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date: 19 August 2019

(p. 517) Index

(p. 517) Index

Note: Page numbers in italics indicate tables and charts.
abolitionism, 188
abortion, 179
Abu Ghraib prison, 121
academic freedom, 436
access issues
and archives, 291–99, 326–27, 506–8
and cataloging, 398–401
and the digital revolution, 291–99, 326–27, 347–48
and funding, 292–93
and indexing practices, 339, 341
and interview restrictions, 354–55
and the media, 303
and media technology, 501
and online standards, 502
and online transcripts, 292, 500
and public domain, 363
and “raw” vs. “cooked” documents, 334–35
and scholarship, 27–28
and students of oral history, 464, 478, 504
and time codes, 298
and university-based oral history programs, 422
and unprocessed materials, 401
acetates, 404
acquisitions appraisal, 395–98
actual malice, 357
adult education movement, 5
“Advocacy Oral History: Palestinian Women in Resistance” (Gluck), 175
Afghanistan War, 5
Africa, 176. See also specific countries
African American Odyssey: The Stewarts, 1853–1963 (Broussard), 190–91
African Americans
and American slavery, 186–90
and the civil rights movement, 186, 193–95, 465
and community studies, 190–93
and cultural heritage, 61
and group identity, 68
and illiteracy research, 67
and racial interview dynamics, 32–33
and the Tuskegee Syphilis Study, 364
and voting rights, 69
and women's oral history, 170
African National Congress (ANC), 152, 153
After School Writers Club, 452–53
age issues
and generational divides, 43, 44
and gentrification, 227–29
and gerontology, 203–7
and intergenerational interaction, 282
and later life, 202–15
and memory, 82
and negotiating remembrance, 282
Agee, Arthur, 197
agricultural extension, 172
AIDS in the UK: The Making of Policy, 1981–1994 (Berridge), 376–77
AIDS Social History Programme, 376
Aintree Hospital, 380
Akenfield (Blythe), 5
Albertelli, Guido, 118
Alemanno, Gianni, 119
Alexander Street Press, 181
Alfonsín, Raúl, 132–35
Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and Through the Looking Glass (Carroll), 104
All Saints Heritage Project, 380
Alleanza Nazionale, 113
Allison, Jay, 310
alternative frameworks, 440
alternative histories, 445n19
Amazon, 299
American Archivist, 322
American Century Oral History Program, 456–57, 457–58, 458–59
American Folklife Center, 15, 311, 451, 505
American Historical Association, 364
American Historical Review, 374
American Legion, 14
American Negro Slavery (Phillips), 187
American Oral History Association, 474
American Revolutionary War, 3
analog recordings, 287, 394, 402, 404–5, 406n4, 508
analysis of interviews, 40
anarchism, 67, 69
ancestor worship, 52
and women's oral history, 171
Anderson, Kathryn, 173, 175, 182, 492, 494–95
Anderson Valley Oral History Project, 452
Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, 414
Anglo-American Cataloging Rules, 2nd edition (AACR2), 398
Ant Follower conjecture, 72, 73 (p. 518)
anthropology
and African culture, 187–88
and audio recording, 286–87, 316
and autobiographical memory, 106
and cultural retention, 188
dialogic, 56
and linguistics, 101
and memory biases, 79
palaeoanthropology, 477
and positivism, 81
and postmodernism, 174, 176
and the sensory revolution, 219–20, 221
and women's oral history, 176, 177
anti-Communism, 41, 120
anti-imperialism, 134–37
antilynching movement, 410
“Anzac Memories” (Thomson), 432, 492
apartheid, 6, 435
Apple, 9, 290, 299
archaeology, 477
archival institutions
and accessibility issues, 291–99
and acquisitions appraisal, 395–98
archival vs. oral evidence, 79
and cataloging, 398–401
dark archives, 301
defined, 406n1
and digital technology, 295, 315–16, 324–27, 506–8, 510–11
and funding issues, 393–94, 395–98, 398–401, 401–5, 405–6
and Holocaust survivors, 248
and House of Memory and History, 114
and model for oral history, 420
and practice of oral history, 315–16
and preservation, 401–5
and “raw” vs. “cooked” documents, 334
and recording technology, 8, 319–24
and reflective teaching, 473
role of, 393–94
and university-based oral history programs, 481–84
An Archives Approach to Oral History (Lance), 320–21
Argentina, 9, 121, 125, 130–31, 143, 434
artifact-based recording, 325
artifact-free recording, 325, 326
artificial intelligence, 344
Artists With Disabilities Oral History Project, 34
Ashton, Paul, 440
Ask the Fellows Who Cut the Hay (Evans), 97, 317
“Asking Hard Questions: Harvey the Historian as Colleague” (Morrisey), 466
Assmann, Aleida, 250
Association of American Historians of Medicine, 373
associative memory, 280
Associazione Italiana di Storia Orale (AISO), 118
Associazione Nazionale Ex Internati (ANEI), 113
Associazione Nazionale ex-Deportati (ANED), 113, 118
Associazione Nazionale Partigiani Italiani (ANPI), 113, 115, 117, 119, 122n6
Associazione Nazionale Perseguitati Politici Antifascisti (ANPPIA), 113, 118
Atlanta History Center, 304
Atlanta Race Riot, 305
Attica prison, 121
Auburn University, 301
audiences for oral history, 501–6
audio cassettes. See cassette recorders
audio installations, 309
audio recordings. See also specific audio formats
and development of recording techniques, 277
and digital technology, 9–11, 286–90, 299, 490, 514n29
and the Federal Writers' Project, 5
and growth of oral history, 79
and life expectancy of media, 324
and preservation issues, 404
and transcription, 7
audiovisual history, 277–83
audiovisual recordings, 399, 402, 406n5
“Aural History and Historical Audio Documentary Production,” 308
Auschwitz, 225
Australia. See also University of New South Wales
and aboriginal peoples, 6, 434, 472
British migration to, 77–78
and community nursing, 380
and community-based oral history projects, 224
and digitization of collections, 407n13
and growth of oral history, 470–71
and Holocaust survivors, 246
and the International Oral History Association, 9
National Library of Australia, 401, 403, 405, 407n13
and oral history programs, 475, 480
and Pickett, 86–90
politics of, 433
and Project Jukebox, 308
and reconciliation processes, 322, 435
State Library of South Australia, 395–96, 400, 402–4, 406n6, 407n15
and “testimonies of resistance,” 379
and vicarious creating, 395–96, 400, 400–401, 402–5, 406n6
and World War I, 432–33
and World War II, 470
Australian Centre for Oral History, 308 (p. 519)
authentic doing, 478
authentic learning, 478–79
authoritarianism, 137, 138, 148
authorship issues, 58
autobiographical memory, 12–13, 83, 93n24, 96–97, 106, 107–8, 439
autobiographies, 375, 385
automated format migration, 300
Azaustre, Manuel, 71
Azaustre conjecture, 71, 72
background of oral history, 3–6
backlogs, 399–400
Baker, Mark, 472
Bal, Mieke, 103
Baldwin, James, 467
Bali Oral History Archive, 482
Balmain, Sydney, 227–29
Baltimore, Maryland, 66, 67, 68, 69
Bancroft Library, 198, 422
bandwidth issues, 289, 292–93
Banfield, Theresa, 170
Barcelona, Spain, 66, 68–70
Barker, Robin, 57
Barzun, Jacques, 4
baseball, 465
basketball, 197–98
batch conversions, 300
Battle of Crete, 234
Baum, Willa, 170, 394, 411
Bayer, Ronald, 376
Baylor Institute for Oral History, 482
BBC, 44, 209–10, 310, 316, 510
Bearman, Peter, 258, 260
Beaver, Alaska, 57–58
Been in the Storm So Long: The Aftermath of Slavery (Litwack), 189
“Beginning Where We Are: Feminist Methodology in Oral History” (Anderson, Armitage, and Jack), 173–74
Behar, Ruth, 177–78
Belenky, Mary Field, 173
Belgrave, Michael, 445n27
Beloved (Morrison), 117
benign neglect, 404
Benison, Saul, 35, 373, 374
Bergson, Henri, 220
Berliner, Emile, 316
Berlusconi, Silvio, 113, 114, 119, 120
Bernal, Dolores Delgado, 178–79
Berridge, Virginia, 376–77
Berry, John, 225–26
Best Practices for Oral History (OHA), 365
Billy Graham Center Archives, 307
Bing, Leon, 196–97
Binney, Judith, 445n27
biography, 58, 373, 458. See also autobiographies
Black Oral History Collection, 193–94
Black Panther Party, 196, 358
Black Women Oral History Project, 172
Blackman, Margaret, 59
Blackout History Project, 509–10
Bloch, Marc, 479
Blogger, 505–6, 515n39
blogging, 503, 505–6, 511, 512, 515n39
Blood of Spain: An Oral History of the Spanish Civil War (Fraser), 447n51
Bloods (gang), 197
Bloods (Terry), 451–52
Bloom, Benjamin, 453–56, 454, 455
Blythe, Ronald, 5
Boder, David, 245, 246
Bodfish, Waldo, Sr., 59
body language, 31, 281
Bond, Julian, 410
Bonus March, 499
Boog, Kathryn, 386
Booth, Alan, 473
Borland, Katherine, 472, 492
Bornant, Joanna, 323
Boschma, Geertje, 386
bottom-up approach to history, 4–5, 8, 191, 411
Boulanger, Ghislaine, 264n4
Bowers, Samuel H., 355
Boyd, Nan Alamilla, 198–99
Bozzoli, Belinda, 483
Bracero History Archive, 507
Bradley, Tom, 193
Bragg, Janet Harmon, 275
brain physiology, 222
Brainerd, Kansas: Time, Place, and Memory on the Prairie Plains, 510
Braithwaite, Yvonne, 193
Branch, Taylor, 194
Brazil, 9, 69
Brennan, Sheryl, 380
Brief Encounter (1945), 78, 88
Britain
and archival institutions, 320, 321–22, 324
and the digital revolution, 315–16
and the Falklands War, 5, 125
and medical oral history, 373, 375, 382
and oral history education, 97
and public oral history, 432, 436, 439, 441–42
Survey of English Dialects, 317
British Association of Sound Collections (BASC), 322
British Institute of Recorded Sound (BIRS), 320, 329n30
British Library, 322, 326, 329n30, 379
British Medical Journal, 378
British Museum, 316
British Oral History Society, 9, 320
broadband access, 501 (p. 520)
Brookdale Center on Aging, 204, 206
Brooks, Michael, 452
Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, 193
Brown's Subject Headings for African American History, 337
browsing, 341–43, 346
Bruley, Sue, 475, 478
Bruner, Jerome, 89
Bryan, Mamie Lee, 499
Bryant, Diana, 228–29
Bryant, Kobe, 197
Buchenwald concentration camp, 66
budgetary issues. See funding and budgetary issues
Buenos Aires, Argentina, 138, 435
Bühler, Charlotte, 205
Bull, Michael, 227
Burawoy, Michael, 443
Burke, Ernest, 465
Burnham, John C., 373
Bush, George W., 355–56, 509
Buss, Fran Leeper, 177
Butler, Anne, 473
Butler, Judith, 101
Butler, Robert, 12–13, 203, 204, 209, 211
Butler Library, 420
Byatt, A. S., 83
Bynum, North Carolina, 412
Cairo, Egypt, 236
Calata, Nomonde, 144
California State University, Long Beach, 181, 308
California State University, Monterey Bay, 482
California Supreme Court, 357
Cambodia, 434
camcorders, 269. See also video recordings
camera techniques, 269, 270–72, 276n2
“camera's eye,” 278–79, 281–82
“Can There Be a Feminist Ethnography?” (Stacey), 174
Canada, 9, 321, 322, 323, 363, 434
Cannery Women (Ruiz), 172
Cano, Alejandro, 129
Canti lontani dal centro (2008), 122n13
Cao Zhuxiang, 180
Capaci, Christine, 452
Capture Wales, 310
caregivers, 160, 161–63, 212, 214
Carnegie Mellon University, 338, 344, 345–46
Carr, Leroy, 348
Casa della Memoria e della Storia. See House of Memory and History
cascading style sheets (CSS), 502
cassette recorders, 8, 287–89, 299, 318, 324, 394, 404–5
Castellanoz, Eva, 53
Catalonia, 68
Catholic Church, 119, 160
Cavill, Rhoda, 224
CBS, 360
Center for Civil Rights, 414
Center for Documentary Studies, 194
Center for History and New Media, 309
Center for Malvinas War Veterans, 134
Center for Middle Eastern Studies, 482
Center for Oral History (COH), 40
Center for the Study of the American South,409, 414
Central Committee (Communist Party of Czechoslovakia), 45, 46–47
Centralia, Washington, 14
Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies, 80
Centre for Popular Memory, 435, 442, 483
Cerboni, Susanna, 122n13
Chafe, William, 195
Cham Muslim Oral History Project, 434
Chamberlain, Mary, 88, 91
Chapman, Audrey, 146
Chapman, Joan, 228
Charter 77, 42, 43
“Ch'eghwetsen' ”, 54
Chesneaux, Jean, 126
Chew, Ron, 305
children, 68, 159–64
Chile, 143, 434, 435
choice theory, 107
Christel, Michael, 338
Christianity, 99–100, 146–47, 150–51
chronological memory, 85, 162, 263
Churchill, Winston, 439
cinematic language, 283
Circolo Gianni Bosio, 116–18, 119, 120
City University of New York (CUNY), 181
Civil Rights Documentation Project, 193, 307
Civil Rights in Kentucky Oral History Project Digital Media Database, 293–94
civil rights movement
and African American history, 186, 193–95, 465
and broadcast media, 303, 304–5
and digital technologies, 414
and Greensboro VOICES, 507
and historical revisionism, 120
and Holocaust survivors, 246
and illiteracy, 70, 72
and the Institute for Southern Studies, 410
and the Kentucky History Society, 293–394
and “Listening for a Change,” 414
and Marshall, 352
and race relations, 193–95
and student oral history work, 465
and Terkel, 451
and trials, 355
and web resources, 310
in Wichita, Kansas, 191
women's role in, 192 (p. 521)
Civil Rights Movement Veterans, 310
Civil Rights Project, 293
civil society, 153
Civil War, 188, 189
civilians, 130–31, 132, 238
Clark, Helen, 234
class issues, 4–5, 139, 175
Classen, Constance, 221, 226
classroom environment, 450–56
Clemens, Roger, 355
Clinton, Bill, 412, 414
close-ups, 274
cloud mechanisms, 347
CNN, 509, 515n33
Coates, Roy, 236
coding issues, 342. See also cataloging; indexing
Cohen, Daniel, 310
coherence of concepts, 104
Coleman, Peter, 205, 207, 214
collective memory
and collective consciousness, 423–24
and conceptual vocabulary, 104–7
described, 13
and historical inquiry, 96–97
interdisciplinary research on, 12
manipulation of, 13–14
and memory studies, 97–98
and national identity, 130
and Native American culture, 58
personal memory contrasted with, 107–8
and September 11 oral history project, 256
social creation of, 99–100
and social identity, 101–4
subjective dimension of, 79–80, 89, 100–101, 108, 263
and trauma, 14, 256, 261
and war memories, 241–42
Columbia Oral History Research Office, 7, 256, 262
Columbia University
and institutional review boards, 365
and Nevins, 3–4, 170, 317
and oral history archives, 3–4, 97, 482
postgraduate oral history courses, 480
and the Regional Oral History Office, 420
and September 11 oral history project, 15, 28
commemoration, 133, 241–42, 251–52, 258, 282
commercial market, 283, 292
Committee of Liberated Jews (CHC), 244
Common Rule, 364–65
communal memory, 263. See also collective memory
Communism, 41, 120
Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (CPC), 38, 44, 45–49
Communist Party of Italy, 113
Community of Memories, 308
community-based oral history
and audience for oral history, 504–5
contributions to oral history field, 440–43
and family histories, 190–93
political and social goals, 27
and presentation of interviews, 431
and university-based programs, 422, 481–84
and unsolicited materials, 396
compact cassette tape recorders, 8. See also micro-cassettes
compact discs (CDs), 9, 288–90, 299–300, 324–25
Compact Flash memory, 405
compound objects, 295
compression algorithms, 289, 301, 514n29
computer hard drives, 299–300
Computer Output Microfilm (COM), 406n5
Condrau, Flurin, 378
conflict interviews, 37–49
conflicting accounts, 30–31. See also verification
Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO), 192
Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), 507
consent forms, 511
containerization, 228–29
CONTENTdm, 295, 339
context of interviews, 51–52, 62, 458
contraception, 377
contracts, 369
control vocabularies, 337, 344
Convention Relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War, 239
conversational narratives, 161
“cooked” documents, 334–35
Cooter, Roger, 375
Copeland, Peter, 325
copying recordings, 273, 287
Copyright Act, 353, 360–62
copyright issues, 351–52, 359–63, 511
Cornum, Rhonda, 499
counterfactual histories, 445n19
Coventry, Michael, 492, 494
Cowgirls (Jordan), 171
Craib, Ian, 149, 153
Cree people, 434
Crellin, John, 383
Crete, 236
Crips, 197
critical reading, 494–96
critics of oral history, 79
cross-cultural settings, 51–53, 53–59, 59–61, 61–62, 377
cross-disciplinary work. See interdisciplinary work
cross-referencing, 341–42, 343
Crowell, Aron, 55
Cruikshank, Julie, 62n1, 177
Cruikshank, Moses, 59
cultural issues
and collective memory, 101, 105, 106–7
and cross-cultural settings, 51–53, 53–59, 59–61, 60–61, 61–62, 377
cultural memory, 87–88, 96, 102
and House of Memory and History, 112
and negotiating remembrance, 282
and public policy, 114
and the sensory revolution, 219–20
and storytelling styles, 88
and taboos, 52–53
and traditions, 188
and trauma, 148
and the Truth and Reconciliation Commission, 146–47
and women's oral history, 173–74, 174–75, 180
Cunningham, Rosa Lee, 196
curricula of oral history programs, 450, 462–64, 479–81
Curry, Constance, 195
“CVS” approach, 340–41
Czech Association of Oral History, 40
Czech Children, 43
Czech Republic/Czechoslovakia, 9, 38, 39–40, 437
Dahmer, Vernon, 355
Daley, Christina, 94n41
Daly, Christopher B., 172, 413
Danziger, Kurt, 222
Darfur, 251
dark archives, 301
Dash, Leon, 196
data integrity, 300
databases, 293, 340, 511
Davidson, Florence Edenshaw, 59
Davies, Kerry, 378
Davies, Stuart, 442
Davis, Walter Royal, 413
Day, Annette, 437
Day of Memory, 123n17
Day of Remembrance, 123n17
Day of the Dead celebration, 53
De Berg, Hazel, 402
De Bruyn, Derek, 473
De Klerk, Willem, 142
De Simone, Mariano, 117
Deans, Dixie, 238
death camps, 72
death squads, 142
“December 4” (song), 464
Decker, Sola, 386
declarative memory, 93n24
deeds of gift, 352–53, 367, 368
defamation, 355–58
defense industries, 192
DeFord, Miriam Allen, 500
Dellums, C. L., 193
dementia, 212, 213
democracy
and Argentina, 127–28, 131, 132, 133–34
democratization of oral history, 325–26, 423, 425, 443, 450 (see also community-based oral history)
and “Do It Yourself” (DIY) interview movement, 182
and illiteracy, 65, 66–68, 67, 68–70, 70–71, 71–73
and university-based oral history programs, 422
and war memories, 133, 135–36
Democratic Kampuchea, 434
Democratic Party, 69
Denis, Philippe, 380
Densho Digital Archive, 308, 508–9
Department of Health and Social Security (DHSS), 208–9
Depression, 3, 7, 32, 451, 499. See also Federal Writers' Project
depression, psychological, 12, 204, 213, 214
desegregation, 414
Desert Storm Oral History Project, 369
Diack, H. Leslie, 377
dialogic anthropology, 56
The Diary of Anne Frank, 247
Diaz, Manny, 499
Dickinson College, 449
dictatorships
and failures of democracy, 73
and Franco, 66, 67, 73
and public oral history, 436
and state revisionism, 322, 435, 436–37
Diderot, 219
Digital and Community Showcase, 491
Digital Audio Tape (DAT)
and the digital revolution, 324–25
introduction of, 9
and life expectancy of media, 324
obsolescence of, 11
and preservation issues, 401, 404
recording system described, 289
“The Digital Black Hole” (Palm), 406n5
digital technology. See also specific media
and access issues, 291–99, 326–27, 347–48
and analog recordings, 118, 406n4
and audio recording, 9–11, 286–90, 299, 490, 514n29
and cataloging, 399
and collection of oral histories, 509–12, 515n39
and content of oral histories, 495–97
and conversion technology, 288
described, 285–86
digital collections, 394
digital object management, 326
digitizing resources, 118, 296, 299–308, 402, 404–5, 406n5, 407n13, 407n15 (p. 523)
and forms of oral histories, 494–95
impact on oral history practice, 512
and indexing, 292, 324, 327, 333–35, 336, 341
and interpretation issues, 492–96
and Living Atlanta, 304
and online collections, 506, 508–9, 510–11
and oral history audiences, 501–3, 504–6
and photograph-sharing sites, 297
and presentation, 493–94
and preservation issues, 299–308, 401–2, 404–5, 406n5, 407n13, 407n15
and researchers, 501–3
and the sensory revolution, 222
and the Southern Oral History Program, 414
and storytelling, 309–12
student and teacher resources, 503–4
and undergraduate education, 491–92
and women's oral history, 181–82
Dillinger, John, 360
Directory of British Oral History Collections,321
disabilities, 379, 442
disappearances, 125, 127, 128, 139n9
disc recorders, 287
discrepancies between the written and oral sources, 12
discrimination, 170
discussion lists, 512. See also forums
disembodied modes, 283
disengagement theory, 205–6
Displaced Persons (DP) camps, 245
dissidents, 41–45
dissociative senses, 228
distance education, 487n37
District Six Museum, 441
Dittmer, John, 195
Do History, 503
“Do It Yourself” (DIY) interview movement, 181–82
Dobrof, Rose, 203, 204, 206–7, 211, 212–14
documentaries, 35, 79, 251–52, 361
Documenting the American South project, 311
Dogan, Bulent, 497
Doing History (Ritchie), 472
Doing Oral History (Ritchie), 457
Doña Maria's Story: Life History, Memory, and Political Identity (James), 180
donated materials, 354, 361, 396–98, 403
Doncaster Gate Hospital Heritage Project, 380
Douglass, Frederick, 188
Douglass, Susan, 478
Drobnick, Jim, 223
Drupal, 511
Dubček, Aleksandr, 47
Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI),339, 502
DuBois, Lindsay, 435, 445n30
Duke University, 8, 194
Dunaway, David, 441–42
Durkheim, Émile, 100
DVD cameras, 10
dynamic range, 287
Earl Warren Oral History Program, 193
East Midlands Oral History Archive, 483–84
Eastern Europe, 249, 251, 322. See also specific countries
economic conditions, 70, 152–53
Edinburgh University, 320
Edison, Thomas, 316
Edith Cowan University Archives, 482
The Edwardians: The Remaking of British Society (Thompson), 447n51
Egypt, 236
Eichmann, Adolf, 246
Eick, Gretchen, 191
eight-track recorders, 287–88
El Alamein (battle), 235
elitism, 441
Ellis Island, 82, 117, 121, 305
Elsasser, Nan, 171
email, 9, 10, 490, 503, 516n39
Embacher, Helga, 278
embodied memory, 437
embodied modes, 283
emerging crises, 28
EMI “Midget” recorders, 317
emigration, 246
Encoded Archival Description (EAD), 502
end-of-life interviewing, 384
Envelopes of Sound, 161
environment of interviews, 28
episodic memory, 93n24, 104
The Era of the Witness (Wieviorka), 249–50
Erikson, Erik, 205
Eskimo culture, 58, 59–61
Essex County Record Offices, 320
ethics issues
and dated permissions, 508
and history of medicine, 372–87
and informed consent, 383
and institutional review boards, 364–65
and interviewing techniques, 58
and legal issues, 351
professional standards, 26, 27
and public oral history, 431
and shared authority, 380–85
and therapeutic oral history, 383–84
and university-based oral history programs, 475
and war memories, 241
ethnicity. See race and ethnicity
Evaluation Guidelines (Oral History Association), 27
Evans, George Ewart, 97, 317
exploitation of subjects, 27, 32 (p. 524)
Eyes on the Prize (film), 195
eyewitness accounts, 4, 260, 432
faceted referencing, 340
facial expressions, 268, 271
Fahrenheit 9/11 (2004), 355
fair use, 362–63, 364
Falklands War. See Malvinas War
false associations, 358
false light, 358
family histories, 190–92, 280–81
“Family Myths, Memories and Interviewing” (Finnegan), 492
Federal Circuit Courts of Appeal, 357
Federal Writers' Project
and audio recordings, 5
and “bottom up” oral history, 411
and former slave narratives, 3, 32–33
and interview practices, 32–33
Library of Congress collections, 187
and Lomax, 187
and note-taking practices, 6–7, 317, 512
and Terkel, 5
and video recordings, 5
Federation of Freedom Volunteers, 113
Federazione Italiana Volontari della Libertà (FIAVL), 113
feminism, 171, 173–74
Fentress, James, 103
Fewkes, Jesse Walter, 286, 316
fictional characters, 360
fieldwork, 6–7, 316, 404–5, 474
The Fifties: A Women's Oral History (Harvey), 451–52
The Fiftieth Gate (Baker), 472
film and filmmaking, 171–72, 269, 277, 281–82
Finnegan, Ruth, 492
First Amendment, 357
Five Minds for the Future (Gardner), 462
flash memory, 289–90, 325, 405
Flick, Isabel, 472
Flickr, 297
Flint, Bill, 240
Flippin, Katherine Stewart, 190–91
Florence, Italy, 239–40
Flowers, Ruth, 170
flu epidemic, 14
Fogerty, James, 322, 323
foibe massacres, 120, 123n17
folk songs, 286, 316
folksonomy, 344
Forged Under the Sun (Buss), 177
Forstchen, William R., 445n19
Fort Minor, 464
Fortier, Normand, 323
Fortunoff Video Archive for Holocaust Testimonies, 247, 248
forums, 484, 503, 516n39
Forza Italia, 113
Fosse Ardeatine massacre, 112, 114–15, 118–20
four-track recorders, 287–88, 304
Framing Public Memory (Phillips), 440
Franco, Francisco, 67
Franco Coggiola sound archive, 118
Frankton Junction, New Zealand, 306
Fraser, Ronald, 447n51
free speech movement, 424
Freedmen's Bureau, 189
freedom of expression, 436
Freedom of Information Act (FOIA), 354, 355
French Ministry of Culture, 69–70
French Revolution, 97, 373
Freund, Alexander, 312
Freyberg, Bernard, 239
Fried, Rob, 462
Friedländer, Saul, 250
Frisch, Michael
and public memory work, 438–39
and public oral history, 431, 438
and shared authority concept, 88, 306, 381, 431, 476
and study of memory, 80, 438
on subjectivity, 81
From Parlor to Prison (Gluck), 171
Frontiers: A Journal of Women Studies, 169–72, 176, 178
Full Stop Law, 133
funding and budgetary issues
and accessibility, 292–93
and archival institutions, 393–94, 395–98, 398–401, 401–5, 405–6
and the House of Memory and History, 119
and online video, 508
and preservation of collections, 299–300, 401, 404, 405–6, 406n5
and reminiscence therapy, 211
and September 11 project, 260
and the Southern Oral History Program,413–15
and storage of recordings, 7
and university programs, 171
and vicarious creating, 406n6
and video recordings, 406n3
and women's oral history, 181
future-use clauses, 353
Galileo conjecture, 71, 72
Gallipoli, Turkey, 234
gangs, 197
Garbo, Greta, 281
Garden of the Finzi-Continis (1970), 247
Gardner, Howard, 453–56, 454, 455, 462, 463 (p. 525)
Garrow, David, 194
Gaston, Paul, 410
gatekeepers, 45
Gates, William, 197
Gauguin, Paul, 10
gay communities, 198, 465–66
Gaza, 121
Geiger, Susan, 176
“The Gender of Memory: Rural Chinese Women and the 1950s” (Hershatter), 180
general audiences, 504–6
generational divides, 43, 44
genocide, 251, 434–35
gentrification, 227–29
geographic representation, 235
George Magoon and the Down East Game Wars (Ives), 61
George Mason University, 309
Germany death camps, 66, 67
gerontology, 203–7
Gerring, John, 104
Gertner, Alexander, 245
gestures, 268
Gettysburg Address, 4
ghettos, 42, 115
“The Giant Footprints,” 52
Gibson, Faith, 213
Gielen, Helga, 280–81
Gielen, Michael, 280–81
gifted materials, 354, 361, 396–98, 403
Gilbert, Peter, 197
Gill, Paul, 383
Gilligan, Carol, 173
Gingrich, Newt, 433, 445n19
glasnost, 47
Glass, Brent, 412
Glassberg, David, 436, 439
The Global Achievement Gap (Wagner), 462
Glover, Tini, 236, 237, 239–40
Gluck, Sherna, 170–72, 174–75, 181–82, 500
GMG Classical Music Forum, 514n29
Goffman, Erving, 281–82
Goleman, Daniel, 463
Goniwe, Nyameka, 145–46, 151
Good Times, Bad Times: Women with Learning Difficulties Telling Their Stories (Atkinson, et al.), 378–79
The “Good War” (Terkel), 5
Goodall, Heather, 472
Google, 299, 312, 342–43, 452
Gorbachev, Mikhail, 47
Gore, Al, 412
Gould, Joe, 3
Graff, Henry F., 4
Grainger, Percy, 316
Gramophone Company, 316
Grand Central Terminal, 311
Granshaw, Lindsay, 374
Graves, Robert, 124
Graybill, Lyn, 150
Great Britain. See Britain
Great Depression, 3
Greece, 240
Greenblatt, Stephen, 107
Greene, Christina, 192
Greene, Mark, 398–99
Greensboro, North Carolina, 195
Greensboro Public Library, 507
Greensboro VOICES: Voicing Observations in Civil Rights and Equality Struggles, 507
Greenwich Village, 465–66
Greiff, Matts, 480
Grele, Ronald
on archivists, 319
and “bottom up” oral history, 5
definition of oral history, 161
on oral history education, 474, 476
on the SOHP, 411
on study of memory, 438
on subjectivity, 81
on transcription, 476
Griggs, Cynthia, 194
Grim, Valerie, 179
Grossberg, Mimi, 278–79
group identification, 105
Guam, 377
Guber, Rosana, 136
guerilla movements, 132, 134
Guguletu Seven, 149–50
Gullah people, 188
Gulledge, Judy, 452
Haddon, Alfred Cort, 316
Haight, Barbara, 214
Halbwachs, Maurice, 98, 99–100, 102–3, 105–7
Hale, Sondra, 174–75
Haley, Alex, 190
Hall, Bob, 410
Hall, Jacquelyn Dowd, 172, 409–15
Hamer, Fannie Lou, 195
Hamilton, Paula, 438–39, 440
Hamlin, Susan, 190
Hampton, Henry, 195
Hampton High School, 452–53
Hard Times (Terkel), 5
Hardy, Charles, 441
Hartman, Geoffrey, 248
Harvard University, 482
Hattori, Anne Perez, 377
Havel, Václav, 42, 47
Hawaii, 191
Hazara refugees, 476
Healey, Chadwyck, 422
health care policy, 206, 215
Heart to Heart: The Twentieth-Century Battle against Cardiac Disease: An Oral History (Weisse), 376
Heddy and Me (Varga), 472
Help the Aged (charity), 211
Hendricks, Shirley, 214
herding culture, 60–61
Heritage Lottery Fund (HLF), 324, 331n58, 380, 442
Herodotus, 417
Hershatter, Gail, 180
Herskovits, Melville J., 188
Higginson, Thomas Wentworth, 188
high-definition video, 290
Higher School of Mechanics of the Navy (ESMA), 128, 138, 139n9
high-fidelity sound archives, 325
high-tech exhibits, 307
Hillbilly Women (Kahn), 171
Hilliard, David, 196
Hine, Darlene Clark, 192
Historical Voices project, 484
history and historians
and accessibility of research, 291
and educational standards, 46061
historic characters, 360
historical analysis, 357, 459
historical memory, 263
Historical Reasoning (course), 478
and historiography, 433–34
history wars, 433
and medicine, 372–87
and revisionism, 119, 136
and subject specialists, 421
and university-based oral history programs, 475
History and Memory, 96
History Makers, Inc., 335–38, 341–42, 344–47
History Matters (web site), 308, 500
History of Hospital Infection, 383
A History of Medicine (Major), 373
History Project in Boston, 198
History Workshop movement, 5, 320, 483
Hitchlock, Karen, 379
Hitler, Adolf, 71, 72, 73
HIV/AIDS, 153, 159–64, 198, 376–77, 381, 483
H-Net online network, 484
Holocaust
and Italian politics, 120
Jewish Holocaust project, 224
and oral history education, 465
and the Shoah Visual History Foundation, 11, 248–51, 253n15
and survivor narratives, 11, 244–52
and testimony-based studies, 148
United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 248, 306, 500
Holocaust and Genocide Studies, 247
Holocaust Martyrs' and Heroes' Remembrance Authority, 244
homeless population, 431
homosexuality and homophobia, 198, 199, 359
Honey, Michael, 192
Hong Kong, 436
Hoop Dreams (1994), 197
H-ORALHIST listserv, 10, 484, 503
Horváth, Rita, 250
hospice care, 387
House of Memory and History, 112–22
“How Crane Got His Blue Eyes” (Lind), 57
Howard, John, 433
Howard Hughes Medical Center, 222
Howard University, 193
Howarth, Ken, 321
Howes, Douglas, 220
Hradilek, Adam, 437
Hudson, Jean, 224
Hughes, Eileen, 504
Huillet, Danièle, 281
human rights
and the House of Memory, 121
ideology of, 247
and the Malvinas War, 125, 126–27, 128, 129, 136
and public oral history, 434–35
and trauma response, 256–57
and Truth and Reconciliation Commission, 143–47
Human Rights Victim (HRV) hearings, 143
Humanities Councils, 171
Hunt, Nigel, 384
Hurricane Digital Memory Bank, 506
Hurricane Katrina, 14, 28, 301
Idaho Statesman, 359
idealism, 71, 72
“Ideologies of the Twentieth Century” (seminar), 117
Ignatieff, Michael, 144, 153
Illinois Institute of Technology, 245
illiteracy, 65–73
immigrants
and access to interviews, 354
and audiovisual recordings, 278, 282
and curriculum standards, 453
and displaced persons, 245
Italian, 117, 121
Latino, 413–14
and nontraditional oral histories, 309
and North Carolina, 413
and September 11 oral history project, 258, 259
and students of oral history, 477, 500
Ukrainian, 436
and women's oral history, 171
World War II refugees, 470
impartiality, 436
imperialism, 134–37
“The Implications of Oral History for Librarians” (Zachert), 319
In a Different Voice (Gilligan), 173 (p. 527)
indexing
and digital technologies, 292, 324, 327, 333–35, 336, 341
and History Makers Childhood Stories Project, 335–38
and keyword searching, 401
multidimensional referencing, 340–41
and passage referencing, 339
and the Shoah Foundation, 249, 252, 253n17
sorting vs. exploring, 341–43
and sound recordings, 7, 10
subject-based indexes, 292, 293
and thematic coding project, 344–47
thematic indexing, 343, 344–47
and vernacular referencing, 343–44
indigenous people, 6, 433, 434, 472. See also Native Americans
individual memory, 437, 440
industrialization, 227–29, 412–13
influenza epidemic, 14
informal oral histories, 500
information technology (IT) departments, 294
informed consent, 365, 383
Informedia Digital Video Library, 338, 344, 345
Instant Messenger, 515n39
instantaneous discs, 404
Institute for Contemporary History (ICH),39–40
Institute for Southern Studies, 410
Institute for the Documentation of the Crimes of Communism, 45–46
Institute for the Study of Totalitarian Regimes (USTR), 437
Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS), 301, 338
institutional ethnography, 173
institutional review boards, 351, 364–65
intellectual evolution of oral history, 11–16
intellectual property, 58, 360, 362
interactivity, 343–44
InterClipper, 335, 337, 340, 341, 345
inter-coder reliability, 346
interdisciplinary work
and memory research, 81–82, 96
and public oral history, 438–39
and reminiscence therapy, 209
and social identity, 102
and “traveling concepts,” 103
and undergraduate courses, 491–92
and university-based oral history, 471
and women's oral history, 173
intergenerational interaction, 282
International Association of Sound and Audiovisual Archives (IASA), 322, 404
International Conference on Oral History, 9
International Database of Oral History Testimonies, 500
International Oral History Association (IOHA), 9, 16, 39–40, 115, 351, 435, 475
International Oral History Conference, 479–80
International Women's Year conference, 181
International Workers of the World, 14
Internet and online resources
and accessibility issues, 27, 291, 292, 326–27
archival delivery systems, 298–99
and archival institutions, 393–94
and audio broadcasting, 506–8
and broadband access rates, 501
and cataloging, 339, 398
and collective memory, 106
and copyright issues, 363–64
and digital video, 290–91
and discussion forums, 484, 503, 514n29, 515n39
and indexing, 339, 341, 342–43
and the IOHA, 9
and legal issues, 363–64
and long-term storage, 512
and practice of oral history, 316
and privacy issues, 10
and “raw” vs. “cooked” documents, 334
and remote users, 326–27
and scholarship, 10, 27
and students of oral history, 464, 478, 492
and survival of oral history collections, 406
and tagging methods, 297
and telephone services, 511, 512, 515n39
and thematic coding, 347
and transcripts, 500
and university-based oral history programs, 420, 482
variety of oral history resources, 24–25, 307–9
and Web 2.0, 324, 327
and Web cameras, 290
and web site development, 511–12
interpretation of oral histories, 40, 56–57, 494–95, 495–97
interviewing practices
and copyright issues, 360–61
and cross-cultural settings, 51–62
documenting interviews, 35
dynamics of, 23–35
and end-of-life interviewing, 384
environment of interviews, 28
and ethics issues, 58
factor affecting interviews, 27–29
and Holocaust survivors, 251–52
and illiteracy, 65–73
impact of video recording on, 273
interview-based research, 25–26
interviewer/narrator pairings, 32–34
and post-conflict situations, 37–49
preparation for interviews, 29–34
rapport with interview subjects, 30, 34
resources on, 24
restrictions on, 354–55
two-person interviews, 271
and university-based oral history, 418–19
variety of, 16
and women's oral history, 175 (p. 528)
The Intolerable Burden (film), 195
Inupiaq Eskimos, 59
invented traditions, 437
involuntary memory, 220
Iphofen, Ron, 386
iPods, 9, 290, 505
Iranian Oral History Archive, 482
Iraq War, 5, 9
iReport, 515n33
Irish Folklore Commission, 317
Isaac, Andrew, 54
Isay, David, 310–11
Istituto Romano per la storia d'Italia dal Fascismo alla Resistenza (IRSIFAR), 116–20
Istituto Storico della Resistenza, 115–16
Italian Association of former Deported Persons, 113
iTunes, 290, 299, 505
Iverson, Allen, 197
Ives, Edward, 61
Ives, Sandy, 170
Jack, Dana C., 173, 175, 492, 494–95
Jackson, Jim, 238–39
Jakeš, Miloš, 45, 47, 48
James, Daniel, 180
James, Lebron, 197
James, Steve, 197
Japan, 9, 237, 239
Japanese-American internment camps, 305, 508
Jay-Z, 464
Jefferson, Alphine, 192
Jennings, Cedric, 196
Jewels and Ashes (Zable), 472
Jewish Holocaust project, 224
Jimmy Carter Boyhood Home National Historic Site, 306
John, Peter, 54–55, 62
Johnson, Samuel, 3, 355
Johnston, Ian, 236
Johnston, Susanna, 211, 213
joint-work doctrine, 361
Jones, Anne Hudson, 385
Jones, Greta, 383
Jones, Lu Ann, 172, 413
Jonestown Massacre, 494
Joomla, 511
Jordan, Michael, 197
Jordan, Teresa, 171
Jordanova, Ludmilla, 374, 430, 440
Josselson, Ruthellen, 89
Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 204
Journal of Multimedia History, 309
Journal of the Society of Archivists, 322
journalism, 28, 29, 31, 35
Joye, Harlon, 303
Judge Horton and the Scottsboro Boys (television), 357
Kahn, Kathy, 171
Kakar, Sanjiv, 378
Keen, Beryl, 190–91
Kelin, Daniel, 453
Kemp, Mick, 208–11
“Kenji” (song), 464
Kentuckiana Digital Library (KDL), 296, 298
Kentucky Educational Television, 293
Kentucky Historical Society, 293, 294–95
Kentucky Oral History Commission, 194, 293
Kentucky Oral History Project, 194, 294
Kerr, Daniel, 431
Khmer Rouge, 434, 504
King, Martin Luther, Jr., 194
Kirchner, Néstor, 128
The Kitchen Sisters, 310
K'Meyer, Tracey, 472, 477
Kondo, Kara, 508
Korean War, 5, 70, 451
Korstad, Robert, 172, 192, 413
Ku Klux Klan, 33, 71, 72, 355
Kuhn, Clifford, 450
Kulumani, 152
Kundera, Milan, 437
La Classe operaia va in paradiso (Petri), 117
La Falange, 71
labor history, 191, 192, 439
LaCapra, Dominic, 147
Lacey, Roderic, 471
lacquers, 404
Lancashire Record Office, 320
Lance, David, 320–21
Lane, Lunsford, 188
Langer, Lawrence, 245
Lanman, Barry, 473
Lanzmann, Claude, 247, 283
lapel microphones, 270, 318
Larson, Mary, 294
Las Mujeres: Conversations from a Hispanic Community (Elsasser, MacKenzie and Tixier y Vigil), 171
Lasorda, Tommy, 466
later life, 202–15
Latin America, 322
Latino community, 258, 259, 413–14
Laurie, Alison, 480
lavalieres (lapel microphones), 270, 318
lawsuits, 355–58, 363
“Learning to Listen” (Anderson and Jack), 175, 492
Lee, Chana Kai, 194
Lee, Harper, 453
Leeds University, 317
legal issues
consent of subjects, 45
copyright, 351–52, 359–63, 511
defamation, 355–58 (p. 529)
and institutional review boards, 364–65
and the Internet, 363–64
interview restrictions, 354–55
legal ramifications of oral history, 351–69
patient rights, 378
privacy torts, 358–59
release agreements, 57, 307, 351–53, 360–61, 363, 367, 368, 369
rights to stories, 57
safeguards, 365–66
and standards of practice, 15–16
and the Truth and Reconciliation Commission, 150
“The Legendary Topography of the Gospels in the Holy Land” (Halbwachs), 99
Lehna, Carlee, 386
Leloudis, James, 172, 413
Lemke-Santangelo, Gretchen, 191
Letter on the Blind (Diderot), 219
Letterman, David, 359
Levi, Primo, 247
Levin, Howard, 464–65, 478
Levine, Lawrence, 187
liability, 366. See also legal issues
libel, 355
librarians, 334, 352
Library of Congress
American Folklife Center, 15, 311, 451, 505
American Memory collection, 501
and digitization, 407n13
and the Federal Writers Project, 187
and Holocaust survivor testimony, 245
and legal issues, 352, 353
and the Marshall donation, 352
and preservation, 401
and StoryCorps, 198
and subject headings, 337
Veterans History Project, 15, 16, 351, 451
Lichtblau, Albert, 478
Liddington, Jill, 443
Lieblich, Amia, 89
Life Behind a Veil (Wright), 195
life caching, 326
life expectancy of media, 299, 324
life histories, 384–85, 386
Life Lived Like a Story: Life Stories of Three Yukon Native Elders (Cruikshank), 62n1, 177
Life Review, 12–13, 204, 206–7, 207–12
life stages, 82, 205. See also age issues
lighting, 269, 272
Like a Family: The Making of a Southern Cotton Mill World (Hall, et al.), 172, 409, 412–13
Lincoln, Abraham, 4
Lind, Maggie, 57
Linked project, 309
“Listening for a Change” project, 414
Listening Is an Act of Love: A Celebration of American Life from the StoryCorps Project (StoryCorps), 311
Listservs, 516n39
literary theory, 101
litigation, 365–66. See also legal issues
Litwack, Leon, 189
Living Atlanta: An Oral History of the City, 1914–1948 (radio program), 304–5
Living the Story: The Civil Rights Movement in Kentucky (documentary), 194, 293
Living Through the Hoop: High School Basketball, Race, and the American Dream (May), 197–98
Lloyd, David, 154
Local People: The Struggle for Civil Rights in Mississippi (Dittmer), 195
Lochead, Richard, 322
LOCKSS (“Lots of Copies Keep Stuff Safe”), 301
Loewen, James, 450–51
Lomax, Alan, 317
Lomax, John, 187, 199, 286
London Metropolitan University, 441
London's Voices, 309
“The Long Civil Rights Movement: The South Since the 1960s” (Hall), 414
longevity of media, 299, 324
longitudinal studies, 214, 258
long-term storage, 512
Longview Historical Center, 367
Lorenz, Federico Guillermo, 435
Los Alamos Historical Society Podcast, 506
lossy and lossless compression, 289
Loudon, Irvine, 381
Louie B. Nunn Center for Oral History, 293, 296
Louisville, Kentucky, 195
Lowes, Leslie, 383
L-soft, 516n39
Lucas, Maria Elena, 177
Lyon, Gloria, 224–25
Lyons, Martin, 479
MacColl, Ewan, 317
Machine Readable Cataloging (MARC),400, 502
Macintyre, Stuart, 433
MacKenzie, Kyle, 171
Mackintosh, Carolyn, 380
Madison, Indiana, 191
Madondo, Cliford, 161
Magna Carta, 353
magnetic tape recorders. See tape recorders
Magoon, George, 61
Maine, 61
Major, Ralph, 373
The Making: Oral History Project (class project), 504
Making Sense of Oral History (Shopes), 503
Makiwane, Nokhaya, 161
Malacrida, Claudia, 378, 383 (p. 530)
Malvinas War
described, 124–25
differing views of, 129
heroes of, 132–34
and historian's role, 135–39
and human rights violations, 125–26, 126–27, 128, 129, 136
interview subjects from, 5
and military dictatorship, 126–29
and military failings, 140n11
and patriotism, 130–31
and political memory, 125–26
soldiers' memories, 134–35
and state terrorism, 125, 127–29, 132, 135–36, 138
victims of, 131–32
Mandela, Nelson, 142, 153
Manzoor, Farhat, 383
Maoism, 180
MapQuest, 342
Marantz cassette recorders, 287, 405
Marantz Superscope, 318
Marcotulli, Marco, 122n13
marginalized groups, 70–71, 199, 306. See also specific groups
Margules, Gabriele, 279
Marini, Giovanna, 117, 121
market trends, 288
Marshall, Thurgood, 352, 353
Martin Luther King National Historic Site, 305
Martin-Smith, Ted, 240
Marx, Frederick, 197
Marxism-Leninism, 39
Masons, 66
mass media, 259
Maternal Thinking (Ruddick), 173
Mather, Elsie, 56
Matibhe, Ike, 52
MATRIX: The Center for Humane Arts, Letters, and Social Sciences Online, 308, 484
Mauthausen concentration camp, 66, 282
Mauthausen conjecture, 66, 72
May, Reuben A., 197
Mbeki, Thabo, 153
McDougal, Rona, 380
McEwan, Watt, 239
McKeller, Shelley, 376
McKenna, James, 383
McKeown, Thomas, 373
McKibbin, Kerry, 453
McMahon, A. W., 205
McNeil, William, 14
medicine
history of medical profession, 373–77
medical sociology, 377
nurses' stories, 379–80
patient stories, 377–79
role of oral history in, 385–87
and shared authority, 380–85
medium close-up (MCU) shots, 271
Mein Kampf (Hitler), 71, 72
Meissner, Dennis, 398–99
memoirs, 420
“Memory and Globalization” conference, 115
memory (biological). See also collective memory
associative memory, 280
autobiographical memory, 12–13, 83, 93n24, 96–97, 106, 107–8, 439
and the “camera's eye,” 278–79
and children affected by HIV/AIDS, 159–64
and cinematic language, 282–83
and contemporary oral history, 77–82
and cultural influences, 121–22
declarative memory, 93n24
defined, 104
and dictatorships, 126–29
embodied memory, 437
episodic memory, 93n24, 104
of former soldiers, 134–35
and individual perceptions, 12
and interview preparation, 30
involuntary memory, 220
memory entrepreneurs, 126
and the memory paradox, 90–91
and military conflict, 13, 105, 129–39, 233–34
and national oral histories, 446n51
and negotiation of remembrance, 281–82
and nostalgia, 237
official memory, 440
passive memory, 98
and patriotism, 130–31, 132–34
personal memory, 107–8, 250
procedural memory, 93n24
and public events, 116–18
and public oral history, 437–40
and reminiscence therapy, 13, 202–15
scientific research on, 82–90, 93n24, 135
semantic memory, 93n24, 104
and the senses, 83, 220, 221–23
sensory memories, 83
short-term memory, 83–84
social memory, 96, 102, 435, 437–40
symbolic memory, 102
and trauma, 14, 245, 256, 259, 261
triggers for, 251, 279–81
and truth and reconciliation commissions, 142–43, 143–47, 147–51, 151–54
unreliability of, 79–80
Memory Box program, 160–61, 483
memory (computer), 277–83, 289–90, 326
Memory Studies, 96
Memoryscape, 309
Mendosa, Mitch, 452
mental health, 202–15, 256, 378
Merriam, Alan, 286–87
metadata, 292, 294, 297, 502, 510 (p. 531)
metaphor, 55
meta-statements, 495
Mexican Americans, 53
Meyer, Renate, 435
Mhlawuli, Nombuyiselo, 144–45
Michaels, Paula, 372
Michelet, Jules, 97
Michigan State University, 308, 484
micro-cassettes, 404
microfilm, 406n5
microphones, 269–70, 318
Microsoft SQL, 293
migration studies, 191, 192. See also immigrants
Miles, Jean, 226–27
Miles of Smiles, Years of Struggle (Santino), 61
military
and conscription, 138–39, 140n11
and dictatorships, 124, 138
historians of, 9
juntas, 137
military service, 130, 275, 467, 499, 510
and national narratives, 130
and repression, 121
and state terrorism, 125, 127–29, 132, 135–36, 138, 322, 435
Miller, Daniel, 106
Miller, Graeme, 309
Mills, Kay, 194
Millwood, Beth, 412
Milwaukee Neighborhoods Project, 368
MiniDisc (MD), 9, 11, 289, 324–25, 401, 404
Ministry for Culture and Heritage (New Zealand), 234
Ministry of Cultural Heritage (Italy), 118
Minnesota Historical Society, 198, 503
Minqar Qa'im (battle), 235
Mississippi Department of Archives and History, 355
Mitchell, Duncan, 380
Mkhonto, Sindiswa, 145
The Modern Researcher (Barzun and Graff), 4
Modigliani, Sara, 117, 121
Monash University, 480
Montana, 179
Moore, Michael, 355
Moore, Shirley Ann, 191–92
Moorland-Spingarn Research Collection, 193
moral discourses, 430
moral witnesses, 253n27
A More Perfect Union (exhibit), 305
Morehouse, Lisa, 504
Morris, Errol, 283
Morrison, Toni, 117
Morrissey, Charles, 318, 411, 430, 466
Morrow, Phyllis, 56
Moses and Aaron (Schönberg), 281
Mothers of Plaza de Mayo, 126
Moveable Type, 506, 515n39
Mozilla Digital Memory Bank, 506
MP3s, 289, 505–6
Muckamore Abbey Hospital, 380
Mulcahy, Joanne, 53
multidimensional referencing, 340–41
multidisciplinary foundation of oral history, 11
multimedia technology, 312, 493–94, 496
multiple intelligences, 453–56, 454, 455
Multiple Intelligences: The Theory in Practice (Gardner), 456
municipal museums, 306
Murdoch University, 482
Murphy, Mary, 172, 413
Murray, Donald Walter Gordon, 376
Museum of London, 309, 441
Museum of the American Indian, 306
music industry, 6
Muslim Women in Mombasa, 1890–1975 (Strobel), 176
Muslims, 176, 258, 259
Musselman, 245–46
My American Century (Terkel), 451, 457
Myerhoff, Barbara, 206
Mystic Seaport, 306
mythology, 150
Nanzan University, 482
Napster, 290
narrative
and active remembering, 279
conversational narratives, 161
and interview terminology, 26
narrative flow, 241
narrative psychology, 87–88
narrative theory, 89–90
narrative therapy, 159
national narratives, 130
and public oral history, 437–40
subaltern narratives, 435, 445n30
and video production, 269
The Narrative Study of Lives (Josselson and Lieblich), 89
Nasstrom, Kathryn, 409–15
nation building, 149
National Air and Space Museum, 433
National Archives and Records Administration (NARA), 8, 407n13, 459
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), 191, 192, 507
National Association of Italian Partisans, 113
National Baseball Hall of Fame, 465
National Commission on the Disappearance of Peoples (CONADEP), 127
National Community of Women Living with HIV/AIDS (NACWOLA), 160
National Congress (Argentina), 133
National Council of Negro Women, 192
National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH), 172, 303, 304, 412 (p. 532)
National History Day, 466
National Humanities Medal, 414
National Library of Australia, 401, 403, 405, 407n13
National Museum of African American History and Culture, 311, 509
National Museum of American History, 305, 512
national parks, 6
National Prosecuting Authority, 152
National Public Radio (NPR), 15, 304, 311, 505
National Sound Archive (NSA), 322, 329n30
National Visionary Leadership Project, 503
nationalism
and Christian memory, 99
and cultural symbolism, 105
and gender issues, 179
and the Malvinas War, 130, 133–34, 136, 138
and narcissism, 153
and totalitarian regimes, 140n17
and trauma, 259
Native Americans, 52–56, 57–58, 59–61, 316
natural disasters, 14, 28
Navajo culture, 52
Nazism, 38, 67, 69, 72, 364, 436
Ndanbuki, Berida, 179–80
Ned, Annie, 177
neglect of archive materials, 404
Negro Leagues, 465
neighborhood museums, 306
Neighborhood Story Project, 500–501
Neisser, Ulric, 82, 85, 88
Nelson, Davia, 310
networking, 300, 463
neuroscience, 82–87
neutral shots, 274
Nevins, Allan, 3–4, 12, 170, 317–18, 420
New Deal, 187, 317
New Left, 113
New Orleans, Louisiana, 500–501
New York Activist Women's Voices: Oral History Project, 180–81
New York City, 262, 510
New York City Fire Department, 15
New York Times, 4
New York Times Co. v. Sullivan, 357
New York Times Foundation, 257
New Yorker, 3
New Zealand, 9, 234–36, 239, 322, 434
New Zealand Army Division, 236, 239
Newfoundland, 377
Newman, Turak, 59
Ngewu, Cynthia, 146–47, 149
Night (Wiesel), 247
nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), 126
nontraditional oral history, 309
nonverbal language, 275
Nora, Pierre, 102
normalizace (normalization), 38–39, 41, 43
Normandy Beach, 7
North Coast California Rural Challenge Network Oral History Project, 452
North West Sound Archive, 320, 321
Northeast High School, 197
Northern Ireland, 383
Northern League, 113
Northup, Solomon, 188
nostalgia, 237
November revolution, 38, 39–40, 49
Novick, Peter, 247
nuclear weapons, 433
Number Our Days (Myerhoff), 206
Nunca Más (Never Again), 127, 128–29
Nuremberg Trials, 246
nursing, 379–80
Nursing Voices archive, 380
Obama, Barack, 414
objectivity, 35, 174, 436
Obroda initiative, 47
O'Callaghan, Casey, 226–27
OCLC, 295
O'Farrell, Patrick, 79, 433
Office for Human Research Protection (OHRP), 364–65
Office of Cultural Policy, 117, 119
official memory, 440
Olick, Jeffry, 103
Olsen, Dorothy, 219
Omeka, 511
One Hundred Student Revolutions project, 39–40
O'Neal, Shaquille, 197
Online Public Access Catalog, 400
online resources. See Internet and online resources
Oozevaseuk, Estelle, 55
Open University, 378
open-reel recorders, 317, 394, 404
Operation Crusader, 235
Oppenheimer, Gerald, 376
oppression, 434–35
optical character recognition (OCR), 507
oral biography, 58
oral evidence, 79, 421
Oral History, 9, 97, 377–78, 432
Oral History and Community Memory Institute and Archive, 482
Oral History Association (OHA)
and cross-cultural settings, 54–55
and digital technologies, 491, 503
first national meeting, 8
and growth of field, 452
and institutional review boards, 364, 365
and the Internet, 308
and media awards, 305
Principles and Standards, 466
and recording technology, 317–18 (p. 533)
and StoryCorps, 311
support for researchers, 39
website, 308
Oral History Coffeehouse, 459
Oral History for the Local Historical Society (Baum), 170
Oral History Handbook (Robertson), 474, 475
“Oral History Movement: Seeking Out the Voices of Women, Blacks, Radicals, and Workers for a Better-Balanced Story” (Hall), 411
“An Oral History of Our Time” (Gould), 3
Oral History Online, 308
The Oral History Reader (Thomson), 474
Oral History Research Office, 3, 317, 474
Oral History Review, 81, 97
Oral History Society, 9, 321, 322, 442, 447n65
O'Regan, Harley, 224
outsourcing, 404
Pacific Northwest, 194
Pacific War, 237
“painted faces” crisis, 134
palaeoanthropology, 477
Palazzo della Cultura, 115
Palestine, 121, 175
palliative care, 384, 387
Palm, Jonas, 406n5
Parker, Charles, 317, 321
Parr, Joy, 223
partisanship, 433
passage referencing, 339
Passerini, Luisa, 80, 81, 100, 438, 441
passive memory, 98
Patai, Daphne, 174–75
Paterson, Mark, 224
patient stories, 377–79
patriotism, 130–31, 154. See also nationalism
The Pawnbroker (1964), 247
peace movement, 121
peer review, 10, 381
Peleliu, 233
Peloponnesian Wars, 3, 449
Pennington, T. Hugh, 377
Pennywinkle: Oral Histories from Tylerton, Smith Island in the Chesapeake Bay, 452
perestroika, 43, 47
Perks, Robert, 382, 474
permissions, 364, 508, 511
Perry, Katharine Elise, 476
persecution, 43
Persian Gulf War, 451
personal memory, 87, 107–8, 250
Petri, Elio, 117
Pew Internet and American Life project, 501
philanthropy, 352–53
Philips Company, 287
Phillips, Denise, 476
Phillips, Kendall, 440
Phillips, U. B., 186–87
Phoenix, Arizona, 191
phonograph, 316
photographs, 272, 279–80, 295
physical environment of interviews, 28
physical gestures, 268
physically active remembering, 279
Pickett, Joan, 77–78, 85–86, 88–90, 91
Piet, Christopher, 146–47
Pietrangeli, Paolo, 117
Pink, Daniel, 462, 463
Pinochet, Augusto, 435
Pius XII, Pope, 122n15
Placák, Petr, 43
Plaza de Mayo, 133
podcasting, 280, 309, 379, 504, 505–6, 510–11, 512
poetry, 476
Poland, 436, 439
Polish Hill Remembered, 453
Polishuk, Sandy, 473
“Political Élites and Dissidents in the So-called Normalization Period in Czechoslovakia: Autobiographical Interviews” (project), 40–41
politics
and archival institutions, 323–24
and campus climate, 419
and days of remembrance, 123n17
and disputes over memory, 128
and HIV/AIDS, 153
and interview restrictions, 354
and the Malvinas War, 125–26
political affiliations, 34, 41–45, 66
political history, 102
political memory, 124–39, 256
and public oral history, 430–31, 433, 434–35, 436, 437
and repression, 126–27, 134
and Rome's House of Memory, 112–22
and the Truth and Reconciliation Commission, 149, 151, 152
and war memories, 124–39
women in, 181
Poll Daddy, 511, 516n39
Pollock, Della, 413
Polyani, Michael, 223
Pompeii, 238
Popular Memory Group, 80–81, 87–88, 441, 445n30
populism, 136, 438
Portelli, Alessandro
and digital technologies, 492
and dynamics of memory, 13–14, 77, 80–81, 82, 86, 90, 100, 438
on “history-telling,” 425n4
on House of Memory and History, 112–22
on interviewing techniques, 46
on oral history curriculums, 491–92, 495–96
on status of oral history in universities, 479
Porter, Dorothy, 374
Porter, Kimberley, 473, 478 (p. 534)
Porter, Roy, 378
positivism, 79, 81, 100
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), 245, 259
postcolonial theory, 174–76
postgraduate oral history courses, 480, 481. See also university-based oral history
postmodernism
and archival issues, 323
and Australian politics, 433
and linguistics, 101
and public oral history, 438
and women's oral history, 174–76, 178, 179–80
poststructuralism, 101
potlatch songs, 54
Potsdam conference, 38
PowerPoint, 493–94, 496
Practicing History (Tuchman), 450
Prague Spring, 38
Prescott, Renate, 473
preservation of materials. See also archival institutions
and digital technology, 299–308, 401–2, 404–5, 406n5, 407n13, 407n15
and format changes, 325
and online collection of histories, 511
and selection criteria, 401–5
and video recordings, 290–91
Price, Victoria, 357
Prichard, Edward F., Jr., 354
Priebke, Erich, 118
primary source material, 334
Primo de Rivera, José Antonio, 71
Principles and Standards (Oral History Association), 27
print resources, 24, 25
prisoners of war, 5, 113, 235, 238–40, 253n15, 464, 510
privacy issues, 10, 278, 358–59, 511
privatization, 113
procedural memory, 93n24
Process of National Reorganization (Argentina), 125, 127
Project Based Learning, 453
Project Jukebox, 308
Promotion of National Unity and Reconciliation Act, 143
propaganda, 128
property rights, 58
Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia, 38
protocol issues, 52
Proust effect, 219–29
psychiatry, 204
psychology
and aged populations, 204, 207–8
and memory research, 82, 84–85, 87–89
narrative psychology, 87–88
and psycho-acoustics, 289
and psychoanalysis, 101, 264n4
and the sensory revolution, 222
social psychology, 79, 101–4, 207–8
and trauma, 240, 256, 261 (see also Post Traumatic Stress Disorder)
and the Truth and Reconciliation Commission, 151
and war memories, 241
public disclosure of private facts, 358
public domain, 360, 363
public figures, 357
The Public Historian (Frisch), 438–39
public institutions, 112–22
public opinion, 126, 131
public oral history. See also community-based oral history
and common sensibilities, 430–31
described, 429–30
and the international setting, 432–37
and public memory, 12
and Rome's House of Memory and History, 112–22
and social remembering, 437–40
and women's oral history, 170–71
publicity, 512
Pulitzer Prize, 206
questionnaires, 235, 396–97
Rabel, Roberto, 233
race and ethnicity
and access to court materials, 355
Atlanta Race Riot, 305
and the civil rights movement, 193–95
and community studies, 190–93
ethnic museums, 306
ethnographic studies, 4, 26, 106, 286–87
and family history, 190–92
and human rights ideology, 247
insights from oral history, 195–99
and interviewer/narrator pairings, 32–33
and marginalized groups, 70–71, 199, 306
and military service, 275
and new insights, 195–99
and public oral history, 442
and segregation, 72, 170
and slavery, 186–90
and women's oral history, 174
and World War II, 237, 275
Radcliffe College, 172
Radio Ballads, 317
Radio Free Europe, 44
Radio Work, 505
radiography, 386
Radstone, Susannah, 98
Rafferty, Anne-Marie, 380
Ragsdale, Eleanor, 191
Ragsdale, Lincoln, 191
Ralph J. Bunche Collection, 193 (p. 535)
Randforce Associates, 333, 345
Randolph, A. Philip, 61
rapport with interview subjects, 30, 34
Ravensbruck concentration camp, 66
“raw” documents, 334–35
Rawes, Peg, 223
Read, Peter, 435
Recall, 211, 212, 213
recession, economic, 152–53
reconciliation, 142–54, 434–35
Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA), 288
recordings. See audio recordings; video recordings; specific technologies
recreations/reenactments, 274–75
Red Brigades, 120
Red Cross, 238
Red Was the Midnight, 305
reel-to-reel recorders, 7, 299, 303, 304, 317
reference librarians, 344
Reflections of the Silver Screen: A History of Allegany County Movie Theatres, 452
reflective teaching, 472–73
reflexivity, 477
refugee communities
Hazara refugees, 476
Holocaust survivors, 244
Hurricane Katrina victims, 14
and oral history curriculums, 481
as oral history subject, 5
Refugee Stories project, 441
and September 11 terrorist attacks, 259
in South Africa, 153
World War II refugees, 470
regional identities, 34
Regional Oral History Office (ROHO)
Artists With Disabilities Oral History Project, 34
and civil rights collections, 193
and defamation lawsuits, 356–57
and digital technologies, 10, 317
scope and goals of, 417–18, 420–24
Rehabilitation Act (1973), 502
Rehnquist, William, 352
release agreements, 57, 307, 351–53, 360–61, 363, 367, 368, 369
religion
and African American identity, 68
and African-Christian hybrids, 187
and Czech dissidents, 42
and interview dynamics, 34
and Mexican American culture, 53
and persecution, 67
and the Truth and Reconciliation Commission, 146–47, 150–51
and ubuntu, 54
Remembering Jim Crow, 505
reminiscence therapy, 13, 202–15
Rendina, Massimo, 118
reparations, 152
repetition, 86–87
repression, political, 126–27, 134
Republican Party, 69
Resistance History Institutes, 115–16
resistance organizations, 113, 115–16
resource allocation, 215
Resource Description and Access (RDA), 398
Resources for Planning and Conducting Oral History Interviews, 503
restorative interventions, 386
retribution, 434–35, 436
Revenue Cutter Service, 55
revisionism, 186, 434, 436–37
Revival initiative, 44
Rhudick, P. J., 205
Richardson, Julieanna, 345
Richman, Joe, 310
Rickard, Wendy, 263, 381
Rico, Aldo, 133
Riggs, Marlon T., 198, 199
Rights Management and Digital Preservation, 405
Riksarkivet, 406n5
Ritchie, Donald
and memory research, 82, 84, 91
and oral history education, 457, 458–59, 472
and public history, 429, 436
Rivers, Tom, 374
Robbins, Ian, 384
Roberts, Alan, 233
Roberts, Dmae, 310
Robertson, Beth, 474, 475
Robertson, Claire, 176, 179
Robin, Bernard, 497
Robinson, Jackie, 465, 466
Robinson, Theodore, 275
Rock 'n' Soul Museum, 306
Rockefeller Foundation, 412
Roediger, Henry L., 96
Romaine, Howard, 410
Rome Cinema Festival, 120
Rome Film Festival, 114, 116
Rome Institute for Italian History from Fascism to Resistance, 115–16
Romero, Luis Alberto, 136
Roots: The Saga of a Black Family (Haley), 190
Roots: The Triumph of a Black Family (television), 190, 247
Rose, Jacqueline, 153–54
Rose, Stephen, 82, 84, 86–87
Rosenzweig, Roy, 310
Rosie the Riveter Revisited: Women, The War and Social Change (Gluck), 172
Ross, Martha, 34
Rowland, Steve, 310
Royal Albert Hospital Archive, 380
Royal College of Nursing Archive, 380
Royal Phillips Electronics, Inc. (Phillips), 8
RSS (Really Simple Syndication), 505
Rubens, Lisa, 418–19 (p. 536)
Ruddick, Sara, 173
Ruiz, Vicki, 172, 473
Ruskin College, 5
Russa, Ignazio La, 122n15
Russell, David, 380
Russell, Elizabeth M., 377
Ruweisat Ridge (battle), 235
Rwanda, 121, 251
Sacks, Oliver, 90, 224
Salat, Solomon J., 282
Salonika, Greece, 14
Salvatore, Nick, 199
Samuel, Raphael, 7, 320, 321
San Francisco, California, 195, 198–99
San Francisco Oral History Archive, 224
Sanders, Mark, 150
Sands, Diane, 178–79
Santino, Jack, 61
Sayigh, Rosemary, 179
Scalfaro, Oscar Luigi, 115
Scarpino, Philip V., 430
Schacter, Daniel, 83, 84, 85
Schindler's List (1995), 248
Schlesinger, Arthur, Jr., 459
Schlesinger Library, 172
Schnapper, Dominique, 126
Schönberg, Arnold, 281
School of Scottish Studies, 317, 320
School of Sergeant Majors, 133
Schudson, Michael, 102–3
Schweitzer, Pam, 208, 213–14
scientific method, 13
Sea Islands, 188
Seale, Bobby, 358
searching, 341–46
Second Face (video), 180
Second New Zealand Expeditionary Force, 239
secondary witnesses, 253n27
segregation, 72, 170
Seiler, Laura Ellsworth, 500
Seinfeld, Jerry, 355
self-consciousness, 273
self-ethnographies, 473
semantic memory, 93n24, 104
senses, 219–29
sensory memories, 83
September 11, 2001, Oral History Narrative and Memory Project, 15, 28, 255–63
September 11: Bearing Witness to History, 512
September 11 Digital Archive, 510
settings of interviews, 28
“Seventh Ward Speaks” project, 500–501
Sexual Orientation and Social Conflict Collection, 198
sexuality and sexual orientation, 198, 359, 378, 442
Shadbolt, Maurice, 234
shared authority, 88, 306, 380–85, 431, 476, 483
Sharing the Same Bowl: A Socio-Economic History of Women and Class in Accra, Ghana (Robertson), 176
Sharp, Cecil, 316
Sheen, Juliet, 225–26
shellac-based records, 404
Shenandoah Valley Oral History Project, 453
Shoah (1985), 247, 283
Shoah Visual History Foundation, 11, 248–51, 253n15
The Shop on Main Street (1965), 247
Shopes, Linda, 310, 438–39, 503
short-term memory, 83–84
Sidney, Angela, 177
sight, 222
Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 176, 180
Silva, Nikki, 310
Simmel, George, 228
Sinomlando Centre for Oral History and Memory Work, 159, 161–62, 163–64, 483
Sinosizo, 160
situated knowledge, 225
Sitzia, Lorraine, 476
Sivan, Emmanuel, 97–98
skepticism of oral history programs, 470, 479
Skype, 511, 512, 515n39
slander, 355
slavery, 33, 68, 69, 72, 186–90
slides, 211–12
smell, sense of, 224–26, 228–29
Smith, David, 377
Smith, Dorothy, 173
Smith, Graham, 382
Smith, Kitty, 177
Smith, Mark, 221, 229
Smith, Warren Allen, 466
Smith-Robinson, Ruby Doris, 194
Smithsonian Institution, 55–56, 275, 433, 509
social behaviors, 65, 89, 100–101, 148
social change, 48–49, 68, 202–15
social constructionism, 374–75
Social History of Learning Disability Group, 378
social identity, 101–4
social justice, 196, 433
social memory, 96, 102, 435, 437–40
social movements, 126
social networking, 299, 382
social policy, 206
social psychology, 79, 101–4, 207–8
social sciences, 340, 46061
social status, 34
socialism, 79
Socialist Party of Italy, 113
Society for the Social History of Medicine, 373
Society of American Archivists (SAA), 322
Society of Former Agents of the FBI, 26
sociology
and collective memory, 98 (p. 537)
and Lance, 321
medical, 377
and memory research, 79
and oral history education, 450
and public oral history, 443
and social identity, 102
solid-state memory, 325, 405
songs, 188
Sonic Memorial Project, 309
Sony cassette recorders, 287
Sophie's Choice (Styron), 247
Sorenson, Gerri, 473
sound archives, 116, 315–27, 379
Sound Portraits, 311
sound quality, 403
South Africa
and archival institutions, 321, 322
and children affected by HIV/AIDS, 159–64
and collapse of apartheid, 6
and community-based oral history,441–42, 483
and cross-cultural contexts, 53–54
culture of, 52
and oral history associations, 9
and oral history education, 473–74, 480, 483
and public oral history, 434, 435, 441, 442
and truth commissions, 142–54, 435
South Today, 411
Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), 194
Southern Exposure, 410
Southern Folklore Quarterly, 286
Southern Historical Collection, 194, 410
Southern Oral History Program, 194, 409–15, 503
Southern Regional Council, 410
Soviet Union, 43, 46–47, 249
Spain, 66–68, 67, 72, 137, 205
Spanish American War, 205
Spanish civil war, 66, 67, 68
spatial arrangements, 278
Speaking for Ourselves (podcast), 379
Spencer, Harry, 240
Spielberg, Steven, 248–49
spontaneity in recordings, 274
Spring Hill College, 301
St. Andrew's Episcopal School, 456, 465, 466–67
St. Fagans National History Museum, 320
St. Lawrence Island, 55
Stacey, Judith, 174, 176
Stalag Luft VI, 238
Stalinism, 436
Stanford University, 301
Stanton, Marie, 226
Starr, Louis, 7
State Library of South Australia, 395–96, 400, 402–4, 406n6, 407n15
State of War, 304
state terrorism
and the Malvinas War, 125, 127–29, 132, 135–36, 138
and manipulation of memory, 322
and social memory, 435
State University of New York, Albany, 308
Statens Ljud och Bild Arkiv, 406n4
Statewide Guide to Oral Histories, 293
statistics, 425n5
Šteˇpán, Miroslav, 47, 48
“Step-by-Step Guide to Oral History,” 503
stereotypes, 205, 238
Stewart, T. McCants, 190
Stewart-Lai, Carlotta, 191
Stonewall Riots, 465–66
Stony Brook University Oral History Project, 506
Storace, Francesco, 122n3
StoryCorps
described, 198, 310–11
and the DIY oral history movement, 182
growth of, 505
and legal issues, 351
and mixed-media strategies, 510
origin of, 15
and the practice of oral history, 24
scope of, 351
storytelling, 85–86, 90, 309–12
Straub, Jean-Marie, 281
Streep, Meryl, 247
Strobel, Margaret, 176
student movements, 39–40, 47–48, 138, 194
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), 194
students of oral history
and the American Century Oral History Program, 456–57
as audience, 503–4
and the classroom environment, 450–56
educational benefits of oral history, 424–25
methodological training, 457–61
motivating, 449–68
and technological skills, 462–64
Styron, William, 247
subaltern narratives, 435, 445n30
subconscious, 100
subject specialists, 420
subject-based indexes, 292, 293
subjectivity
and collective memory, 79–80, 89, 100–101, 108, 263
and content analysis, 338
and Holocaust testimony, 250, 252
and medical oral history, 374
and the memory paradox, 90–91
and public oral history, 438
subjective memory, 79–80, 89, 100–101, 263
subjective nature of oral history, 12
and thematic coding, 346–47
and traumatic memories, 261
and the Truth and Reconciliation Commission, 150 (p. 538)
subpoenas, 354
“The Suffragists: From Tea-Parties to Prison,” 500
“Superbugs and Superdrugs: A History of MRSA,” 381
Super-8 film, 280–81
Survey Monkey, 511, 516n39
Survey of English Dialects, 317
Survival in Auschwitz (Levi), 247
Suskind, Ron, 196
Sutphen, Debra, 478
Suva Intermediate School, 452
Sweden, 248
Sweet, Helen, 380
Sydney Harbour Bridge, 226–27
symbolism, 102, 133, 137–38, 138–39, 154
syndication, 505
The Tacit Dimension (Polyani), 223
tags, 297, 344, 345
Takrouna (battle), 235
Tal, Kalil, 148–49
“talking head” interviews, 268
Talking History, 308–9
Tanana Chiefs' region, 54
Tansey, Tilli, 381
tape recorders. See also video recordings
cassette recorders, 8, 287–89, 299, 318, 324, 394, 404
eight-track recorders, 287–88
four-track recorders, 287–88, 304
introduction and adoption of, 79, 315, 417
and Memory Box program, 160–61, 163–64
micro-cassettes, 404
reel-to-reel recorders, 7, 299, 303, 304, 317
and reminiscence therapy, 203, 211–12
The Tape-Recorded Interview (Ives), 170
Task Force for International Cooperation on Holocaust Education, Commemoration, and Research, 248
taxonomies, 337, 347, 453–56, 454, 455
Taylor, Quintard, 195
Te Papa Tongarewa museum, 306
teacher education, 474
Teaching American History (TAH), 335–36
technology. See specific technologies and devices
television interviews, 25
Telling Our Stories, 310
“Telling Their Stories: Oral History Archives Project,” 452, 464–65
tenure, 436
Terkel, Studs, 5, 304, 318–19, 411, 451, 457
“terms of service” notices, 511
terrorism, 15, 255–63
Terry, Wallace, 196
Tester, Claire, 386
“Testi e testimony” (seminars), 117
testimony collection, 244–52
text messaging, 10
text searching, 346
Thatcher, Margaret, 211
“‘That's Not What I Said’” (Borland), 492
thematic indexing, 343, 344–47
therapeutic value of oral history, 147–51, 159–64, 241, 383–84
thesauri, 337
The Thin Blue Line (1988), 283
thin copyright, 360, 362
Thomas, Martin, 225–26
Thomas, Sherry, 171
Thompson, Paul
and the archival imperative, 320, 321
and “bottom up” approach to oral history, 5
and collective memory research, 100
and medical oral history, 375–76
and memory research, 78–79, 82–83, 85
and national oral histories, 447n51
and recording technology, 7, 317–18
Thompson, Thea, 317
Thomson, Alistair, 118, 180, 432, 472, 474, 492
Thrasher, Sue, 410
Three Mile Island, 499
Thucydides, 3, 417, 449
Tibble, Whiro, 240
Tibet Oral History Project, 509
time codes, 296–97, 298, 503
time sampling, 288–89
Tindall, George, 410–11
Tixier y Vigil, Yvonne, 171
Tlingit culture, 58
To Kill a Mockingbird (Lee), 453
Tocqueville, Alexis de, 285
Toelken, Barre, 52
Tomes, Nancy, 375–76
Tongues Untied (1989), 198
Tonkiss, Fran, 228
torture, 435
totalitarian regimes, 434. See also dictatorships
touch, sense of, 224
traditions, invented, 437
training, 164, 357, 395–98, 420, 447n65
transcription
and accessibility issues, 292, 500
and audio recordings, 7
and digital technology, 296, 327
and funding issues, 304
and students of oral history, 458–59
and thematic coding, 345
and time codes, 296–97, 298
and video recordings, 267
transfer agreements, 352–53
Translated Woman: Crossing the Border with Esperanza's Story (Behar), 177–78
translators, 29
trauma
and children affected by HIV/AIDS, 159–64
and collective memory, 14, 256, 261 (p. 539)
and end-of-life interviewing, 384
and Holocaust survivors, 250–51
and loss of senses, 225
and negotiating remembrance, 282
and reminiscence therapy, 213
and September 11 oral history project,255–62
and the Truth and Reconciliation Commission, 147, 151–52, 154
and warfare, 137
Treatment Action Campaign (TAC), 153
Treleven, Dale, 287
Trevigne, Barbara, 501
troubadours, 3
Troy University, 301
Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC), 13, 142–54
Tuchman, Barbara, 450, 458
Turner, Lorenzo, 187
Tuskegee Airmen, 275
Tuskegee Syphilis Study, 364
Tutu, Desmond, 54, 144, 146–47, 150
Twin Cities Gay and Lesbian Community Oral History Project, 198
Two Fusiliers (Graves), 124
“two-demon theory,” 136
two-person interviews, 271
Tyali, Nomonde, 154
TypePad, 506
ubuntu, 54, 146–47
uchronie, 445n19
Uher Report Monitor, 318
UK Business Archives Council, 321
Ukraine, 9, 436
unauthorized use, 363
Unbound Feet (Yung), 179
Unbound Voices (Yung), 179
unemployment, 196
Union Maids (film), 171–72
unions, 4, 14, 66–69, 106, 120, 171, 192–93
United Kingdom, 202–3, 207–12, 387
United States
and Ant Follower conjecture, 73
and archival institutions, 321–22, 323
Federal Writers' Project, 3, 5, 6–7, 32–33, 187, 317, 411, 512
and medical oral history, 375, 376
and oral history education, 97
and public oral history, 432, 433, 439, 441–42
and reminiscence therapy, 211
scope of oral history practice, 351
United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 248, 306, 500
University at Buffalo, 333, 345
University of Alabama, 293, 295, 301
University of Alaska, Fairbanks, 308, 396
University of California, Berkeley
and adoption of new technologies, 308, 317
Artists With Disabilities Oral History Project, 34
and defamation lawsuits, 356–57
and oral history archives, 4
and the Regional Oral History Office, 417–18, 419
status of oral history at, 421–22
University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), 4, 193, 425n5
University of Cape Town, 480, 483
University of Chicago, 4
University of Georgia Press, 304
University of Huddersfield, 480
University of Illinois, 345
University of Kentucky, 194, 293, 296, 297
University of KwaZulu-Natal, 159, 164
University of Leicester, 483–84
University of Malmö, 480
University of Massachusetts, 181
University of Michigan, 365
University of Natal, 483
University of New England, 480
University of New South Wales, 475, 479, 482
University of North Alabama, 301
University of North Carolina, 194, 311, 409–15, 507
University of North Carolina Press, 413, 414
University of Papua New Guinea, 471–72, 480
University of Southern California, 249
University of Southern Mississippi, 307
University of Texas, 365
University of Utah, 182
University of Winnipeg, 312
University of Witwatersand, 483
University of Wollongong Archives, 482
university-based oral history. See also specific universities
and active learning, 473–76
and archival institutions, 321
benefits of oral history education, 424–25
and civil rights movement research, 193
and curriculum choices, 479–81
and development of archives, 4–5
graduate programs, 16
and the Internet, 307–9
and the interview process, 418–19
and learning outcomes, 476–79
and online classes, 10
and reflective teaching, 472–73
and the Regional Oral History Office, 420–24
and research in the community, 481–84
and technological advance, 417–18
unprocessed materials, 401
unsolicited oral history, 395–98
Uprising of ‘34, 304
urban history, 191, 227–29
Urban School, San Francisco, 452
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 15 (p. 540)
U.S. Army History Center, 369
U.S. Constitution, 360
U.S. Copyright Office, 361
U.S. National Library of Medicine, 374
U.S. Navy, 377
U.S. Oral History Association, 422
U.S. Public Health Service, 364
U.S. Supreme Court, 352
US News & World Report, 16
user-generated tags, 297, 299, 343–44
validity of concepts, 9, 104, 106
Valley of the Kings, 238
Valley Women's History Collaborative of western Massachusetts, 180–81
Varga, Susan, 472
Vause, Clifford, 236–37
Veltroni, Walter, 112, 114, 115
Velvet Revolution, 42
Verdoolaege, Annelies, 146
verification, 4, 11–12, 25, 150, 379, 510, 511, 512
vernacular referencing, 343–44, 347
Veterans History Project, 15, 16, 351, 451
vetting. See verification
vicarious creating, 394, 395–98, 399, 406n6
Victoria University of Wellington, 480
The Victors? The Vanquished?, 40
video recordings
advantages of video, 268–69
cameras for, 10
databases of, 335–36
and digital technology, 290–91, 301, 490
and the Federal Writers’ Project, 5
and Holocaust testimony, 252
interviews, 29
and oral history trends, 267
and pedagogy, 495
production techniques, 269–70, 270–72, 276n2
and storage costs, 406n3
and tape recording technology, 300–301
and thematic coding, 345
video tours, 273–75
videohistory guidelines, 269–70
Viertel, Salka, 281
Vietnam War, 5, 451
Virginia Tech, 478, 482
virtual memory books, 509
Virtual Oral/Aural History Archive, 308
vision, 222
Voice of America, 44
The Voice of the Past: Oral History (Thompson), 5, 79, 100
voice overs, 274
voice-recognition technology, 327, 394
Voices of Collective Remembering (Wertsch), 105
Voices of Gallipoli (Shadbolt), 234
Voices of the Valley: Volume I, 452
“Voices of Women Homemakers” project, 172
volunteerism, 442
Von Plato, Alexander, 46
Von Ranke, Leopold, 4
voting behaviors, 65, 66, 69
Wachtler, Howard, 338
Wade, Dwayne, 197
Wagner, Tony, 462, 463
Waitangi Tribunal, 434, 445n27
Wallis, Don, 191
Wallot, Jean-Pierre, 323
war. See also military
combat situations, 233–34
domestic details of war, 238
and historians' place, 135–39
and Holocaust survivors, 244–52
and illiterates, 70, 71
and oral histories of returning veterans, 5–6
typical experiences, 236–41
veterans of, 15, 16, 130, 131–32, 351, 451
victims of, 131–32
and war crimes, 126–27, 131, 280, 436
war memories, 133, 134–35, 135–39
Warsaw Uprising Museum, 306
Washington, George, 4
Washington Heights, 278
Washington Post, 196
Washington State University, 193–94
Washington Women's History Consortium (WHC), 181
Waterman, Peter, 228–29
Watkins, Thomas, 192
wax cylinder recordings, 316, 404
We Didn't Have Much, but We Sure Had Plenty: Stories of Rural Women (Thomas), 171
“We Only Come Here to Struggle”: Stories from Berida's Life (Robertson), 179–80
Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG), 502
Webber, Amos, 199
Weberian analysis, 375
Weig, Eric, 296
Weine, Stevan, 255, 256, 259, 262
Weisse, Allen, 376
Wellcome Library, 379
Wellcome Trust, 331n58
Wellcome Witness seminars, 381
Welsh Folk Museum, 317, 320
Wendling, Laura, 473
Wertsch, James V., 96, 105
Wessex Sound and Film Archive, 320
West, Bernard, 303
Westkott, Marcia, 173
whalers, 55–56
“What Did You Do In The War, Grandma?” (project), 504 (p. 541)
“What Makes Oral History Different” (Portelli), 80, 492, 495
Wheaton College, 307
Wheeler, Winona, 434
Whitaker, Matthew, 191
White Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, 355
Who Built America?: From the Centennial Celebration of 1876 to the Great War (multimedia project), 305
A Whole New Mind (Pink), 462
Why Survive? Being Old in America (Butler), 206
Wichita, Kansas, 191
Wickham, Chris, 103
Wiesel, Elie, 247
Wieviorka, Annette, 249–50
Wikipedia, 344
wikis, 503
Will the Circle Be Unbroken (radio program), 304–5
Williams, Brian, 355
Williams, Ralph Vaughan, 237, 316
Williams, Raymond, 87
Wilson, Richard, 146
Wilson, William Julius, 196
Windschuttle, Keith, 433
Wing Luke Asian Museum, 305
Winter, Jay, 97–98
wire recorders, 7, 287
Wisconsin Humanities Council, 368
Wise, Leah, 410
With Babies and Banners (film), 171–72
witness testimony, 4, 260, 432
Witnesses to Change: Families, Learning Difficulties and History, 379
Wittner, Judith, 173
“Women, Work, and Cinema” (seminars), 117
Women's Airforce Service Pilots (WASPs), 275
Women's Auxiliary Army Corps (WAAC), 504
“Women's Life Histories: Method and Content” (Geiger), 176
women's oral history
assessment of women's oral history, 178–79
and cultural norms, 100, 173–74
current women's oral history, 179–81
and the digital revolution, 181–82
female faculty, 411
gender roles and memory, 94n41
and HIV/AIDS, 153, 160
and military service, 275, 504
origins of women's oral history, 169, 170–72
and postmodernism, 174–76
and race, 174
and representation issues, 176–78
and slavery, 187–88, 189
and women's culture, 173–74
and women's movements, 120, 171, 172
and women's studies, 475, 480
and women's trades, 278–79
Women's Oral History: The Frontiers Reader,169, 178
Women's Ways of Knowing: The Development of Self, Voice and Mind (Belenky et al.), 173
Women's Words: The Feminist Practice of Oral History (Gluck and Patai), 174, 175
Wood, Nancy, 97–98
Woodard, Ken, 453
WordPress, 506, 515n39
Words and Silences/Palabras y silencios (International Oral History Association), 475
Working in Paterson: Occupational Heritage in an Urban Setting (project), 505
Working Lives Oral History Project, 295
Working (Terkel), 5
“work-made-for-hire” doctrine, 361
Works Progress Administration (WPA). See Federal Writers' Project
World Trade Center, 309
World War I, 125, 432, 451
World War II
and Australia, 470
BBC oral history project on, 510
and civil rights, 195
and collective memory, 13, 105
and combat memories, 233–34
and Fosse Ardeatine massacre, 112
interviews of combat experience, 5
and propaganda interviews, 38
and public oral history, 436, 437, 439
and race issues, 237, 275
and recording technology, 7
and students of oral history, 451, 452, 467, 478
and video recordings, 268
and women's military service, 275, 504
World Wide Web. See Internet and online resources
World Wide Web Consortium, 502
World Women's Conference (Mexico City), 177
WRFG radio station, 303, 304
Wright, George C., 195, 199
Wright State University, 480
Written Document Analysis Worksheets, 459
written vs. oral stories, 55
WW2 People's War, 510
xenophobia, 153, 258, 259
Xhosa culture, 53–54
Yad Vashem, 244, 250, 253n22
Yahoo Groups, 516n39
Yale University, 249
Yalta conference, 38
Yellowman, 52
YIVO Institute for Jewish Research, 244
Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA), 238 (p. 542)
Your Mommy Kills Animals (documentary),361
YourStory Project, 182
YouTube, 500, 504, 509
Yow, Valerie, 81, 83–84, 91, 429, 472
Yung, Judy, 179
Yup'ik culture, 52–56, 57
Z. Smith Reynolds Foundation, 410–11, 414
Zable, Arnold, 472
Zachert, Martha Jane, 319
Zalumas, Jacqueline, 380
Zardini, Mirko, 222
Zerubavel, Yael, 437
Zydowski Instytut Historyczyny (ZIH), 244