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date: 17 February 2020

(p. 447) Index

(p. 447) Index

Abe, Masao, 331–32
Adams, Marilyn, 161
Advaida Vedanta Hinduism. See Hinduism
African-Americans, 230
African religions
Akan, 337–49
and atheism, 347
and Christianity, 345–47
and evil, 341–45
and exclusivism, 347–49
and God as creator, 341–45
nature and character of, 340–41
noninstitutional character of, 337–40
and pluralism, 347–49
and salvation, 345, 348
and truth, 347–48
and women, 343
afterlife
Akan vs. Christian view of the, 347–48
Confucianism’s account of the, 363n5
feminist perspective on the, 417
and the Marxist critique, 154
Nhat Hanh’s emphasis on the, 333
and proselytizing, 290
and religious diversity, 433 See also salvation
agnosticism/agnostics
and the reasonableness of Christianity, 387
and religion in Europe, 201, 205–206
and religion in the United States, 208, 211
and religious belief, 32, 34, 36
and religious pluralism, 69
Agonshu, 218
Akan, 337–49
al-Ghazālī, 22, 162
al Qaeda, 268
alien, religious
and Brahman, 118
and conversion, 122, 125
description of the, 115–17
domestication of the, 117–19
and love’s embrace, 124–25
and Native Americans, 120
and religious violence, 116, 119–22, 125
shunning the, 119–22
and tolerance, 122–23, 125
Allah, 313, 402, 438
Qur’an as revelation of, 17, 161
and suffering, 162
Allen, Douglas, 26
Anderson, Pamela Sue, 405–20
anonymous Christian, 150–51
Anthony, Dick, 219
antievidentialism, 32–34
Antun, Farah, 399
apologetics, 31–34, 144
Aquinas, Thomas, 22–23, 83, 145
Athanasian Creed, 83, 85
atheism/atheists
and African religions, 347
and the anonymous Christian, 150
and Buddhism, 326
and Continental philosophy, 425, 427–30
in Europe, 205–06
and evil, 160
and John Hick, 147
and naturalism, 35, 433
and pluralism, 36
and religious violence, 266–69
as a response to religious diversity, 31–32
in the United States, 208
Atran, Scott, 438
Augustine, 382, 425
as Christian Platonist, 390
on domesticating the alien, 119
and exclusivism, 83
and John Calvin, 80, 145
and Judaism, 143
and Neoplatonic thought, 22
and theodicy, 159–60
Averroes, 394, 401
Avicenna (Ibn Sina), 22, 394
Axial Age, 17, 63, 68, 128, 257 (see also Second Axial Period)
Azadarmaki, Taghi, 53
Badiou, Alain, 421, 429–30
Balthasar, Hans Urs von, 150–51
Barth, Karl, 65, 113, 150
Basinger, David, 277–89
Bediako, Kwame, 203–04
Bellah, Robert, 48, 189, 222, 255
Benedict XVI, Pope, 64, 72 (see also Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger)
Benson, Bruce Ellis, 421–32
Berger, David, 369–70
(p. 448) Berger, Peter, 10, 154, 223, 266
Beyer, Peter, 185–200, 253
Bhagavad Gita, 165, 178, 312
Bible
and aggression, 269
and Christian belief, 381–82
in Christianity, 175
and comprehensive doctrines, 297
and the Enlightenment, 24
and feminist belief, 413, 422
and Jewish belief, 366, 369, 370, 371
in Judaism, 170–73
as written in a pluralist society, 21 See also revelation
black Muslims, 206, 231
black theology, 203, 230
Boyer, Pascal, 437
Brahman
and evil, 164, 165
and the religious alien, 118
and religious experience, 91, 95, 98
and religious pluralism, 63
and revelation, 178, 179
Brahminism/Brahmins, 63, 325, 328
Buddha
and Buddhist traditions, 322–28, 333
and a global ethic, 128
and Hinduism, 318
and interreligious dialogue, 113
and religious diversity in India, 313
and religious experience, 90, 91
and religious pluralism, 63, 64, 147
and revelation, 179, 181
and secularization, 244 See also enlightenment
Buddhadasa, Bhikkhu, 331
Buddhaghosa, 179
Buddhism/Buddhist
and atheism, 326
and Buddha, 322–28, 333
Chan, 361–62
and Confucianism and Daoism, 324–25, 327–28, 356, 357–59, 360, 362, 363n5
and exclusivism, 323–24
and inclusivism, 322–23
and interreligious diversity, 324–29
and intrareligious diversity, 321–24
and Jesus, 204, 330, 332–33
Mahayana, 17, 67, 93, 179, 224, 322–23, 326, 332, 333, 361
and recent developments, 329–34
and religious experience, 90–95
and religious violence, 325, 331, 332
and revelation, 178–80
and salvation/liberation, 325–28, 331
Theravada, 17, 39, 67
Tibetan, 11, 324
and tolerance, 322, 330–31, 333
and truth, 321, 323–27, 330–31, 333
Zen, 61, 63, 69, 324 See also enlightenment
Bullitt-Jonas, Margaret, 300–301
Burrell, David, 22, 152
Burton, David, 321–36
Bush, George W., 270–71, 300
Busia, K. A., 341–42, 344, 346
Byrne, Peter, 29–41, 69
Calvin, John, 66, 80–81, 145, 437
Caputo, John D., 421, 425–27, 428
Chappell, David, 325, 327, 328, 330, 331
Cheng, Chung-ying, 351–64
Chinese religions
characteristics of, 354–58
and diversity, 351–54
forms of conscience in, 358–62
and salvation, 361–63
and truth, 353–54
Chrétien, Jean-Louis, 421–24
Christianity/Christians
and African religions, 345–47
and the afterlife, 347–48
and agnosticism, 387
anonymous, 150
background to, 381–83
and the Bible, 175, 381–82
of color, 230–31
and conversion, 382–83
and creation and redemption, 383–87
and evil, 158–61
and exclusivism, 384–87
and naturalism, 387
and nonrealism, 391
and relations between Islam and Judaism, 393–97
and religious disagreement, 387–91
and religious experience, 90
and revelation, 142–43, 145, 148, 174–77, 382–83
and salvation, 381, 383–85
and women, 329, 381, 382 See also Jesus
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints. See Mormonism/Mormons
Clarke, Peter B., 214–25
coercion, religious, 84, 145
Collins, Patricia Hill, 53
confessionalism, 23, 36
Confucianism
and the afterlife, 363n5
in contrast to Buddhism and Daoism, 356, 357–59, 362, 363n5
establishment of, 355
and multiple modernities, 255
and religious pluralism, 62, 67
and revelation, 180
(p. 449)
as similar to Buddhism and Daoism, 325, 327–28 See also Chinese religions
Confucius, 128, 180–81, 352, 358–60, 368, 369
Continental philosophy
and atheism, 425, 427–30
and deconstruction, 424–25
and hermeneutics, 425–28
and phenomenology, 421–24
and religious violence, 424–25, 426
and salvation, 426
and truth, 426, 429–30
conversion
and Christianity, 382, 383
and interreligious dialogue, 106, 111
and Islam, 52
and Judaism, 369–70, 371, 377n11
and new religious movements, 217
and the religious alien, 122, 125
and religious diversity, 17
and religious studies, 23
Cousins, Ewert, 128
Dalai Lama, 68, 72, 330–31
damnation, 81, 145, 413
Danquah, J. B., 340–42, 344, 346
Daoism/Daoist
and religious pluralism, 62, 63
and revelation, 180
and Buddhism and Confucianism, 324–25, 327–28, 356, 357–59, 360, 362, 363n5
Darwin, Charles, 435–43
Dawkins, Richard, 212n9, 235n1, 247, 266, 439, 441
D’Costa, Gavin, 142–53
and inclusivism, 64, 67, 69, 70
and moral convergence, 39
demographics, religious
of Africa, Asia, and South America, 203–205
of Europe, 201–202, 205–208
of the United States, 208–11
of the Western world, 202–203
Dennett, Daniel, 266, 438–41
Derrida, Jacques, 421, 422–27, 428
dharma
and Buddhism, 321–22, 333
and Hinduism, 165, 313
and moral matters, 74
and religious relativism, 71–72
Dharmapala, Anagarika, 103
dialogue, interreligious
and Buddha, 113
contemporary importance of, 104–105
and conversion, 106, 111
definition and types of, 101–102
four dimensions of, 130–31
global, 127–29
history of, 103–104
in intercommunity, 109–12
and Judaism, 373–75
and moral matters, 74
for personal growth, 112–14
principles of, 106–107
and religious studies, 103
and religious violence, 105, 112, 114
theory of, 107–108
and truth, 114
and Vatican II, 103–104, 109, 148, 150, 151
Dillon, Michele, 42–56
discrimination, 285, 333, 393
diversity, religious
and the afterlife, 433
and atheism, 31–32
and Buddha, 313
and Chinese religions, 351–58
and conversion, 17
and cultural boundaries, 46–48
definition and description of, 9–10
and the Enlightenment, 24, 43
epistemological problems arising out of, 31–34
in Europe, 44–45
and globalization, 187–88
and Hinduism, 317
and homogeneity, 11–13
and Native Americans, 18–19
and naturalism, 439–41
in North America, 18–19
and practical challenges, 48–50
and primal religions, 16–17
suppression of, 13–16
in United States and Europe, 42–44
Dogen, 325, 328
Dougherty, K. D., 232
Durkheim, Emile, 24, 45–46, 48
Eck, Diana, 114n1, 289, 302n1, 303
Ecker, Bruce, 219
education, public
basic tension in, 247, 278
functional tensions in, 279–81
and indoctrination, 285–86
and Native Americans, 283
pedagogical tensions in, 281–88
and religious violence, 286
Eliade, Mircia, 25
Emden, Jacob, 367, 372
Emerson, Michael, 229, 233
Enlightenment
and Islam, 399
and Judaism, 368
and multiple modernities, 251, 254
and religious diversity, 24, 43
and religious pluralism, 146–47
enlightenment
and Buddhism, 179, 322–23, 325, 327–28, 361
and religious environmentalism, 294
and religious experience, 92–96
(p. 450) environmentalism, religious
diversity of, 297–99
and enlightenment, 294
and environmental crisis, 292–94
from many to one in, 300–302
and Native Americans, 296
and religious coercion, 291, 300–302
religious involvement in, 294–97
and tolerance, 291, 294
and truth, 290, 294, 297, 299, 301
eschatology, 68, 158, 160, 163, 365, 370–71
est (Erhard Seminar Training), 222
eternal damnation. See damnation
ethnicity. See race/ethnicity
Eurocentrism, 229
evangelism, 223, 228, 318, 427
evidentialism, 33–34
evil
and African religions, 341–45
and atheism, 160
and Brahman, 164, 165
and Christianity, 158–61
and Hinduism, 163–66
and Islam, 161–63
and Judaism, 155–58
and soul-making theodicy, 160
and ultimate reality, 154, 164, 165–66
exclusivism/exclusivists
actual personal, 80
and African religions, 347–49
and Augustine, 83
and Buddhism, 323–24
and Christianity, 384–87
clarified, 77–81
doxastic, 83–84
and feminism, 408–10
and God, 81–85
and Hinduism, 318–19
hypothetical personal, 80
and inclusivism, 85–87
and Jesus, 17, 86, 113, 300–301, 384
logical, 78–79
redemptive, 79–81
Reformed, 80–85
vs. religious pluralism, 65–66
and salvation, 65, 104
and truth, 49, 78
experience, religious
and Advaita Vedanta Hinduism, 91
and affective content, 95
and Brahman, 91, 95, 98
and Buddhism, 90–95
and Christianity, 90
descriptions of, 97–98
and enlightenment, 92–96
and evidence, 95–96, 98–99
and Hinduism, 90–91
interpretations of, 96–97
and Islam, 90
and Jainism, 90, 92–94
and Judaism, 89–90
structural differences of, 92–93 See also enlightenment
Fakhry, Majid, 393–402
Falun Gong, 122, 217
Feldman, Richard, 389–90
feminism
and the afterlife, 417
and the Bible, 413, 422
and feminist identity, 405–406
and gender blindness, 408–10
and liberation, 151
and myth and imagination, 410–13
and patriarchy, 148, 406
and a prophetic voice, 413–15
and religious exclusivism, 408–10
and religious violence, 410, 411, 413–14, 417
and revelation, 426
and salvation, 148, 406, 408–409, 411, 413, 416–17
and sexism, 412–13
and tolerance, 414
Finke, Roger, 49, 195, 257
Fletcher, Jeanine Hill, 148
Freud, Sigmund, 24, 129, 436, 445
Fukuyama, Francis, 186–87
fundamentalism, 188, 190–91, 194–95, 197, 253, 256, 272
Gadamer, Hans-Georg, 107–108, 112, 129
Gandhi, Mahatma, 267, 313–14
Gellman, Jerome, 390
gender. See feminism
Ghaly, Mohammed, 163
Gilroy, Paul, 47
Gilson, Etienne, 401
global ethic
basic principles of a, 132–34
and Buddha, 128
and dimensions of global dialogue, 130–31
elements of a, 131–34
and global dialogue, 127–29
and religious violence, 130, 139
and truth, 129–30, 133, 136, 137
Universal Declaration of a, 132–40
and women, 134–37, 138–39
globalization
and diversity, 187–88
and global identity, 185–86
and New Religious Movements (NRM), 188–89, 215–16, 218–19
and religiopolitical fundamentalisms, 190
and religious studies, 195–96
and secularization, 187, 194–95, 197
and spirituality, 192–93
and transnational migration, 191–92
(p. 451) “glocalization”, 217, 218–19
Gore, Al, 299
Gottlieb, Roger S., 290–303
Griffiths, Paul J., 31, 33, 115–26
Gross, Rita, 413–14
Gusfield, Joseph, 252, 255, 260
Gyekye, K., 342, 346, 347
Habermas, Jürgen, 50, 152
Hadith, 393
Hales, Stephen, 66, 71, 72
Hall, Penelope, 206
Ha-meiri, Menahem, 367
Hanciles, Jehu, 207
Hanh, Thich Nhat, 332–34
Haraway, Donna, 405, 407–408, 417
Hare Krishna, 214, 312
Hayes, Richard, 325, 327
Hebblethwaite, Brian, 68, 385
henofideism, 73
Heschel, Abraham Joshua, 372, 374, 375
Hick, John
and atheism, 147
and gender-neutrality, 408–09
and religious pluralism, 6n3, 37–39, 40n5, 64, 68–70, 72–73, 147–48, 348, 372–73, 391
and soul-making theodicy, 160 See also Pluralist Hypothesis
Hinduism/Hindus
Advaita Vedanta, 91
and Buddha, 318
and diversity, 317
and engagement with exclusive religions, 318–19
and evil, 163–66
identity of, 317–18
and Jainism, 313
and religious diversity, 317
and religious experience, 90–91
and religious tolerance, 312–14, 318
and religious violence, 165
and revelation, 178–80, 314, 318
and salvation/liberation, 318
soteriology in, 314–16
and truth 165, 310, 312, 316
and ultimate reality, 164, 165–66, 314
varieties of, 310–12
and the world’s religions, 309–11 See also Brahman; Brahminism/Brahmins; karma
Hitchens, Christopher, 266
Holocaust, 109, 111, 146, 373
hooks, bell, 411–13, 416–17
Hume, David, 62, 388, 434–36, 442–43
Huntington, Samuel P., 128, 140n1, 152, 186–87, 197, 253, 401
Hus, Jan, 15
Husserl, Edmund, 422–24
Hutchinson, Anne, 19
Hyujong, Ch’ongho, 325
I Ching (Yijing), 354–60, 362–63, 363n6
identity, racial, 229–31, 232–34 (see also race/ethnicity)
Idowu, Bolaji E., 343, 348
inclusivism/inclusivists
and Buddhism, 322–23
and exclusivism, 85–87
and Jesus, 85–87
and religious pluralism, 67–68
and salvation, 68, 80–86
and Vatican II, 64
indoctrination, 285–86
Internal Instigation of the Holy Spirit (IIHS), 33
interreligious dialogue. See dialogue, interreligious
intolerance. See tolerance/intolerance
Irenaeus, 160
Islam/Muslims
and conversion, 52
and the Enlightenment, 399
and evil, 161–63
and jihad/religious violence, 268, 273, 275
and modernists, liberals, and fundamentalists, 398–400
and multiple modernities, 256–57
and the Qur’an, 17, 393–98
and relations between Christianity and Judaism, 393–97
and religious experience, 90
and religious violence, 275n9
and revelation, 161, 177–78, 395
and salvation, 395
and tolerance, 394
and women, 45–47, 53, 105, 268 See also Muhammad
Jainism/Jains
and henofideism, 73
and Hinduism, 313
and relativism, 62–63, 72
and religious experience, 90, 92–94
as a world religion, 309
James, William, 24, 62–63
Jameson, Fredric, 258
Jantzen, Grace, 148
Jaspers, Karl, 128, 428
Jehovah’s Witnesses, 15, 123
Jesus
and anonymous Christian, 150–51
and atonement, 85, 383
and black theology, 230
and Buddhism, 204, 330, 332–33
and Christus Victor, 383–84
and exclusivism, 17, 86, 113, 300–301, 384
and God’s love, 79, 87
(p. 452) as good news, 153
and the incarnation, 69, 381–82, 426
and inclusivism, 85–87
Jewishness of, 109–10
and Judaism, 367, 371, 372
and liberation theology, 205
and religious peace, 272
and the resurrection, 31, 383
and revelation, 174–77
and salvation, 82, 85
and suffering, 158–59
Jews. See Judaism/Jews
jihad, 186, 187, 268, 275n9
John XXIII (Pope), 103
John Paul II (Pope), 71, 111, 112, 205, 401–2
Jones, Jim, 216
Judaism/Jews
and Augustine, 143
and the Bible, 170–73, 366, 369, 370, 371
and conversion, 369–70, 371, 377n11
and the Enlightenment, 368
and eschatology, 370–71
and evil, 155–58
and interfaith dialogue, 373–75
and Jesus, 109–10, 367, 371, 372
and Muhammad, 395–96
and relations between Islam and Christianity, 393–97
and religious experience, 89–90
and revelation, 72, 170–74, 368
and salvation, 365–70, 376
and tolerance, 370
and Torah, 372, 376n5
and truth, 368, 370, 371–73
and Vatican II, 373, 374
and views of other religions, 366–70
Kant, Immanuel, 37, 62, 146–47
karma, 51, 90, 92, 164, 165, 178, 326
Kasprisin, Lorraine, 282, 283
Kaya, Ibrahim, 254
Kearney, Richard, 421, 427–28
Kerry, John, 270
Kiblinger, Kristen, 322, 325, 328–29, 330–34
King, Martin Luther, Jr., 267
King, Sallie B., 101–14
Klostermaier, Klaus K., 314
Knitter, Paul, 6n3, 64, 70, 147, 150, 151
Kook, Abraham Isaac, 368, 372–73
Kuhn, Thomas, 63
Kuma, Afua, 204
Küng, Hans, 132–33, 332
Kushner, Harold, 157–58
Laden, Osama bin, 268
Laozi, 355, 360, 363n3
Levinas, Emmanuel, 421–24, 428, 430
Lewis, C. S., 161
liberation. See salvation/liberation
life, eternal. See salvation
Lifshutz, Israel, 367
Lindbeck, George, 150
Locke, John, 245, 291
Lubac, Henri de, 151
Madkur, Ibrahim, 399
Mahmood, Saba, 414–16
Maimonides, Moses, 22, 368, 370–71, 372, 375
Mannheim, Karl, 129
Marion, Jean-Luc, 421–424
Markham, Ian S., 21–28
Marty, Martin E., 9–20, 190
McGuire, Meredith, 192
McIntyre, Alasdair, 39
McKim, Robert, 38
Mecca, 47, 162, 283, 393, 395, 396, 438
Mendelssohn, Moses, 368–69
Mernissi, Fatima, 410, 413, 415–16
Michael, Alex, 318
Midrash, 157, 366
Mill, John Stuart, 339–40
Milligan, Jeffrey, 280
Mills, C. Wright, 251
Mishnah, 367
missiology, 23, 144
Mogahed, Dalia, 266–76
moksha, 165
Mormonism/Mormons (Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints), 61, 122, 241, 444
Moser, Paul K., 77–88
Muhammad
and calendar, 393
and circumcision, 441
and the hadith, 163
and Maimonides, 372
and relations with the Jews, 395–96
and revelation, 177, 427
and Thomas Aquinas, 22 See also Islam/Muslims
Müller, Friedrich Max, 23–24
Mullins, Mark, 218
multiculturalism, 247–48
multiple modernities
analyzing, 253–57
and Asian modernities, 255–56
and Confucianism, 255
criticisms of, 257–59
and the Enlightenment, 251, 254
and European modernities, 254–55
future directions of, 257–59
and Islamic modernities, 256–57
modernization theory of, 250–53
Muslims. See Islam/Muslims
Nation of Islam, 231
National Council of Churches, 295, 299
(p. 453) Native Americans
and ethnicity, 226, 228, 230, 232
and public education, 283
and religious aliens, 120
and religious diversity, 18–19
and religious environmentalism, 296
and secularization, 241
naturalism
and atheism, 35, 433
and Christianity, 387
and contemporary thinking, 436–38
definition of, 433
and Hume and Darwin, 434–36
and religious diversity, 439–41
and religious epistemology, 35–36
and truth, 442–44
New Age religion, 193
New Age Movement (NAM), 217, 219–20, 222
New Religious Movements (NRM)
accounting for, 220–21
and conversion, 217
and a global perspective, 215–16
global identification of, 216–18
and “glocalization”, 218–19
regional explanations of, 222–23
and salvation, 219
and truth, 220, 223
as vehicles of a new spirituality, 219–20
Nicene Council, 397
Nietzsche, Friedrich, 62, 423, 425
Nirvana, 64, 90, 91, 95, 113, 179–80, 322
Nobili, Robert de, 144
Noguera, Pedro, 288
Noll, Mark, 203
Norris, Frederick W., 201–13
Nostra Aetate, 64, 104, 109–10, 148–49, 402
Nussbaum, Martha, 415
Origen of Alexandria, 382
Paramahaṁsa, Rāmakṛṣṇa, 315–16
Parliament of World Religions, 63, 103, 319
Parsons, Talcott, 48, 53, 251, 253, 259n1
particularism, 39, 418n1
Pascal, Blaise, 267
Peterson, Michael L., 154–68
Pieris, Aloysius, 147
Pius X, Pope, 63
Plantinga, Alvin
and antievidentialism, 33–34
and free will defense, 160–61
and possible worlds, 166–67
and religious exclusivism, 64, 65–67, 348–49, 408–409
Plato, 22, 401, 423
pluralism, religious
and African religions, 347–49
and agnosticism, 69
and atheism, 36
and the Bible, 21
and Brahman, 63
and Buddha, 63, 64, 147
and Confucianism, 62, 67
and Daoism, 62, 63
definition and description of, 9
and the Enlightenment, 146–47
and exclusivism, 65–66
history of, 62–64
and inclusivism, 67–68
and religion, 66–67
responses to, 64–73
and revelation, 62
and salvation, 37, 39, 65, 147
and theories of religion, 36–37
and tolerance, 64
and truth, 62–74
and ultimate reality, 64, 65, 68, 69, 71, 72 See also Hick, John
Pluralist Hypothesis, 37–38
postmodernity, 27, 148, 215, 245–46, 427, 428
predestination, 51, 80–81, 145, 343–45
proselytizing, 74, 106, 287, 290, 318, 338, 369, 371
Pyszczynski, Tom, 266–76
Quakers, 19, 123, 132, 226, 228
Qur’an
and evil, 161–63
in Islam, 17, 393–98
and jihad/religious violence, 268, 273, 275
and revelation, 177–78
race/ethnicity, 19, 105, 405, 407, 416
and black Muslims, 231
and black theology, 203, 230
and Christianity of color, 230–31
and the emergence of white racial identity, 229
and Eurocentrism, 229
and multiracial churches, 232–34
and Native Americans, 226, 228, 230, 232
and racial identity, 229–231, 232–34
and racial protests, 231–32
and religion as a system of justification, 227
and white supremacy, 228–29
racism, 47, 228–32, 412–13
Radhakrishnan, 164, 313, 318, 319n4
Rahner, Karl, 64, 68, 150–52
Ratzinger, Joseph Cardinal, 71–72, 73 (see also Benedict XVI, Pope)
Rawls, John, 152, 297
Reformation, 62, 251, 434–35
relativism, religious
forms of, 70–73
history of, 62–64
and Jainism, 62–63, 72
and salvation, 71–72
religions, primal, 16–17, 309
religious aliens. See aliens, religious
religious diversity. See diversity, religious
(p. 454) religious experience. See experience, religious
religious pluralism. See pluralism, religious
religious studies
approaches within, 26
challenges in, 26–27
and conversion, 23
and globalization, 195–96
and interreligious dialogue, 103
key persons in, 23–25
traditional approach to, 21–23
and truth, 25
and world religions, 195–96
religious violence. See violence, religious
Rescher, Nicholas, 63, 66–67, 69, 73
revelation
and Brahman, 178, 179
and Buddha, 179, 181
and Buddhism, 178–80
and Catholicism, 148
and Christian theology, 142–43, 145
in Christianity, 174–77, 382–83
and Confucianism, 180
and Daoism, 180
in East Asian traditions, 180
and feminism, 426
and henofideism, 73
and Hinduism, 314, 318
idea of, 169–70
in Indian traditions, 178–80
in Islam, 161, 177–78, 395
and Jesus, 174–77
in Judaism, 170–74, 368, 372
and Muhammad, 177, 427
and pluralism, 62
and truth, 170, 172, 175, 178, 180–81
and Vatican II, 175 See also Bible; Qur’an; Torah; Upanishads; Vedas
Robertson, Roland, 185–86, 195, 217, 218
Ricoeur, Paul, 129
Rostow, W. W., 251
Ruether, Rosemary Radford, 148, 414
Runzo, Joseph, 61–76, 409
Ruse, Michael, 433–46
Sahib, Sri Guru Granth, 64
salvation/liberation
and African religions, 345, 348
and Buddhism, 325–28, 331
and Calvinism, 51–52
and Chinese religions, 361–63
and Christianity, 381, 383–85
and confessionalism, 36
and Continental philosophy, 426
in the early church, 142–43
and epistemology of religious belief, 30
and feminism, 148, 151, 406, 408–409, 411, 413, 416–17
and Hinduism, 318
and Islam, 395
and Judaism, 365–70, 376
and Karl Barth, 113
in the medieval church, 144–45
in the modern period, 145–46
and new religious movements, 219
and pluralism, 37, 39
and religious exclusivism, 65, 104
and religious inclusivism, 68, 80–86
and religious pluralism, 65, 147
and religious relativism, 71–72
and revelation, 175, 180
vs. damnation, 81, 145, 413 See also moksha; nirvana
samsara, 91, 164
Santo Daime, 218
Scheler, Max, 129
Schellenberg, J. L. (John), 29, 31, 32, 385–88
Schmidt, Volker H., 257–58
Scientology, 11, 214, 217, 221
Second Axial Period, 128–29 (see also Axial Age)
secularization
and Buddha, 244
definition of, 240–41
and globalization, 187, 194–95, 197
and modernization, 241–43
and multiple modernities, 251–53, 254, 256–57
and Native Americans, 241
and New Religious Movements (NRM), 222, 223
and postmodernism, 245–46
and religious diversity in Europe, 152, 219
and religious violence, 266
and the social challenge, 246–48
and social coherence, 243–44
and tolerance, 247
and truth, 247
Seiyu, Kiriyama, 218
sensus divinitatis, 33–34, 66
Shaku, Soyen, 63
Sharma, Arvind, 309–20
Shatz, David, 365–80
shunning, 119–22
Smart, Ninian, 25
Smith, Christian, 229, 250–65
Smith, David, 312
Smith, Huston, 315
Smith, Wilfred Cantwell, 68, 195, 313
Smith, William Robertson, 24, 445
Socrates, 128, 339
Soloveitchik, Joseph B., 374–75
Soto, Domingo de, 145
Stackhouse, John G., Jr., 239–49
Stark, Rodney, 49, 195, 257
Stern, Jessica, 266–76
Subud, 218
Swidler, Leonard J., 127–41
Swinburne, Richard, 31, 33, 64
symbols, sacred, 45–46
(p. 455) Taliaferro, Charles, 381–92
Talmud, 157, 172, 366, 376
Taoism/Taoist. See Daoism/Daoist
Taylor, Charles, 253–54
terror management theory (TMT), 269–74
Tertullian, 384–85
Tezcur, Gunes Murat, 53
theodicy, 87, 154–66, 342 See also evil
Tien, David, 66
Tocqueville, Alexis de, 43
tolerance/intolerance
and Buddhism, 322, 330–31, 333
and cultural boundaries, 46, 47, 49, 50, 54
and feminism, 414
and Hinduism, 312–14, 318
and Islam, 394
and Judaism, 370
and religious aliens, 122–23, 125
and religious education, 282, 287
and religious environmentalism, 291, 294
and religious pluralism, 64
and religious violence, 274
and secularization, 247
Torah
and evil, 157
and Judaism, 372, 376n9
and revelation, 172–74, 175–77, 180
Toynbee, Arnold J., 128
Troeltsch, Ernst, 63
truth
and African religions, 347–48
and Aquinas, 22
and Buddhism, 321, 323–27, 330–31, 333
and the Catholic Church, 104
and Chinese religions, 353–54
and Christianity, 23, 391, 386–87
and Continental philosophy, 426, 429–30
and early Christianity, 142–43
and exclusivism, 49
and feminism, 406–408, 410–13, 415–16
and a global ethic, 129–30, 133, 136, 137
and Hinduism, 165, 310, 312, 316
and interreligious dialogue, 114
and Judaism, 368, 370, 373
and modern Christianity, 146–47, 149–51
and naturalism, 442–44
and new religious movements, 220, 223
and peer conflict, 30
in religion, 61–62
and religious belief, 31–39
and religious environmentalism, 290, 294, 297, 299, 301
and religious exclusivism/inclusivism, 78
and religious pluralism, 62–74
and religious studies, 25
and revelation, 170, 172, 175, 178, 180–81
and secularization, 247
Tylor, Edward Burnett, 24, 27
Tzu Chi, 214, 215, 218
ultimate reality
concepts of, 37–38
and evil, 154, 164, 165–66
and Hinduism, 164, 165–66, 314
and naturalism, 35
and religious pluralism, 64, 65, 68, 69, 71, 72
ultimism, 29
Universal Declaration of a Global Ethic, 132–40
universalism, 39, 80, 94, 118, 151, 160
Upanishads, 164, 165, 178
Vaidyanathan, Brandon, 250–65
Vatican II
and anonymous Christian, 151
and engagement with non-Christian religions, 148, 150, 151
and inclusivism, 64
and interreligious dialogue, 103–104, 109
and Judaism, 373, 374
and religious freedom, 42
and revelation, 175
Vattimo, Gianni, 425–26, 428
Vedas, 64, 164, 312, 314–15, 317, 319
violence, religious
and atheism, 266–69
and Buddhism, 325, 331, 332
and Continental philosophy, 424–25, 426
and feminism, 410, 411, 413–14, 417
and the function of religion, 269–74
and a global ethic, 130, 139
and Hinduism, 165
and interreligious dialogue, 105, 112, 114
and Islam, 22, 275n9
and postmodernism, 245
and public education, 286
and the Qur’an, 268, 273, 275
and the religious alien, 116, 119–22, 125
and terror management theory (TMT), 269–74
and terrorism, 266–69
and tolerance, 274
Vitoria, Francisco de, 145
Vivekananda, Swami, 63, 103, 319
Ward, Keith, 38, 73, 169–82
Weber, Max, 50–53, 154, 269, 276n15, 313
Weinberg, Ian, 251
Wilfred, Felix, 147
Wilson, Bryan R., 214, 216, 217, 220, 222–23
Wilson, David Sloan, 437, 440
Wilson, E. O., 436–37, 439, 440, 442–43
Wiredu, Kwasi, 337–50
Wittgenstein, Ludwig, 63, 71
women
and African religions, 343
and Christianity, 329, 381, 382
(p. 456) and David Hume, 434
and feminism, 405–18
and a global ethic, 134–37, 138–39
and Islam, 45–47, 53, 105, 268
World Council of Churches, 104, 110, 295
World’s Parliament of Religions. See Parliament of World Religions
Wuthnow, Robert, 48–49, 221, 278, 285–86
Xavier, Francis, 144
Yancey, George, 226–38
Yandell, Keith E., 89–100, 388
yoga, 179, 219, 291, 316
Yohai, Simeon b., 157
Zen. See Buddhism
Žižek, Slavoj, 421, 428–30