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date: 17 October 2019

Abstract and Keywords

This chapter examines the phenomenal diversity in developmental disorders and reconsiders it from a developmental perspective on neuro-cognitive-behavioral dimensions. It focuses on autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), developmental language disorder (DLD), and learning disabilities (LD). First, it attempts to provide a picture of atypical development beginning before diagnosis, based on the fragmented evidence obtained from ongoing research. Second, it introduces the concept of “spectrum,” a concept that is key to interpreting complex phenomena that manifest across developmental disorders. Third, it describes developmental trajectories observed in individuals with developmental disorders. Finally, the chapter documents a developmental model of ASD that explains the range of phenomena seen, including weaknesses (impairments) as well as strengths (enhanced skills), from the neuro-cognitive-behavioral perspective. In this framework, social neuroscience will contribute most to untangling the complexities and diversities of social cognition, and to uncovering how social cognition comes to function and how it can be compensated for when it fails to develop in a typical way.

Keywords: developmental disorders, taxonomic categories, prototypical conditions, developmental convergence, developmental divergence, parvocellular pathway (P-pathway), magnocellular pathway (M-pathway), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactiv

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