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date: 22 April 2021

Abstract and Keywords

Islam appeared on the world scene in the seventh century, corresponding to Prophet Muhammad's migration to the northern city of Yathrib (Medina) in Arabia from his birthplace of Mecca in 622 CE, known as the Hijra. Both in the Qur'an and in the Traditions of the Prophet, known as Hadith, it is proclaimed that the Prophet is not out to preach a new religion but rather to “confirm” the true Hanif or pure religion of Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and the other prophets without discrimination. As for other religions, only the Sabeans, followers of an unknown Middle Eastern religion, are mentioned as worthy of receiving “their reward from God and having nothing to fear.” To this unknown religious group can be added the Magians (Majus), corresponding probably to the Zoroastrian and mentioned only once in the Qur'an. This article examines religious diversity from an Islamic perspective, Islam's relations with Christianity and Judaism, modernism, liberalism, and fundamentalism.

Keywords: Islam, Magians, Christianity, Judaism, modernism, liberalism, fundamentalism

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