- Historical Reflections on Religious Diversity
- A Religious Studies Approach to Questions about Religious Diversity
- A Philosophical Approach to Questions about Religious Diversity
- A Sociological Approach to Questions about Religious Diversity
- Pluralism and Relativism
- Religious Exclusivism
- The Diversity of Religious Experience
- Interreligious Dialogue
- The Religious Alien
- Religious Diversity and a Global Ethic
- Theology amid Religious Diversity
- Religious Diversity, Evil, and a Variety of Theodicies
- Religion and Revelation
- Religious Diversity and Globalization
- Religious Demographics and the New Diversity
- New Religious Movements in Global Perspective
- Race, Ethnicity, and Religion
- Religious Diversity, Secularization, and Postmodernity
- Multiple Modernities and Religion
- Religious Violence and Peace
- Religious Diversity in Public Education
- Religious Diversity and Religious Environmentalism
- A Hindu Perspective
- A Buddhist Perspective
- An African Religions Perspective
- A Chinese Religions Perspective
- A Jewish Perspective
- A Christian Perspective
- An Islamic Perspective
- A Feminist Perspective
- A Continental Perspective
- A Naturalistic Perspective
Abstract and Keywords
One master theoretical concept in the social sciences that has for many decades organized foci, problems, explanations, and interpretations in the study of religion has been that of “modernity.” In sociology, Karl Marx, Max Weber, Emile Durkheim, and many others explored processes of economic growth, differentiation, rationalization, individualization, urbanization, and so on, as central dynamics of a theorized process of modernization. Particularly important is the fact that all such social-science theorists and theories consistently believed that modernity was unavoidably destructive of religion, belief in spiritual realities and objective universals, non-naturalistic metaphysics, and “traditional” cultures and perspectives generally. In light of the shortcomings of dominant understandings of modernity, the thesis of multiple modernities has been articulated by scholars from a variety of nationalities and disciplines. This article examines modernization theory and multiple modernities, focusing on modernities in Asia, Europe, and Islam.
Christian Smith is William R. Kenan Professor of Sociology at the Center for the Study of Religion and Society at the University of Notre Dame.
Brandon Vaidyanathan is a doctoral candidate at the Center for the Study of Religion and Society at the University of Notre Dame.
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