution of large brains in, 28–29, 29f
ontogenetic hypotheses, 29
ecological hypotheses, 29
social hypotheses, 29, 30
testing of hypotheses, 30–33, 32f
behavioral patterns associated with cognitive mechanisms, 33–34
executive function competencies associated with relative neocortex volume, 34–35, 35f
evolution of relative brain size in, 46
evolution of social vision in, 397
model, formation of social hierarchy in, 717–18
nonhuman primates, social cognition in, 41–42
vocalization, prosodic properties in, 625
Priming
cultural, 747, 754
sequential, 450–51
supraliminal, 340, 341
Principal Components Analysis (PCA), 92, 110, 122
Prisoner’s Dilemma, 40, 1017
Private self-awareness, 316–17. See also Self-awareness
Proactive aggression, 885. See also Aggression
Production, 670
Proliferation assays, 135
Prosocial behavior, 184, 568. See also Behavior
Prosociality, genetic effects on, 841
Prosody, 643n8
Prosopagnosia, 380
and expressive agnosia, dissociation between, 399
Protolanguage, 641. See also Language
Prozac, for major depressive disorder, 1019
Psychiatry, fMRI-based lie-detection in, 969–70
Psychoactive drugs, for manipulating normal brain function, 1019–20
Psycho-education. See also Education
for stress induced by wound healing, 141
Psychological altruism, 567, 573. See also Altruism
Psychological scaffolding, 500
Psychological traits, imaging, 1016
Psychology
emotion research in, 196–97
experimental, 204
of learning, 491
social, 491
Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI), in vivo assessment of, 134–45
Psychopathy, 895–902
alexithymia versus, 927
cognitive neuroscience of, 897–98
defined, 895–96
due to early physical/sexual abuse, 898
due to early neglect, 898
moral versus, 22f
for social cognitive neuroscience, implications of, 900–901
Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), 895, 926
Psychopathy Checklist–Youth Version, 896
Psychophysics studies, of human mirror neuron system, 529
Psychophysiological interaction method (PPI), 922
Psychosomatic disorders, 922
Psychotherapy, fMRI-based lie-detection in, 969–70
Public self-awareness, 317–18. See also Self-awareness
Punch biopsies, 141–42. See also Dermal wound healing; Wound healing
Putamen
effect on human reward system, 179, 179f, 180, 182
Q
QRIO, 975, 984. See also Humanoid robots
Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), 145
Questionnaire Measure of Emotional Empathy (QMEE), 841
R
Rabbit. See also Animals; Mammals
impact of social isolation on, 5
Race, 369, 409–11, 410f
bias in response latencies, 450–51
effects on event-related brain potentials, 447
perceiver and target group membership, effects of, 447–49
Race-biased emotion, self-regulation of, 735–36
Racial categorization
amygdala activity associated with, 412
fusiform gyrus activity associated with, 411–12
Racial discrimination, 220–21
Random field theory (RFT), 87
Rank order test, 56
Rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP), 106
Rarity and odor-evoked memory, 272–73
Rats. See also Animals; Mammals
altruistic behavior in, 569
dopamine receptor effects on pair bonding, 157
impact of opiates on separation distress, 157
impact of social isolation on, 5
Reactive aggression, 885, 886, 896–97, 899. See also Aggression
Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test, 463t, 835, 838, 841
description of task, 465
links to functional outcome, 466
relationship to traumatic brain injury, 465–66
relationship to ventral frontal damage, 465–66
Reappraisal, 283. See also Appraisal
Reasoning, 953
Recall information, 405
Reciprocal altruism, 569–70. See also Altruism
theory of, 568
Reciprocal determinism, 6, 12
(p. 1094) Reciprocal innervation, 168
Reciprocity
impact on learning, 657
Recognition of Faux Pas Task, 456
Recursion, 669
Region of interest analysis (ROI), 55
Regularization, 115
Reinforcement learning, 954, 955. See also Learning
Reinterpretation, 283–84
Relationships, recognition of, 42–43
Relaxation techniques
for stress induced by wound healing, 141
Religion, 1022
Repeated Fixed Opponent Ultimatum Game, 61–62, 62f
Repliee Q2, 976f. See also Humanoid robots
perception of actions, 985
Repression, 970
Resident-intruder/social defeat model, 718
Response inhibition, 302, 365, 368, 459, 734, 963, 965, 968
in autism, neural basis of, 870
in patients with antisocial personality disorders, 886, 887
right frontal cortex associated with, 737
Response modulation, 278
Resting-state neural correlates, of personality, 246–47. See also Personality
Restricted maximum likelihood (ReML), 89
Retrosplenial cortex (RSpl). See also Cortex
activity associated with strategic thinking, 957
Rett’s disorder, 860
Reversal learning, 218, 895, 897, 898. See also Learning
Reverse inference, 1017
Reward-based reinforcement learning, 977. See also Learning
Rewards
circuit, 439
defined, 178, 181
monetary, 178, 181, 188f
predicted, 954
primary, 178, 187t, 188f
processing, 178
secondary, 178, 187t, 188f
social. See Social rewards
Rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta). See also Monkeys
early life stress induced by gene-environment interactions, 778
social behavior of, 683–84
social brain, putative structures of
amygdala, 689, 690
anterior cingulate cortex, 691
orbitofrontal cortex, 694
Rheumatoid arthritis, 815, 818
Right anterior temporal lobe, sensitivity to speaker’s vocal identity in, 387–88
Right medial frontal lobe
damage associated with alterations in personality and behavior, 938
Right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (RVLPFC). See also Prefrontal cortex
activity in regulating emotional responses to tasks, 781–82
responses to stress, 780
Right-hemisphere dominance, for self-face recognition, 326. See also Self-face recognition
“Risk as feelings” model, 573
Risk-taking behavior, 303. See also Behavior
RoboCub, 977
Rodent models, formation of social hierarchy in, 717
Rorschach Apperception Test, 926
Rourke syndrome, 861–62
Rubber-hand illusion (RHI), 327
S
Sadness, 184, 196, 197, 206, 244, 252, 260, 261, 283, 286, 438, 517, 555, 559, 577, 691, 769, 790, 819, 886, 898, 899, 967. See also Emotion(s)
Sarcasm/Irony Tasks, 463t
description of task, 467
links to functional outcome, 467–68
relationship to traumatic brain injury, 467
relationship to ventral frontal damage, 467
Schadenfreude, 186, 557, 573, 578, 950. See also Emotions
Schizoid personality disorder, 907
versus Asperger syndrome, 861
Schizophrenia, 246
Science Citation Index (SCI), 23
Secondary reinforcers, 178, 181. See also Rewards
Secondhand information-based impression formation, 420–24. See also Impression formation
content-specific representations, 424
subsequent neural responses to others, changing, 423–24
Selective attention, 280–81. See also Attention; Attention deployment
Selective construal, 281–82. See also Attention deployment
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)
for depression, 1021
for manipulating normal brain function, 1019
Self, 256, 325–32, 779, 1022–23
cognitive, 326, 327–29
cultural influences on neural representations of, 754, 755f
defined, 326
distinguished from other, 836–37
embodied, 326–27
emotional, 326, 329–30
as a unifying and unique entity, 330–31
Self-appraisal, emotional, 836. See also Appraisal
Self-awareness, 314–22
defined, 315–16
emotional, 836
private, 316–17
public, 317–18
role of brain regions in, 320
Self-deception, 970. See also Deception
Self-enhancement, 320
Self-evaluation, 320–21
Self-face recognition, 326–27. See also Self-recognition
left-hemisphere dominance for, 326
right-hemisphere dominance for, 326
Self-introspection, emotional, 836
Self-photograph recognition, 320
Self-recognition, 316, 319–20
Self-reference effect (SRE), 329
Self-referential processing
in autism spectrum conditions, 834t, 836–37
Self-reflection, 887
Self-regulation, 360–72, 551, 729–38
of action
control of, 736–37
goal-directed action, 733–34
inhibition of, 734, 737
oculomotor orienting in, 734
of appetitive behaviors, 366–68
attention to racial cues, 737–38
of emotions, 730–33
emotion regulation, 369–70
failure of, 371–72
intergroup bias, 738
in intergroup relations, 729–30
neural models of, 734–35
of perceptual processing, 734
to racial cues, 737–38
of race-biased emotion, 735–36
relies on a domain general resource, 371
of sensory input, 734
stereotypic thoughts, control of, 733
(p. 1095)
of stereotypes, 736
of thought, 368–69
Self-report paradox, 339
Self-serving motivations, 479–81. See also Motivation
Sensation-seeking behavior, 303. See also Behavior
Sense of relationship
impact on learning, 659–60
SENSE, 83
Sensor array modeling, 116
Sensory input, self-regulation of, 734
Sensory processing abnormalities, in patients with Asperger syndrome, 869
Sensu stricto hypothesis, 30. See also Social brain hypothesis
Serotonergic neurotransmitter system, 703–4
Serotonergic systems
effect of social defeat on, 722
Sex differences, 63–65
functional asymmetry of amygdala and, 64–65
functional asymmetry of ventromedial prefrontal cortex and, 63–64
in pair bonding, 154–55
in personality traits, 245
Sex hormones, influence in adolescence, 998–99
Shame, 206, 244, 252, 317, 478, 481, 788, 790, 793, 794, 796. See also Emotion(s)
associated with inflammation, 820
Shared attention, 986
Shared Attention Module (SAM), 986
Shared representation, 553
SICAM-1, 818
Signal classification approaches, 122–23
Signal space separation (SSS), 110
Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), 101, 122
Simulation, 493–95, 553, 836
Simulation of Smiles Model (SIMS), 500–503, 502f
Situation modification, 278
Situation selection, 278
Situational information, 419–20
Situational sampling, 747
64-item Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP-64), 925
SLC6A4 gene, 842
Sleep murders, 204
Slice timing correction, preprocessing fMRI data, 86
Smell, 265, 267, 269, 272
empathic brain responses to, 553
Smile(s). See also Facial expression
affiliative, 500, 502f
dominance, 500, 501, 502f
enjoyment, 500, 502f
Smoothing, preprocessing fMRI data, 87
Social affordances, recognition of, 43–44
Social anxiety, 155. See also Anxiety
Social attachment, 151–60. See also Attachment
Social baseline model, of emotion regulation, 618–19. See also Emotion:regulation of
Social behavior, 152. See also Behavior
adaptive, 227, 233
associates with cognitive mechanisms, 33–34
conscious emotions in, 206–8
unconscious emotions in, 206–8
Social bonding, 30, 31, 34, 151–60
autonomic nervous system, regulation of, 158–59
consequences of, 152
dopamine and, 157
early experiences and, 160
formation of, 153
impact of developmental factors on, 159–60
maternal behavior and, 154
measurement of, 152–53
opioids and, 156–57
proximity and, 153–54
social engagement and, 153–54
social isolation, effect of, 155
social recognition and engagement, 158
stress and gender differences in, 154–55
stress hormones and, 157–58
Social brain, 9–10, 184, 186–87, 456, 684, 939. See also Brain
defined, 993
evolutionary basis of, 28–35
functional development of, 997–98, 997f
neural systems approach to, 684–86
Social brain hypothesis, 30. See also Sensu stricto hypothesis
Social categorization, 411–12
automaticity of, 446–47
malleability of, 449–50
social group and activation of group-based associations link between, 450–51
Social class, 747
Social cognition, 491–503. See also Cognition
abstraction,