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date: 04 August 2020

(p. 703) Index

(p. 703) Index

Abbas, K. A., 641–42
Abbott, Berenice, 132, 146n10
Abel, Jon, 164n9
Abramovitz, Sholem Yankev, 441–42
Abu-Lughod, Janet, 295, 514
Achebe, Chinua, 229, 238, 285n13
Aching, Gerard, 16, 671, 685
Acosta, Agustín, 342, 350–51
Acosta, José M., 350
actresses, prostitutes as, 633
Adelard of Bath, 676
adhunika (modern woman), 643n13
Adorno, Theodor W., 234, 238, 408n9, 662n2, 679
aesthetic autonomy
futurist geographies with uneven modernities and, 313–40
spatialization of force with, 330–32
aestheticism, 316, 373. See also art for art’s sake
Africa, 130. See also photographic modernism; specific countries
African Americans influenced by, 136
banjo’s origins in, 60, 67–68
Black Orpheus and rise of little magazines, 274–80
diaspora, 68–69
frontal vision and, 137–39, 147n15
little magazines, 267–87
May Fourth New Culture Movement and, 239–40
African literature, 228–45, 249–66, 267–87. See also South Africa
capitalism, modernity and modernism with, 231, 232–37
combined and uneven modernisms with, 237–41
little magazines and, 267–87
modernism and, 228–45, 249–66
Western literature as standard for, 228–29
Agamben, Giorgio, 391, 399–400, 694n12
Ağaoğlu, Adalet, 39
Agnon, Shmuel Yosef, 451, 452
Agustini, Delmira, 125n4
Ahad-Ha’am, 441
Ah Q–The Real Story (Lu Xun), 15–16
allegory and rereading of, 173–204
and/as Chinese modernism, 175–79
as chapter-novel parody, 173, 177
forgetting and desire for recognition in, 195–201
with human and nonhuman distinctions, 194–96
newspaper-serial structure of, 177
without plot or biography, 186–87
with proscription and desire for identity, 186–95
reader’s relationship to text in, 177–78
as rogue sign and Confucian system of naming, 180–86, 189–92
signs in, 178–79
sleep in, 196
spectral nature of, 182–84, 189
as theater/court, 177–78
writing in, 198
Aidoo, Ama Ata, 241
Akanishi Kakita (film), 588
Akanji, Sangodare, 278
Albania
modernism in, 27, 30–32
standard language, 31–32
Alberta (Sandel), 485
Alberta and Freedom (Sandel), 485
Aldington, Richard, 561, 562, 566
Aleichem, Sholem, 440, 442, 443, 450
Algeria, colonialism in, 103n5
Algérianiste movement, 85
Allawaert, M., 69, 74n38
allegory
Chinese modernism and will to, 173–204
national, 15, 164n12, 184
natural history with, 202n15
spectral nature of story with, 182–84, 189
Allfrey, Phyllis Shand, 426
All-India Muslim League, 541
Almendares River, 364n36
Alonso, Carlos, 115
Alphabet (Christensen), 490
(p. 704) alphabets
Arabo-Persian, 38
Ottoman, 546n46
universal, 331
Vietnam’s romanized, 371–72
“Alphabets” (Heaney), 300–301
Altenberg, Peter, 445, 447
alternative universalis, 114
Alvarez, Al, 430n4
Amer, Sahar, 676
“America Hispana,” 475n12
Americanist artistic politics, 346
Amerindians, 51–52, 55, 71n11
Amrouche, Jean El Mouhoub, 6, 105n35, 691
with Berber memory reconstructed and time, 87–94
Berber poetry, issue of derivation and, 81–108
cultural translation issue and, 100–102
with derivation issue and global visions of modernity, 94–100
homme-enfant and, 90
Kabyle culture and, 99–100
literature of memory and, 82, 85
religion and influence on, 104n27
vernacular culture with Mallarmé and, 83–87
Analects (Confucius), 181–82
Anand, Mulk Raj, 9, 16, 205–6, 223
body of work, 224n3
with Gandhi, 208–9
Joyce’s influence on, 208–13
political activism of, 207–8
with politics of Indian modernism, 207–14
use of language, 213–14
Anday, Melih Cevdet, 542, 545n31
Anderson, Amanda, 407n2
Anderson, Benedict, 88, 298
Anderson, Margaret, 272
Anderson, Perry, 12, 236, 318
Andrade, Oswald de, 362n20
Andrew, Dudley, 610
Andrić, Ivo, 40
Andronikoff, Natalia, 561
Angier, Carole, 419–20
Anglo-American modernism, 8, 14, 132, 409n15, 420, 429, 467, 482, 684
“Anglo-Mongrels and the Rose” (Loy), 289
Aniara (Martinson, H.), 492
Antoine, André, 483
anxiety, 56, 164n14
Anzai Fuyue, 574
Aono Suekichi, 615
apartheid, 646, 649, 653, 655. See also South Africa, cinema in
Apollinaire, Guillaume, 29, 31, 318, 483
Appadurai, Arjun, 295, 552
Appiah, Kwame Anthony, 145n5, 295, 305n5, 401, 409n21
Applause (film), 602
appropriation
artistic, 297
modernism with comparison and, 14–18
Apter, Andrew, 251, 264n16
Apter, Emily, 503, 512, 519n9
Araba Sevdasi (“The Carriage Affair”) (Ekrem), 532
Arabo-Persian alphabet, 38
Arab world, 38, 239–41, 676, 677
Arac, Jonathan, 17, 302
Aragon, Louis, 381n10
Araquistáin, Luis, 464–65
architecture, 30, 444, 450
Functionalism, in Scandinavia, 490–91
of private life in India, 221–22
postmodern, 8
with vernacular modernism, 610–12
Area Studies, 519n4
Arendt, Hannah, 5, 389
“Ariel” (Rodó), 114, 343
Arkaden Café, 446, 454n15
Arlt, Roberto, 344
“Arm” (Kitagawa), 579–80
Armah, Ayi Kwei, 229–30, 238
Armstrong, Tim, 461
Arnold, Matthew, 557, 560, 566
Arrighi, Giovanni, 166n27
Artaud, Antonin, 483
Art Deco, 611, 627
art for art’s sake, 316, 368–69, 371–76
art for life’s sake, 368–69, 371–76
artistic renewal. See global artistic renewal
l’art c’est l’azur, 115
Arvasi, Abülhâkim, 539
Asch, Sholem, 450
Aseguinolaza, Fernando Cabo, 501
Asendorf, Christopher, 576
Asia. See also China; Chinese modernism; Japan; Vietnam
“modern” as term in, 152, 164n9
Asia Minor catastrophe, 35
Asturias, Miguel, 234, 362n5
Atatürk, Mustafa Kemal, 534
Atay, Oğuz, 39
Athill, Diana, 419
Attridge, Derrick, 212
Atwell, David, 144n1
Auden, W. H., 488
(p. 705) Audisio, Gabriel, 85
August Revolution of 1945, 375
Aurelius, Marcus, 389
Aurobindo, Sri, 225n10
Austen, Jane, 166n26, 215–17, 221, 508
Auster, Paul, 494
Austria. See Vienna, Austria
Austro-Hungarian Empire, 243n11, 687
The Autobiography of an Ex-Colored Man (Johnson, J. W.), 388, 396
autonomy. See aesthetic autonomy
avant-garde
art, 318
Bulgaria, 33
historical, 320
lettered city in Cuba with fissures in, 360–61
modernity in Latin America and Cuba’s, 341–66, 362n19
Romania, 36
Russian, 317, 325–26, 329–30
Turkish, 38
work ethic of Havana’s, 345–49
Yugoslavia’s cultural space with, 40
avant-garde, futurist
with time-space of modernity, 315–18
transnational geography of, 324–30
Ayhan, Ece, 542, 545n31
Ayvazoğlu, Beşir, 535
Azuela, Mariano, 473
Azul…. (Darío), 109, 115–16, 126n11
Babel, Isaac, 440, 441
“Babette’s Feast” (Blixen), 486
baggy monster texts, 341, 361, 362n4
Bagritzki, Eduard, 441
Bahun, Sanja, 4, 15, 669, 689
Baker, Houston, 55
Baker, Josephine, 406
Bakhtin, Mikhail, 290, 648, 694n11
Bal, Mieke, 20n23
Balibar, Étienne, 111, 118, 124
Balkan modernism
Albania, 27, 30–32
with barabaro-genius, 26–29
Bulgaria, 27, 30, 32–34
with cultural identification, 27
Greece, 27, 29, 32, 34–36
histoire croisée with, 25–43
language of resistance and, 32
with methodological apertures, 41–43
recorded and unrecorded, 29–43
Romania, 27, 36–37
with symbolism, 42
Turkey, 37–39
Yugoslavia, 30, 39–43
Balkan Wars, 32, 35
Baltacioğlu, Ismayil Hakki, 39, 534, 535, 538–39, 546n45
Ba-matzor u’va-matzok (“In Siege and Distress”), 446–47
Bandung Conference, 145n4
banjo
Africa and origins of, 60, 67–68
“Blanche Gilroy in Classical Costume Reclining with Banjo,” 61f
cultures, 59, 73n26, 73n29
as instrument of slavery, 59, 62
as limbo gateway, 60
“Miss Apperson” with, 60f
with race, 59, 67
Banjo (McKay), 4, 50, 58, 59–60, 63
migrancy in, 67–69
“Shake That Thing” in, 61, 67
women portrayed in, 61–62
barbaro-genius, 25–29
Barber, Karin, 256, 264n7
Ba Ren, 173. See also Lu Xun
Baroja, Pío, 465
Barthes, Roland, 130, 134, 137
Bassnett, Susan, 519n9
Batur, Enis, 544n15
Baucom, Ian, 51, 56
Beach, Sylvia, 473
The Beacon, 272
Beasley, Rebecca, 6, 670, 689
Bechhofer, C. E., 565
Beer-Hofmann, Richard, 445, 447
Bei Dao, 156, 165n18
Beier, Ulli, 276, 278, 280. See also Black Orpheus
Belcheva, Mara, 33
Belgrade Surrealist Circle, 29, 40
Belle Époque, 120, 125n1, 313
Ben-Avi, Itamar, 450
Benda, Julien, 472
Bengali Renaissance, 51
Benhabib, Seyla, 18n7, 391–92
Benítez-Rojo, Antonio, 72n22
Benjamin, Walter, 16, 88, 121, 124, 161, 178–79
with cinema, 647, 654, 656
on dream-world, 253–54
with empty homogenous time, 88, 197
(p. 706) on modernist translation, 555
on natural history, 202n15
phantasmagoria and, 258, 264n13
on urban literary café space, 438
Bennett, Louise, 297, 299, 303
Ben-Yitzhak, Avraham (Dr. Sonne), 444, 447–48
Berber poetry, 81–108
as song, 85, 87–94
with time and memory reconstructed, 87–94
vernacular culture with Amrouche and Mallarmé, 83–87
Berbers
with mother figure, 89
as noble savages, 85
Bergelson, Dovid, 452
Bergelson, Lev, 452
Bérgère, Marie-Claire, 400
Bergson, Henri, 32, 90, 466, 530, 531, 534, 538, 543n6, 544n19, 545n34, 546n44, 554, 576–77, 593n16, 691
Berk, İlhan, 38, 542, 545n31
Berk Nurullah, 544n27
Berlin, Germany. See also Germany; Hebrew and Yiddish modernism; urban literary café
Café des Westens, 437, 451
Romanisches Café and Hebrew and Yiddish modernism in, 437, 449, 450f, 451–53
Berman, Jessica, 16, 515, 671
Berman, Marshall, 112
Bernheimer, Charles, 164n11, 505
Beyath, Yahya Kemal, 6, 530
Bhabha, Homi, 49, 71n10, 88, 103n7, 294, 439, 454n12, 503
Bialik, Haim Nahman, 441
Bildungsroman, 206
hero, 211–12, 215, 219
with women writers, 215–23, 225n15
Billings, Timothy, 161
Bim, 272, 274, 278
The Birds (Vesaas), 493
Björling, Gunnar, 487
blackface minstrelsy, 59–62
Black Lamb and Grey Falcon: A Journey through Yugoslavia (West), 29
Black Orpheus, 273, 284–85
in Africa and rise of little magazines, 274–80
Beier as founding editor of, 276
criticism in, 279
form of, 277
for general readership, 275–76
influence of, 281
mission and funding for, 276
reviews in, 278
shift in content, 285n10
Black Power: The Record of Reaction in a Land of Pathos (Wright)
apprehension in, 134
frontal vision in, 137–39, 147n15
Gold Coast photos, 132f, 133f, 135f, 139f, 140f, 141f, 143f, 146n6
with photographic modernism, 129–48
blacks, theaters for, 652
The Black Jacobins (James, C. L. R.), 72n22
Blair, Sara, 6, 692
Blake, William, 74n38
“Blanche Gilroy in Classical Costume Reclining with Banjo,” 61f
Blaut, J. M., 95, 514
blaxpoitation cinema, 653
Blixen, Karen, 486
Bloch, Ernst, 13, 233
Blonde Venus (film), 602
Bloomsbury Group, 208–9, 405, 406. See also specific members
Blue Horn group (Georgian modernism), 335n33
blues, 58, 59, 73n29
Bly, Robert, 479, 488
Boase, Roger, 676, 677
Boehmer, Elleke, 206, 207, 684
Bogomilski Legendi (The Bogomil Legends) (Rainov), 33
bohemians, 430n3. See also Left Bank; urban literary café
Bonaparte, Napoleon, 53
Boom novels, 361
Bordwell, David, 608
Borges, Jorge Luis, 116, 362n5, 467, 470, 494
Borum, Poul, 487
Bothma, C. V., 653
Boulifa, Amar Ou Said, 86
Bourdieu, Pierre, 19n14, 346
“The Bourgeois King” (Darío)
artwork in, 120, 122
capitalism and, 118–19, 123
beyond imitation in, 112–17
Spanish American modernismo and, 109–28
with transatlantic modernity, 117–25
winter in, 123–24
Bourget, Paul, 395
Bourne, Randolph, 463–64
Boye, Karin, 489
Boyson, Emil, 488
Bradbury, Malcolm, 273, 481, 509
(p. 707) Brandes, Georg, 480–81, 486, 491, 688
Brantlinger, Patrick, 683
Brathwaite, Kamau, 4, 49, 51, 54, 69, 71n11, 295–97, 423
on Rhys as West Indian writer, 430n4
Brazilian modernismo, 125n1
Brecht, Bertolt, 6, 161, 381n10, 483
Breinin, Reuven, 450
Brekke, Paul, 489
Breton, André, 29, 234, 486, 574
Breytenbach, Breyten, 649
Bridges, Robert, 163n4
Briggs, Charles L., 396
Brink, André, 649
British empire, 206–7, 214, 274, 296, 303, 421–24, 429, 508–9. See also imperialism.
Britain, 114, 153, 166n26, 219, 299–300, 303, 425, 483, 557, 567, 650, 677–78, 687, 689–90
expansionist wars of, 681–83
Russian translation in, 558–66
Broad, C. D., 208
Broby-Johansen, Rudolf, 488
Broch, Hermann, 447, 448
Brodber, Erna, 52, 69
Brooks, Van Wyck, 463
Brouillette, Sarah, 419
Brown, Nicholas, 234, 242n9
Bruno, Giuliana, 642
Bukharin, Nikolai, 375
Bulgaria, 27, 30, 32–34
Bulson, Eric, 10, 12
Bundy, Andrew, 71n12
Buñuel, Luis, 578
Bürger, Peter, 43n11, 316–17, 342, 345, 361n4
Burke, Edmund, 534
Burliuk, David, 322, 545n30
Burnett, Charles, 676
“Bursa’da Zaman” (Tanpınar), 538
Burton, Antoinette, 215, 225n9
Bush, Christopher, 161
Butterfly Valley (Christensen), 490
Butts, Mary, 397, 404–7
The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari (Wiene), 483
Café Megalomania. See Romanisches Café
cafés. See also urban literary café
Abatzya, 439
Arkaden, 446, 454n15
Central, 437, 438–39, 446, 447
des Westens, 437, 451
Fanconi, 441, 442f, 443–44
Griensteidl, 437
Herrenhof, 446, 448, 449f
Monopol, 450
Museum, 447, 448
Robina, 441, 444
Romanisches, 437, 449, 450f, 451–53
Çağlar, Ece Ayhan, 38
Cahier d’un Retour aux Pays Natal (Césaire), 69, 516–17
Calvino, Italo, 494
Camera Lucida (Barthes), 130
camera obscura, 143–44, 147n17, 258, 264n14. See also photographic modernism
Campos, Haroldo de, 153
“Camptown Racecourse,” 63, 67
Canetti, Elias, 259–60, 447
Cansever, Edip, 542
Cape Farewell (Martinson, H.), 492
capitalism, 12–4, 112, 117, 682–83
African literature with modernity, modernism and, 231, 232–37
brutality of, 235–36
Ben Okri’s modernism and, 249–66
global capitalism, 106n44, 117–19, 123, 254–55
South African cinema and, 646–65
Spanish American modernismo and, 109–28
Caragiale, Ion Luca, 36
Caribbean modernism, 48–77
foundational scenes, 51–53
limbo gateways, 49–50, 54–56
literary language with, 53, 54
planetary, 67–69
re-ordering history in, 53, 54–56
Carlyle, Thomas, 556
Carmichael, Stokely, 131, 145n5
Carpentier, Alejo, 55, 342, 347, 352–56, 363n26
Carr, Helen, 430n4
Casal, Julián del, 112, 116, 117, 125n4
Casanova, Pascale, 18n4, 164n7, 297, 332, 502, 673
global literary map and, 319, 330
world literature theory and, 269–70, 319–20
Cassatt, Mary, 513
Castillo, Ramón, 474
The Castle (Kafka), 173
Cather, Willa, 9, 150
Catherine the Great (Empress), 440
Catholic Church, 163n5
Cavafy, Constantine, 25, 26, 35, 407
Celan, Paul, 490
Cendres (Ashes) (Amrouche), 83, 88–89
(p. 708) Center-periphery model, 6–7, 56, 82–83, 96, 118, 183, 269–70, 320, 325, 333n4, 390, 501–3, 502–4, 506, 509, 511–18, 519n5, 6, 8, 688
Certeau, Michel de, 402
Césaire, Aimé, 52, 55, 69, 234, 276, 285n10, 516–17, 518
Cha, Theresa Hak Keung, 516–17
Chaker, Salem, 86, 106n44
Chakrabarty, Dipesh, 6, 86, 102, 103n7, 514, 608
on historicism, 103n10
on uneven development, 333n11
Champsi-Haridas case, 630
Chang, Sung-sheng Yvonne, 158
Chants Berbères de Kabylie (Berber Chants [sung poetry] from Kabylia) (Amrouche), 82, 85–94
Chapman, Arnold, 463
Chardin, Jean-Baptiste Siméon, 120
Chatterjee, Partha, 513
Cheadle, Mary Patterson, 160
Cheah, Pheng, 380n6, 394, 408n12, 462, 475n4
Chekhov, Anton, 561, 565
Chemarea (Call), 36
Chiang Kai-shek, 400
Chiba Kameo, 574, 593n13
Un chien andalou (film), 578
Child, Harold Hannyngton, 564
children’s literature, 493
Chin, Marilyn, 289
China
cinema in, 601–18, 618n4, 618n8
civil war, 400, 606
Japan’s use of “Shina” for, 187, 202n10
May Fourth New Culture Movement in, 174, 197–98, 199, 201n2, 201n3, 202n5, 202n12, 239–40
with nation-states, 164n15, 165n16
with Nobel Complex, 153–54, 155, 164n15
writers influenced by, 160–62
China Transformed (Wong), 166n27
Chinese Enlightenment, 176, 180. See also Enlightenment
Chinese modernism, 15–16, 149—70, 173–204
Ah Q–The Real Story and/as, 175–79
allegory and origin of, 173–204
anxiety with, 164n14
Confucian system of naming with, 15–16, 180–86, 189–92
European time and, 159–63
forgetting and desire for recognition in, 195–201
globality and geography of mimetic desire with, 153–55
global perspectives on, 149–50
global thinking and intercontamination of terms, 12, 155–59, 163n2
literary economy and preferred languages with, 156–57
with mimetic desire and European time, 149–70
national allegory and, 15, 164n12, 184
with proscription and desire for identity, 186–95
with Western history of modern, 150–53
Chinweizu, 229–31
Chiwengo, Ngwarsungu, 145n5
Chmelnicki, Melekh, 444
Chmelnitzky, Melech, 446
Chocano, José Santos, 125n4
Chow, Rey, 153, 157–58, 165n17, 165n19, 510
Christensen, Inger, 490
Christiansë, Yvette, 649
Chughtai, Ismat, 234
cine-eye, 571
cinema, 9, 571–97, 601–26, 627–45, 646–65. See also films
architecture with vernacular modernism and, 610–12
audiences with women, 618n8
blaxpoitation, 653
in China and Japan, 601–18, 618n4
fashion in, 652–53
in India, 627–45
Japan’s white-collar, 615
modernity in colonial India with women, city and, 627–45
motherhood and prostitution in, 601–3
postwar, 605
power of, 641–42
Shanghai, 608, 639
theatrical shinpa-style in, 614
urban scene of modernity in Indian, 629–32
vernacular modernism and South African cinema, 646–65
vernacular modernism as Hollywood, 9, 607–9, 613, 620n20
violence in Hollywood, 651
waste as theme in, 605–6
women as stars in Indian, 639–42, 643n12
Cinema Ni Rani (Cinema Queen), 634
cinépoème, 579–81, 592n10
cine-text, Japanese modernism and, 571–97
(p. 709) Cioran, S. D., 563–64
circulation. See also Global Circulations Project
of interwar Anglophone and Hispanic modernism, 461–77
of literary writing, 56–57, 70n8
of little magazines, 286n15
in modernist studies, 503, 507, 511–16
city, and modernism, 178–79, 236, 255–58, 318, 356–60, 368, 398–99, 402–7, 433–58, 484, 488, 577–78, 627–45. See also specific cities
civilization, 126n12, 408n10
Clair, René, 589
Clark, J. P., 230, 278, 280
Clark, Michael, 146n6
Clarke, J. J., 679, 693n9
class. See social class
Claudel, Paul, 161
Cliff, Michelle, 52, 55, 69, 71n11
Clifford, James, 301, 392, 407, 408n7, 511
close reading, 17, 511, 515
Človek z bombami (The Man with Bombs) (Podbevšek), 41
Coetzee, J. M., 238, 649
Cohen, Margaret, 258
Colet, Louise, 382n22
collage, 11, 173, 259, 290, 318, 345, 348, 352, 503
in modernist studies, 507, 516–18
collective memory, 104n14
Colley, Linda, 72n22
Colonialism, 55–56, 95, 100, 229, 235–36, 238–41, 281, 292, 298–99, 321, 325, 372, 394–95, 407, 499–501, 505–6, 508–9, 513, 517, 592n11, 628, 631, 683–84, 691. See also imperialism
Berber poetry and influence of, 83–87, 103n5, 144n1
mental disorders with, 103n5
Shina as sign of Japanese colonialism, 187, 202n10
time and alternative delineations with, 81–108
of written languages, 17
color lines, 420–23. See also race
Comedy: A Tragedy in One Act (Kazantzakis), 34
Coming Home (film), 605
commerce
songs, 64–65
women’s images in, 64–67
The Communist Manifesto (Marx and Engels), 119, 242n10, 556
comparative strategies
circulation, 503, 507, 511–16
collage, 507, 516–18
identification with, 505
in modernist studies, 507–18
recovery, 507, 509–11
re-vision, 507, 508–9
comparativity, with world literature and modernisms, 499–525
in global studies, 504–6
strategies in modernist studies, 507–18
Comte, Auguste, 393, 532
Confucianism, 372
Analects, 181–82
with human and nonhuman distinctions, 194–96
with rectification of names, 15–16, 180–86, 189–92, 200
Congress of Berlin, 27, 32
Conley, Tom, 657
Connor, Liz, 640
Conrad, Joseph, 6, 17, 484, 509, 513, 565, 566
consciousness
geocultural, 342, 351–52
wave theory of, 593n16
constructivism, 40–42, 573
contrapuntal reading strategy, 17
Coolie (Anand), 210–14
Copeau, Jacques, 464
Cornelius, Henry, 650
Coronil, Fernando, 251–52, 261
Cosgrove, Stuart, 657–58
Cosmópolis: Revista Universal, 395
Cosmopolitanism, 5, 41, 74n36, 37, 116, 270–71, 273, 290, 318, 332, 464, 471, 479, 610, 670–71, 692
fin de siècle, 394
futurism between nationalism and, 319–24
global designs and, 390
Habermasian, 391–92
impossible, 396–402
Latin and Sanskrit, 609–10
modernism and, 387–412
modernism and situation with, 402–7
and neoliberalism, 610
old and new, 5, 301–2, 389–92
philosophical forms of, 390–92
with race and nation, 393–96
and township in South Africa, 655
Roman Stoic, 407n2
uneven modernist, 472–74
Cournos, John, 562–65, 567
court. See theater/court
Cowie, Elizabeth, 643n4
Craig, William Marshall, 62
(p. 710) Crane, Hart, 467–68
Crapanzo, Vincent, 649
Crary, Jonathan, 147n17
Creditors (Strindberg), 482
creolization, 11, 12, 55–56, 58, 71n11, 73n26, 99–100, 289, 295–96, 503
of languages, 50
with slang of tsotsis, 653, 661
as world view, 73n35
creolized arts, 51
“Cries of London”
commerce depicted in, 64
“Milk,” 64f
origins, 63–64
plantation melodies and, 59–67
“Strawberrys Scarlet Strawberrys,” 65f
cries of the plantation, 50, 56–67
crime films, 630
criollo (of European descent), 341, 343, 345, 356, 358, 361n2
The Criterion, 271, 272
Critique of Pure Reason (Kant), 505
Crnjanski, Miloš, 40
crossed history. See histoire croisée
Crossroads (film), 604–5
Cry the Beloved Country (film), 650, 656
Cuba
Americanist artistic politics in, 346
boxing in, 357
economic collapse in, 343
labor force in, 344, 348–49
lettered city and avant-garde fissures in, 360–61
minoristas in, 344, 346, 347–49, 355–56
modernity in Latin American and avant-garde in, 341–66, 362n19
National Academy of Arts and Letters in, 347
secret ñáñigo societies in, 354–55
social class in, 356–60
sugar industry in, 343, 349–56
tertulias in, 357, 358, 360, 361n1
time-outs in, 348, 350
war with Germany, 362n6
work ethic of Havana’s avant-gardes, 345–49
cubism, 41, 157, 321, 322, 323, 326, 373, 403, 483, 513, 530, 535, 539, 546n45, 573
cubofuturists, 322
Cullen, Countee, 132, 136
Culler, Jonathan, 520n18
cultural studies, globalization influencing literary and, 81–83
cultures, 344. See also May Fourth New Culture Movement
banjo, 59, 73n26, 73n29
fascism’s grip on, 370
as humanity’s highest achievement, 196
indigenous, 82, 85
Kabyle, 99–100
vernacular, 83–87
violent death of, 198–99
Curtin, Philip, 57
Curtius, Ernst Robert, 461
Dabydeen, David, 69
Dada, 37, 40, 157, 271, 285n4, 316, 321, 331, 346, 355, 487, 516, 573, 619n10
Dagerman, Stig, 489
D’Aguiar, Fred, 52
Dai Houying, 165n21
Dalchev, Atanas, 33
Dalí, Salvador, 578
Damas, Leon, 285n10
Damrosch, David, 19n10, 165n18, 503, 510, 512, 515
D’Annunzio, Gabriele, 317, 324, 333n7
Dante, Alighieri, 151, 609
Darío, Rubén, 6, 16, 125n4, 126n10, 126n11, 151–52, 167n32, 474n2
influence of, 116–17, 125n1
Spanish American modernismo and, 109–28
Dash, J. Michael, 53
Dass, Manishita, 9, 671
Davidson, Basil, 239
Davie, Donald, 559
Da Vinci, Leonardo, 679
Davis, Peter, 652
“Dawn” (Soyinka), 231
Daybreak (film), 602
“The Day They Burned the Books” (Rhys), 413–15, 416, 425
“The Dead” (Joyce), 404
de Andrade, Mário, 678
death, 198–99, 202n12, 202n13
decentralization of intelligence, 110, 122
De Chirico, Giorgio, 263
decolonization, 5, 17, 19n13, 113, 144n1, 292, 404, 420, 428–29
and African literature, 228–45,
and cosmopolitanism, 388–94
and global book business, 274–75
and Indian modernity, 628
and photographic modernism, 129–48
and transnational poetry, 294–309
“decolonizing the mind,” 228
deep time, 519n4
(p. 711) defamiliarization, 7, 55, 157, 178, 254, 301, 506, 508–9, 516–18, 558
“Défense de la culture” (Gide), 370
Deleuze, Gilles, 5, 501, 576–77, 579
DeLoughrey, Elizabeth, 69, 71n11
Delphic poetry, 34
de Man, Paul, 543n4
De Maupassant, Guy, 565
Demeny, Paul, 546n51
Democraţia, 43n8
Les Demoiselles d’Avignon, 297
demotic language, 34–35
Denmark, 479–80. See also Scandinavian modernism
Depestre, René, 55
Dergâh (“Convent”), 533, 534
derivativeness, curse of, 513–14
Derrida, Jacques, 8, 92, 212, 391, 404, 545n35
désindividualisation, 370
desire. See also mimetic desire
for identity in Ah Q–The Real Story, 186–95
for recognition in Ah Q–The Real Story, 195–201
Desnica, Vladan, 41
Desnos, Robert, 592n10
despair, politics of, 102
de Torre, Guillermo, 470
development, uneven, 333n11
de Vogué, E. M., 559–60
d Group, 535, 544n27, 544n29
The Dial, 267, 271, 272, 281, 282
Diary of a Madman (Lu Xun), 173, 195, 199–200, 237
Diary of Chûji’s Travels (film), 588, 589
diaspora, 5, 17, 81, 145n5, 304, 499–500
African, 56, 58, 61, 67–69, 300
Caribbean, 50, 58
Greek, 30
Jewish, 437
Dickens, Charles, 565, 567
Dictée (Cha), 516–17
The Difficult Hour I-III (Lagerkvist), 483
Dikmen, Halil, 535
Diktonius, Elmer, 487
Dimock, Wai Chee, 57, 68, 70n3, 70n8, 73n35, 304, 519n4
Dino, Abidin, 544n27
Diogenes, 389
The Disconnected (Atay), 39
Disendrook, Zvi, 444, 447
Dishonored (film), 602–3
distant reading, 17, 502
distribution, of magazines, 271–72, 274, 277–78
Dix, Otto, 254
Doctor Glas (Söderberg), 484
Do-Dinh, Pierre, 367–68, 375
A Doll’s House (Ibsen), 481–82
Dostoyevsky, Fyodor, 151, 234, 560, 561, 565
Doyle, Laura, 7, 9–10, 14, 15, 342, 512
Dr. Madhurika (Modern Wife) (film), 634, 638
Dragnet Girl (film), 603–4
A Dream Play (Strindberg), 482
Dreams of Roses and Fire (Johson, E.), 492
Dubnov, Simon, 441–42
Du Bois, W. E. B., 396, 407
Ducasse, Isidore Lucien. See Lautréamont
Duniya Na Mane (The Unexpected) (film), 638
Dupuy, Ernest, 559
Durrell, Lawrence, 43n2
Dutch Disease, 253, 264n6
Dwyer, Rachek, 643n6
Dyer, Richard, 643n12
Eakins, Thomas, 61
earth, aesthetics of the, 68–69. See also planetary
Eby, Cecil Degrotte, 683
eco-cosmopolitanism, 74n37
ecological impact, of oil-based economies, 261
Edgell, Zee, 55
Edwards, Brent Hayes, 276
Edwards, Jonathan, 150
Edwards, Louise, 164n13
The Egoist, 267, 271, 272, 561–62, 564–67
835 Satir (835 Lines) (Hikmet), 38, 536
Eisenstein, Sergei, 487, 516, 580
Ekelöf, Gunnar, 488
Ekrem, Recâizâde Mahmud, 532, 690
electronic media, 552
Elefthero pnevma (Free Spirit) (Theotokas), 35
Eliot, T. S., 6, 8, 43n2, 71n16, 160, 165n18, 173, 208, 234, 271, 290, 295, 489
Aldington’s letter to, 561
with black vernacular forms, 421
Crane on, 468
with shared circulation scheme for reviews, 474n3
Ellis, Lorna, 219, 225n15
Ellison, Ralph, 142, 657–58
Elsie, Robert, 43n3
Elytis, Odysseus, 35
emancipation, of slaves, 424
Embirikos, Andreas, 35
Emery, Mary Lou, 4–5, 430n4, 672, 686
(p. 712) Engels, Friedrich, 119, 242n10, 556
English Civil War, 48
English language, 9–10, 163n6
and African literature, 228–45
unavowed imperialism of in Moretti, 17
poetry and imperialism of, 302–4
and translation, 551–70, 621n37
transnational readings and Indian narratives in, 205–27
empire, 51, 68, 70n5, 137, 298, 320, 505, 515. See also imperialism and specific countries
Enlightenment
Chinese, 176, 180
European, 28, 90, 390
Jewish, 435, 441
rationalism, 403
Epitafios (Epitaph) (Ritsos), 35
Ertürk, Nergis, 6, 15, 16, 670, 678, 687
Escher, M. C., 669
Escobar, Juan Antiga, 349, 674, 693n3
Esperanto, 555
Espinoza, Enrique, 469. See also Glusberg, Samuel
“The Essential Gesture” (Gordimer), 647–48
Esther Chajes (Shteinman), 443–44
Esty, Jed, 212, 225n15
“The Eternal Jugurtha: Propositions on African Genius” (Amrouche), 93–94
Etoile Secrète (Secret Star) (Amrouche), 84
Eurocentrism, 7, 13, 14–18, 19n13, 51, 177–18
And African literature, 228–45
and Berber poetry, 81–108
and modernist studies, 504–25, 670
and world literary system, 152–53, 297, 673
Europe
Chinese modernism in relation to modernism in, 150–53
Enlightenment in, 28, 90, 390
film statistics for U.S., Japan and, 592n3
Hispanic modernism and Our America viewed through, 463–65
Ocampo’s, 469–72
urban literary café and geography of Hebrew and Yiddish modernism in, 433–58
Evans, Walker, 137, 138f, 140
Evaristo, Bernardine, 289
Every Night Dreams (film), 601
excrement, 261, 264n4. See also oil-based economies
expressionism, 132, 254, 263, 380n4, 381n14, 436, 450, 451–52
in Balkans, 33–34, 37, 40–42
in Japan, 573, 581
in Scandinavia, 481, 484–84
post-, in Germany, 249, 254, 263
¡É-Yamba-Ó¡ (Lord, Praised be Thou) (Carpentier), 352–54, 363n26
Fabre, Michel, 146n6
Fachs, Donald, 678
Fanon, Frantz, 84, 103n5, 369, 683
Fantoches (Puppets), 348
fascism, 85, 314, 332, 370, 381n10, 472–74, 614, 692
fashion
in cinema, 652–53
tsotsi with revolutionary style and, 654–59
Faulkner, William, 6, 12, 51, 173, 425, 489
Fearless Nadia, 637–38
Featherstone, Mike, 300
Felski, Rita, 164n10, 512
feminism, 8–9, 39, 164n10, 289, 342, 360, 430n4, 462, 487, 516, 690
gynocriticism, 510
“practical” in Cuba, 359
international, 471–72
revision, 508
Fenollosa, Ernest, 166n28
Ferguson, James, 262, 264n19
Fernández de Castro, José Antonio, 347, 356, 363n30
Field, Andrew, 563–64
Figaro, 313
Le Figaro, 43n8
Fikret, Tevfik, 532
Film Age, 574
filmindia, 641
film noir, 651
films, 9, 18n1, 592n10. See also specific film titles
with cinema tracked on global scale, 601–26
clusters, 10
crime, 630
French impressionist, 585
Kitagawa on, 587
motherhood and prostitution in, 601–3
prose, 587–89
silent, 588, 590, 601, 622n41, 629–30, 634
statistics for Japan, U.S. and Europe, 592n3
studios, 614–16, 634, 641
swordplay, 613–14
theory of prose, 587–89
financial value. See also oil-based economies
public opinion determining, 249, 255–56
Finkel, Donald, 165n18
(p. 713) First New poets, 542, 545n31
The First Manifesto of Futurism, 43n8
Fishermen’s Song (film), 605
Flaubert, Gustave, 127n15, 151, 345, 382n20
in relation to Russian novel, 559–60, 565
and Vietnamese aesthetics, 367–68, 375–76
Fletcher, John Gould, 562, 565–66
Fogel, David, 444, 447–48
Fojas, Camilla, 394–95, 398
Fondane, Benjamin, 592n10
“Fondation et Manifeste du futurism” (“Founding and Manifesto of Futurism”), 313
Ford, Ford Madox, 272, 406, 417, 420, 561
Forget Love for Now (film)
motherhood and prostitution in, 601–2
Shennü: The Goddess with, 601–2, 616–17
formalism, 8, 12, 14, 17, 132, 362n11, 515–16
literariness, 12, 17, 114, 165n15, 319–20, 332, 689
neo- and accounts of classical Hollywood cinema, 607–608
photographic, 133–37
Russian, 331
and Scandinavian modernism, 479, 489–90
Yokomitsu’s theory of, 572, 575, 582–86, 589–90
Forster, E. M., 11, 208, 224n7, 381n10
Foster, Stephen, 63
Foucault, Michel, 499, 531
fragmentation,
bodily, 255, 575, 578, 582, 589
didactic, 580, 582,
formal, 12, 94, 183, 380n3, 484, 488, 516, 572, 575–77, 580, 581–83, 587, 590
“fragment and flow,” 571–97
modernist, 12, 183, 185, 484, 516, 575
psychic, 123, 183, 259, 423, 491, 554
raretsu, 583–84
social, 86, 567, 577
surrealist, 486, 488
syntactical, 484, 579
temporal, 567, 575, 589, 591
Fraiman, Susan, 219, 225n15
France, 27, 115. See also Paris, France
colonial, 68, 83–87, 100, 103n12, 371–76
language in, 319
France, Peter, 553
Franco, Jean, 361
Frank, Andre Gunder, 166n27, 514
Frank, Waldo, 462, 691, 692
on “America Hispana” and “Latin America,” 475n12
Ocampo’s Europe and Americas of, 469–72
Our America through Europe’s eyes and, 463–65
with uneven modernist cosmopolitanism, 472–74
Free Enterprise (Cliff), 69
free love, in China, 202n12
French Empire (Second), 123–24. See also imperialism
French experimental theater, 483
French impressionist film, 585
French language, 31, 37, 58, 89, 97, 103n12, 115, 276, 313, 319, 329, 371, 399, 470, 484, 488, 515, 540, 559, 677, 690
French modernism, 14, 87, 96, 158, 540. See also specific authors
Freud, Sigmund, 31, 399, 554
Freyre, Ricardo Jaimes, 125n4
Friedman, Susan Stanford, 14, 49, 56, 57, 69n1, 463, 672
multiple modernities and, 95–96, 99
planetary and, 70n3, 72n23
on spatial boundaries with modernism, 295n11
“From Altar to Chimney Piece” (Butts), 405–6
From Morning to Midnight (Kaiser), 483
“From the Unconscious Life of the Mind” (Hamsun), 484
Frostenson, Katarina, 490
Froude, James Anthony, 288
Fuentes, Carlos, 236
Fulton, Robert, 479
Functionalism, 490
futurians, 322
futurism, 3, 5, 6–7, 40, 157, 202n5, 436, 576, 679
art linked to aggression with, 313
in Balkans, 33, 35, 37, 38, 39–41, 42
between cosmopolitanism and nationalism, 319–24
in Italy, 269, 314–18, 320–22, 331, 332
debated in Japan, 573
and little magazines, 269
with Marinetti, 313–15, 317, 321, 322–24
as celebration of modern labor, 344
origins, 313–14, 334n19
in Paris, 314–15, 319–21, 335n28
as response to imperial contestation, 685, 688
Russian in relation to modernistas, 114
in Scandinavia, 487
in Turkey, 533, 535
in Vietnam, 373
futurismo/futurizm, 324–30, 333n9
futurist geographies. See geographies, futurist
(p. 714) Gaarder, Jostein, 493
Gaines, Kevin K., 145n5
galicismo mental (mental Frenchness), 115
Gallimard, Gaston, 464, 475n8
Galvão, Patrícia, 344
Gance, Abel, 587, 590
Gandhi, Mohandas, 208–9, 224n3, 225n10
Gaonkar, Dilip Parameshwar, 13, 96, 551
Gao Xingjian, 164n15
Garborg, Arne, 481
García Lorca, Federico, 465
Gardner, William, 16, 671
Garnett, Constance, 560
Garnett, Edward, 562, 567
Gatsos, Nikos, 35
Gauguin, Paul, 326
Gay, Peter, 151, 157
gaze
frontal, 137–39, 147n15
permutations of, 255
Geertz, Clifford, 511
Gender
as applied to America versus Europe, 395, 470
and Banjo, 59–63
and cafés, 443–44
and cinema, 603–606, 632–42
and consumerism, 662
and literary status, 8, 19n5, 500
and modernity, 215–23, 359–60, 634–42
Purdah and Polygamy, 215–23, 225n9
and Jean Rhys, 67–68, 423
Scandinavian literature and, 482–83, 485
separate spheres, 632
and Tư Bền the Actor, 377–379
Generation of 1898, 125n5, 465
genocide, from inflation, 259–60
Gentile, Emilio, 322
geocultural consciousness, 342, 351–52
geography
futurist avant-garde and transnational, 324–30
of Hebrew and Yiddish modernism in Europe, 433–58
of mimetic desire with globality, 153–55
geomodernisms, 684–90, 693n1
Geomodernisms (Doyle and Winkiel), 9–10, 512
Georgia (Republic of), 314, 323, 669
German language, 302, 399, 438, 445, 447, 486, 487, 488, 490, 612
Germany, 27
inflation in, 253, 260
language and translation, 554–55
Romanisches Café in Berlin with Hebrew and Yiddish modernism, 437, 449, 450f, 451–53
war with Cuba, 362n6
Ghosts (Ibsen), 481–82
Ghost Sonata (Strindberg), 482, 483
Gibran, Kahlil, 679
Gibson, Angus, 661
Giddens, Anthony, 298, 305n10
Gide, André, 6, 12, 489
on art-versus-life debate, 372
coded politics of homosexuality and, 376–77, 379
on defense of culture, 370–71
désindividualisation and, 370
NRF and, 464, 475n8
Vietnam and influence of, 367–70
Gikandi, Simon, 49, 55–56, 58, 71n16, 71n18, 508
on combined and uneven modernisms, 238–40
on globalization, 297–98
Gilroy, Paul, 88, 145n5
planetary and, 70n3, 73n35
Gjurmat e stinve (The Traces of the Seasons), 32
Glissant, Édouard, 4, 49–50, 51, 58, 61, 71n11, 74n38
on plantation, 72n22
poetics of Relation, 56, 57, 59, 72n21, 72n24, 73n35, 513
global artistic renewal (Zenitism), 26
global capitalism, 106n44, 117–19, 123, 254–55. See also capitalism
Global Circulations Project (GCP), 693n2
globality, with geography of mimetic desire, 153–55
globalization, 74n37, 305n10
literary and cultural studies influenced by, 81–83
modernity and poetry with, 288–309
planetary distinct from, 52
global modernity
Berber poetry and derivation issue with, 94–100
disjunctions of, 102, 318
flow of cultural material and, 552
as homogenizing, 92
indigenous cultures with, 82, 85
Nigeria and, 261
poetry and, 288–309
produced by colonial dynamic, 82
as receding horizon, 249
(p. 715) global readership, of little magazines, 280–84
global studies, 504–6
global thinking, 5, 155–59, 163n2
Glusberg, Samuel, 469
Goankar, Dilip Parameshwar, 514
Gobineau, Arthur de, 393–94, 403, 408n11
Goebel, Rolf, 161
Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von, 271–72, 501, 502, 519n3, 556
Goffman, Daniel, 678
Gogol, Nikolai, 559
Gold Coast. See also photographic modernism
photos, 132f, 133f, 135f, 139f, 140f, 141f, 143f, 146n6
slavery, 142–43
Goldman, Jane, 531
Goldman, Nahum, 451
Golley, Gregory, 582
Göl Saatleri (Hours of the Lake) (Haşim), 38
Gómez de la Serna, Ramón, 466
Goncharova, Natal’ia, 326
Goncourt, Edmond de, 127n15
González, Aníbal, 345
Goodbye to Berlin (Isherwood), 398
Good Neighbor policy, 474
Gopal, Priyamvada, 684
Gordimer, Nadine, 647–48, 649
Gosho Heinusunke, 614
Gramsci, Antonio, 333n7, 409n14, 609
Graves, Robert, 163n4, 163n5
The Great Divergence (Frank, A. G., and Pomeranz), 166n27
Greco-Turkish war, 35
Greece
Ellinikotita, 35
languages, 34–35
modernism in, 27, 29, 32, 34–36
Orthodox Church’s influence on, 43n6
periodicals, 35
Greenberg, Uri Zvi, 452
Greene, Graham, 471, 505
Gronemann, Sammy, 450
Grosz, George, 254
Grupo Minorista, 344,
and social class, 346–47
Guattari, Felix, 5, 501
Guenther, Irene, 254, 263
Guerra y Sánchez, Ramiro, 349–50
Guillén, Nicolás, 342, 356–57, 363n30
Güiraldes, Ricardo, 473
Gürbilek, Nurdan, 538
Gürol, Ender, 538
Gutiérrez Nájera, Manuel, 117, 125n4
H. D. (Hilda Doolittle), 164n10
Habermas, Jürgen, 437–38, 693n9
Habermasian cosmopolitanism, 391–92
haiku, 296, 489, 579
Haitian Revolution, 51–52, 53, 70n2, 70n6, 71n15
Hải Triếu, 373–76, 381n14, 381n15
Hall, Stuart, 295
Halperin Donghi, Tulio, 120
Hamsun, Knut, 481, 489
Hannas, William, 159, 166n24
Hannerz, Ulf, 295
Hansen, Kathryn, 633
Hansen, Miriam, 9, 438, 629, 639, 654, 670
with vernacular modernism, 607–9, 631–32
Hansson, Ola, 481
Hapsburgh Empire, 32, 444, 447. See also imperialism
Harlem Renaissance, 51, 58, 70n5, 134, 289, 486
Harmless Tales (Sørensen), 491
Harootunian, Harry, 13, 86, 90–91, 101, 233, 612
on comparativity, 505–6
on synchronicity, 104n13
Harris, Wilson, 4, 49, 52, 68, 71n17, 429
Harshav, Benjamin, 435–36
Haruyama Yukio, 574
Harvey, David, 18n2
Haşim, Ahmet, 38, 533
Haskalah (Jewish Enlightenment) movement, 435, 441
Havana, Cuba. See also Cuba
avant-garde’s work ethic in, 345–49
economic collapse influencing, 343
Grupo Minorista in, 344, 346–47
Hayot, Eric, 12, 16, 82, 672, 678
Head, Bessie, 649
Heaney, Seamus, 74n36, 300–301
Heart of Darkness (Conrad), 17, 513
“Heavensgate” (Okigbo), 291–92
Hebrew and Yiddish modernism
with Berlin: Romanisches Café and flowering of, 437, 449, 450f, 451–53
in Europe with urban literary café, 433–58
modern Jewish revolution and trajectory of, 435–37
with Odessa: urban ambivalence and new Jewish women, 440–44
with thirdspace of literary café, 437–40, 442, 454n12
(p. 716) with Vienna: inside and outside Jewish space of café, 444–49
Hedda Gabler (Ibsen), 481–82
Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich, 159, 197, 200–201, 202n17
Heidegger, Martin, 401
Heilbrun, Carolyn, 8
Heimann, Moritz, 451
Heise, Ursula K., 74n37
Helios o protos (Sun The First) (Elytis), 35
Hellsing, Lennart, 493
Hemingway, Ernest, 489
Henningsen, Poul, 490
Henrik Ibsen and the Birth of Modernism (Moi), 481
Heredia, José Maria de, 533
Hermoni, Aharon, 450
Hernández, José, 473
hero, Bildungsroman, 211–12, 215, 219
Herrera y Reissig, Julio, 125n4
Herzl, Theodor, 445
heteroglossia, 41, 290
high modernism, 56, 163n3, 267, 361, 516
China and, 165n21, 174, 175, 185–86
Scandinavian modernism and lyrical, 478–79, 488–90, 493–94
Vietnamese literature and, 369
Hikmet, Nâzim, 38, 39, 529, 536
Hillarp, Ruth, 489
Hilton, John, 561
Himes, Chester, 657
Hindus, 393–94, 408n11
Hirabayashi Hatsunosuke, 573, 583–84
“Hispanic,” as term, 475n5
Hispanic modernism
circulation of interwar Anglophone and, 461–77
Frank’s Americas and Ocampo’s Europe with, 469–72
with Ortega and “invertebrate Spain,” 465–68
Our America through European eyes and, 463–65
uneven modernist cosmopolitanisms, 472–74
histoire croisée (crossed history), 18n5, 19n11, 20n23, 25–43
historical avant-garde, 320, 342, 607. See also Bürger, Peter
history
of Africa and influence on African Americans, 136
Caribbean modernism and re-ordering, 53, 54–56
histoire croisée, 18n5, 19n11, 20n23, 25–43
homogenous, empty time of, 88, 197
modernity as known, 84
natural, 202n15
photograph modernism, postcolonial state and, 130–33
as space of appropriation, 86
violent death of, 198–99
of Western modern with Chinese modernism, 150–53
writing transnational film, 601–26
Hoài Thanh, 372, 374, 376–77
Hobbes, Thomas, 198
Hodge, Merle, 55
Hoel, Sigurd, 489
Hollywood cinema
as vernacular modernism, 9, 607–9, 613, 620n20
violence in, 651
homme-enfant (child-man), 90
homo sacer (bare life without political status), 391, 694n12
homosexuality, coded politics of, 376–79. See also queer internationalism
Honig, Bonnie, 391–92
Hood, Gavin, 652, 661
Hopkins, Gerard Manley, 163n4
Horace, 303
Horovitz, Ya’akov, 444
Hountondji, Paulin, 232, 240
Howe, Irving, 145n3
“How I Got that Name” (Chin), 289
Hsia, C. T., 164n13
Hughes, Langston, 289, 300, 350, 363n30, 470
Hugo, Victor, 115, 126n6, 127n15
Hulme, T. E., 71n11
human life, as excrement, 261. See also oil-based economies
Hunger (Hamsun), 484
Hurston, Zora Neale, 69, 493
Hurtivz, Shay, 451
Hurwitz, Shay Ish, 450
Hussain, Iqbalunnisa
biography and political writings of, 218–19
fluency in English, 222
with Indian modernism and zenana, 215–23
(p. 717) Huxley, Aldous, 471
Huyssen, Andreas, 20n22, 294, 472, 479
Hylaeans, 322–24, 326–28, 331, 335n31. See also futurism
non, 334n18
hyperinflation, of oil-based economies, 12, 250–63
Iakulov, Georgii, 328
Ibsen, Henrik, 116, 234, 481–83
Ice Around Our Lips: Finland-Swedish Poetry, 487
The Ice Palace (Vesaas), 493–94
identification
regional cultural in Balkans, 27
with comparison, 505
identity
Ah Q–The Real Story with desire for, 186–95
colonialism, Berber poetry and, 83–87, 103n12
minstrel songs and masculine, 73n29
names with, 187
sexual, 376–79
Iijima Tadashi, 585, 587
Ikinci Yeni (The Second New), 38
Ilf, Ilya, 441
Ilyria, 31
imaginary national community, 88, 91
imitation, 561
Chinese modernism and, 157–58, 159, 162, 165n19
comparison and, 504, 512
of European models, 16–17, 51, 53, 117, 638, 671
Indian modernism and, 205–27
with Spanish American modernismo, 111–17
as subversive, 103n7, 513
imperialism. See also colonialism
Bildungsroman and, 212
Belgian, 235, 274
Chinese (Confucian), 190
cosmopolitanism and, 389–90, 406
critique of, in African literature, 234–37
cultural, 237, 294
of English language in Moretti, 17
European, 513
French, 81–108 (in rel. to Berber poetry), 123–25, 274
inter-imperial competition, 472, 669–96
Japanese, 202n10, 571–597
modernism and, 9–10, 100, 102n1,
modernization of Indian life and, 216
New World, 464
Russian, 314, 317, 323–32, 440
socio-sexual, 398
Spanish, 113, 465
U.S., 394, 469 (yanqui), 500, 620n25, 686
with poetry and English language, 302–4
“In Bloomsbury” (Butts), 405–6
İnce, Özdemir, 38
India
cinema, women and city with modernity in, 627–45
Hindu “race” in, 393–94, 408n11
Jallianwalla Bagh Massacre in, 207–8, 224n2
modern woman as urban text in, 632–38
social class in, 630–31, 643n11
spectacles of modernity in, 639–42
traditional figure of mother, 215, 218
with urban scene of modernity in cinema, 629–32
Indianization, 71n11
Indian modernism, 16
Anand with politics of, 207–14
with Coolie, 210–14
language in, 213–14
novels with, 205–7
with transnational reading and Indian narratives in English, 205–27
women’s bodies with, 219–20
in zenana with Purdah and Polygamy, 215–23
indigenization, 95, 295
indigenous cultures, with global modernity, 82, 85
Infants of the Spring (Thurman), 388
Inferno (Strindberg), 484
inflation
genocide caused by, 259–60
in Germany, 253, 260
Jews and, 260
Nigeria’s annual rate, 253
inflationary modernism
with magical realism and modernist time, 262–63
magical realism with, 249–66
tour of Nigerian inflation and, 250–61
inner time, 68
Inoue Yoshio, 571, 578
(p. 718) In Praise of Shadows (Tanizaki), 619n10
In Search of Lost Time (Proust), 486
insurance payments, slaves and, 70n7
Integrals (Kosovel), 41
intercontamination of terms, 12, 155–59, 163n2
inter-imperiality, 685. See also imperialism
geomodernisms and, 684–90
in longue durée with modernist studies, 669–96
interior time, 90–91
internationalism, queer, 367–84
International Monetary Conference, 114
International Writers’ Congress for the Defense of Culture, 370, 380
Intimate Theater, 483. See also Strindberg, August
Ionesco, Eugene, 36, 37
Iqbal, Muhammad, 224n1, 541
Irele, Abiola, 280, 282
İrem, Nazim, 530, 543n6
Isherwood, Christopher, 388, 398–99
Ishiguro, Kazuo, 388, 400–2
Ishvani, G., 215
Islam, 39, 85, 86, 208–9, 222, 223, 320, 632, 676–78, 690
Islamic modernism, 529–50,
Islands (Brathwaite), 54
It (Christensen), 490
Italy, 27
futurism in, 314–18, 320–22, 331, 332
futurist geographies and aesthetic autonomy in, 313–40
language, 321–22
little magazines in, 269
time-space in, 315–16
Itami Mansaku, 588, 589, 594n17
Itô Daisuke, 572, 588, 589, 590
Izambard, Georges, 546n51
İzer, Zeki Faik, 544n27
Jabotinsky, Vladimir, 440–41
Jackson, Laura Riding, 163n4, 163n5
Jacob, Max, 574
Jacobsen, J. P., 486
Jacobsen, Rolf, 488
Jäderlund, Ann, 490
Jaffe, Aaron, 418
Jakobson, Roman, 331, 560
Jallianwalla Bagh Massacre, 207–8, 224n2
James, C. L. R., 57, 58, 70n9, 241
on plantation, 72n22
James, Henry, 342, 482, 561, 565
Jameson, Fredric, 12–13, 16, 43n12, 69n1, 232–33, 237
alternative modernities dismissed by, 551–52
with capitalist systematicity and simultaneity, 647
cosmopolitanism and, 407
on globalization, 294, 298, 305n10
on language, 554–55
on modernism with overlap of past and future, 243n11
on modernity and modernism, 249–50
on modernity as global capitalism, 117–19, 254–55
uneven modernity and, 318
Janco, Marcel, 37
Janevski, Slavko, 41
JanMohammed, Abdul, 501
Japan, 164n9, 400. See also Japanese modernism
China named “Shina” by, 187, 202n10
cinema in, 601–18, 618n4, 618n8
film statistics for U.S., Europe and, 592n3
“little magazines” in, 269, 272
Russia’s defeat by, 325
Shochiku Kamata Studios in, 614–16
white-collar films from, 615
wood block prints, 513
Japanese empire, 202n10, 571–597. See also imperialism
Japanese Girls at the Harbor (film), 603–4, 605
Japanese modernism
cine-text and, 571–97
fragment and flow with, 575–77
Kitagawa Fuyuhiko’s Theory of the Prose Film and, 587–89, 590
Kitagawa Fuyuhiko’s War and cine-text with, 572, 577–80, 581, 589–91
modern girls and, 573, 603, 615–17
rhythm and tempo in, 585
Shinkankakuha (New Perception School), 573–75, 581, 585
Yokomitsu Riichi’s formalist theory with, 582–86
Yokomitsu Riichi’s Shanghai and cine-text with, 572, 580–82, 583, 589–91
Japan Proletarian Literary Federation, 574–75
Jardín (Garden) (Loynaz), 357–59, 364n35
Jarnés, Benjamín, 466
Javidnama (Iqbal), 541
jazz, 58, 59, 73n29, 426–28, 429
Jemie, Onwuchekwa, 229–31
(p. 719) Jenner, W. J. F., 158, 165n19
Jenny (Undset), 485
Jews, 260, 398–99, 474, 481, 686. See also Berlin, Germany; Hebrew and Yiddish modernism; Odessa, Russia; Vienna, Austria
Enlightenment, 435, 441
“Jewish space” of café and, 444–49
migration of, 435–36
with modernism and modern Jewish revolution, 435–37
urban ambivalence and New Jewish Woman, 440–44, 454n13
Jeyifo, Biodun, 232, 240, 262
Jiménez, Juan Ramón, 465, 471
Jog, N. G., 642
Johnson, Eyvind, 12, 492
Johnson, James Weldon, 388, 396–97
Johnson, Linton Kwesi, 303
Johnston, Frances Benjamin, 60
Jolas, Eugene, 283
Jones, Andrew F., 156, 165n17
José, F. Sionil, 236
Joshi, Priya, 207, 225n9
Joyce, James, 6, 8, 12, 71n16, 223, 271, 273, 415, 418, 423, 429, 447, 467, 508
Anand influenced by, 208–13
cosmopolitanism in “The Dead,” 404
Scandinavian modernism and, 482, 484, 488
Jugurtha (mythical Berber king), 85
Julien, Eileen, 275
Jusdanis, Gregory, 43n7, 164n14
Jussawalla, Feroza, 213, 224n8
Kabita, 272
Kabyle culture, 99–100
Kadir, Djelal, 512, 531
Kaffir Boy (Mathabane), 657
Kafka, Franz, 6, 37, 41, 161, 173, 234, 243n11, 489
Kahraman, Hasan Bülent, 530, 533, 544n15
Kaiser, Georg, 483
Kaknavatos, Hector, 35
Kala Nag (Triumph of Justice/Black Cobra) (film), 630
Kalliney, Peter, 5, 15, 58
Kallocain (Boye), 489
Kallol, 272
Kane, Cheikh Hamidou, 241
Kane, Sarah, 483
Kanik, Orhan Veli, 545n31
Kant, Immanuel, 74n36, 154, 390–91, 404, 408n4, 505
Kaoui, Touareg Cid, 86
Karagöz shadow theater, 539
Karakoç, Sezai, 541–42
Karaosmanoğlu, Yakup Kadri, 533–34
Kataev, Valentin, 441
Kataoka Teppei, 575
Kawabata Yasunari, 573, 574
Kazantzakis, Nikos, 34
Keïta, Seydou, 136, 146n14
Kemal, Yahya, 532–33, 542, 543n13, 690
Kenner, Hugh, 8, 19n15, 551
on international modernism, 552
Kép Tư Bền (Tư Bền the actor) (Nguyễn), 374–76
Kern, Robert, 160
Kerr, Alfred, 450
Keyserling, Hermann (Count), 467
Khlebnikov, Velimir, 6, 317, 322, 323–24, 327–30, 545n30
manifesto of 1919, 331
Kid Chocolate, 357, 363n33
Kido Shiro, 615
Kincaid, Jamaica, 69, 70n4, 71n11
King, John, 470, 471
kings. See also “The Bourgeois King”
Jugurtha, 85
Louis Philippe II, 125n3
Louis XIV, 319
Kinugasa Teinosuke, 574, 585
Kisakürek, Necip Fazil, 534, 535, 537, 539–41
Kitagawa Fuyuhiko, 16
on film and poetry, 587
on fourth person, 594n18
with Japanese modernism and cine-text, 571–97
Theory of the Prose Film and, 587–89, 590
Klein, K. L., 104n14
Klein, Lucas, 166n28
Kluge, Alexander, 437–38, 602
Knut, Hamsun, 484
Kojève, Alexandre, 159, 166n25
Köksal, Duygu, 544n29
Koliqi, Ernest, 31, 32
Kolkata Little Magazines Library, 285n3
Kolocotroni, Vassiliki, 531
Komori Yôichi, 582, 585
Kondô Azuma, 578
Konitza, Faik bey, 29, 31
Kon Tôkô, 575
(p. 720) Korang, Kwaku Larbi, 144n1
Korda, Zoltan, 650
Koselleck, Reinhart, 90
Kosovel, Srečko, 41
Kracauer, Siegfried, 647, 654–55, 659
Kraus, Karl, 234, 445
Krik, Benya, 441
Krishnaswamy, Revathi, 295
Kristin Lavransdatter (Undset), 485
Kritisk Revy, 490
Kronfeld, Chana, 29, 433
Kruchënykh, Aleksei, 322, 323, 331, 335n31
Kruchenykh, Alexander, 545n30
Krustev, Krustyo, 33
Kurahara Korehito, 583–84
Kurishima Sumiko, 601
Kyk-over-al, 272, 274
labor force
in Cuba, 344, 348–49
super-exploitation of, 119
wage labor and, 118
women in, 359–60
Lacan, Jacques, 8
Laforgue, Jules, 561
Lagerkvist, Pär, 483
Lalita, Ke, 225n10
Lalvani, Suren, 147n15
Lamming, George, 52, 53, 55, 415, 425
Landauer, Gustav, 450
Lang, Fritz, 344
languages. See also translations, modernism’s; specific languages
and African literature, 228–45
Caribbean modernism with literary, 53, 54
colonization of written, 17
creolization of, 50
demotic, 34–35
Esperanto and Volapük, 555
French, 31, 37, 58, 89, 97, 103n12, 115, 276, 313, 319, 329, 371, 399, 470, 484, 488, 515, 540, 559, 677, 690
German, 302, 399, 438, 445, 447, 486, 487, 488, 490, 612
homosexuality and coded, 376–79
imperialism with poetry and English, 302–4
in Indian modernism, 213–14
Italian, 321–22
literary economy with preferred, 156–59, 167n32
musicality of Joyce’s, 213
with new universal alphabet, 331
poetry with impure form of everyday, 96–97
purified, 34, 38
of resistance, 32
Scandinavian, 479
Standard Albanian, 31–32
standardization of, 319
Swahili, 621n34
Tsotsitaal slang, 653
Turkish, 38
universal, 317
Yiddish as fusion, 435–36
in Yugoslavia with Moderna, 40
Lanyer, Aemilia, 150
Lao She, 234
Larbaud, Valery, 461
large-scale vision, 18n4
Larionov, Mikhail, 326, 335n31
La Rochelle, Pierre Drieu, 470
Larsen, Nella, 486
Larson, Charles, 228–29
Lasker-Schüler, Else, 451, 452
The Last Temptation of Christ (Kazantzakis), 35
Late Arrival on Earth (Ekelöf), 488
Latin America, 3, 4, 88, 112, 114, 117, 120–21, 125n1, 5, 126n10, 153, 271, 467, 474n2, 475n12, 505, 520n16, 552, 608, 617, 670
cosmopolitanism and, 394–95
Cuba’s avant-gardes and modernity in, 341–66, 362n19
literary boom in, 113, 361
postcolonial theory and, 113–14
surrealism, 51
Waldo Frank and, 469–73
Laurence, Patricia, 161
Lautréamont, 116
Lawrence, D. H., 471
Lazarus, Neil, 12–13, 14, 16, 117, 285n13, 649, 662n3, 672, 691
Leavetaking (Weiss), 490
Lebed-Crescendo (Swan-Crescendo), 33
Lee, Gregory B., 149, 162
Lee, Leo Ou-fan, 165n21, 400
Lee, Li-Young, 301–2
Lefebvre, Henri, 434, 439
Left Bank, 416–18
Leguía, Augusto B., 362n20
Lehmann, John, 419
(p. 721) Lenglet, Ella, 420. See also Rhys, Jean
Leontis, Artemis, 27, 43n7
Lermontov, Mikhail, 559
Leslie, Omolara Ogundipe, 229
“Let Them Call it Jazz” (Rhys), 426–28, 429, 431n7
Levin, Harry, 7–8, 505
Levinger, Esther, 43n1
Levinsky, Elhonan, 441–42
Levitt, Helen, 146n10
Lewis, Wyndham, 8
Li Lili, 602–3
LillPers, Birgitta, 490
Lilyev, Nikolai, 33
Lincoln, Sarah, 12, 13–14, 243n13, 671
Lindegren, Erik, 489
Lindgren, Astrid, 493
linguistic standardization, 319
Link, Perry, 164n13
Lino, Steve, 283
Lionnet, Françoise, 502
Lippit, Seiji, 582
liquid economy, 260
Lisle, Leconte de, 116
Lista, Giovanni, 329, 335n28
literary café. See urban literary café
literary criticism, postmodern, 7–9
literary economy, 156–59
literary language, 53, 54. See also formalism
literary studies, 81–83
literature. See world literature
little magazines, 40, 267–87. See also specific titles
Black Orpheus or Africa and rise of, 274–80
circulation, 286n15
criticism in, 279
decentered universe of, 268–74
digital afterlife of, 284–85
distribution of, 271–72, 274, 277–78
editors of, 276, 280
general readership of, 275–76
isolation of, 274
letters to editor in, 281–83
libraries and collections, 285n3
mobility of, 270–71
origins, 267–68
print run of, 280–81
production time of, 278–79
reviews in, 278–79
Transition or global readership for, 280–84
translation problem with, 269
in Uganda, 280–84
world form of, 10, 12, 267–87
writers, 278
The Little Demon (Sologub), 562
The Little Review, 267, 271, 272, 284
Liu, Yu, 679, 693n9
Liu Na’ou, 607
Livshits, Benedikt, 322, 323, 326, 328–29
Lizaso, Félix, 347
Ljubljanski zvon (Ljubljana Bell), 40
“Llegada” (Guillén), 356
Lloyd, David, 501
The Location of Culture (Bhabha), 503
Locke, Alain, 134
Loeb, Harold, 271
Loewenberg, Friedrich, 445
Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth, 296
Look Lai, Wally, 430n4
Louis Philippe II (King), 125n3
Louis XIV (King), 319
Lourié, Artur, 328
love, free, in China, 202n12
Lovelace, Earl, 236
Lovell, Julia, 153–54, 164n14, 166n23
Lowe, John, 145n5
The Lower Depths (film), 588
Loy, Mina, 9, 289, 678
Loynaz, Dulce María, 342, 357–59, 364n35
Luca, Gherasim, 37
Lucey, Michael, 377
Lugones, Leopoldo, 125n4, 126n10
Lukács, Georg, 10, 124, 649
Lukacsian, Nkosi, 658
Lưu Trọng Lư, 372, 376–77
Lu Xun, 16, 234, 237, 686
with allegory and Ah Q-The Real Story, 173–204
Lyon, Janet, 5, 20n28, 58, 72n25, 74n36, 472, 670
Ma, 272, 273
MacCabe, Colin, 8
MacClean, Una, 279
Macedonski, Alexandru, 36
Machado, Gerardo, 347
MacLean, Gerald, 677
Madame X (film), 602
A Madman’s Defense (Strindberg), 484
Madubuike, Ihechukwu, 229–31
Maeda Ai, 582
Maes-Jelinek, Hena, 71n17
Maeterlinck, Maurice, 483
(p. 722) Maeztu, Ramiro de, 465, 467
magazines. See also little magazines
distribution of, 271–72, 274, 277–78
magical realism, 12, 237
with inflationary modernism, 249–66
with inflationary modernism and modernist time, 262–63
origins, 249, 254
power of magical money and, 251, 256–58, 261
Mahlatsi, Teboho, 661
Maiakovskii, Vladimir, 322, 323
Majumdar, Neepa, 639, 641
Makdisi, George, 676, 677, 691
“make it new,” (slogan), 51, 157, 161, 407, 672
“Makinalaşmak” (“Mechanization”) (Hikmet), 536
Malcolm X, 69
Mallarmé, Stéphane, 6, 105n35, 115, 151, 323, 487, 488, 557, 691,
African literature and, 240–41
cultural translation and, 100–102
with derivation and global modernism, 96–97
on imperfection of language, 555
on silence, 96
Turkish literature and, 530–31, 533–34, 537, 542
vernacular culture with Amrouche and, 82–87
Mallea, Eduardo, 470
Mañach, Jorge, 347
Manchurian Incident, 590, 592n11
Mandel’shtam, Osip, 323
Manley, Edna, 58
Mann, Thomas, 6, 486, 491
Mansfield, Katherine, 150
Manto, Saadat Hasan, 234
Mao, Douglas, 9, 10, 11, 14
Mao Dun, 201n1
Mao Zedong, 175, 183
Mapantsula (film), 658, 660, 661
mapping. See also distant reading
of modern literary world, 319, 330
spaces, 55
of world literature, 17
Maps of Englishness (Gikandi), 508
Marangozov, Nikolai, 33
Mardin, Şerif, 539
Marías, Julián, 472
Mariátegui, José Carlos, 362n20, 469
Marichalar, Antonio, 466, 467
Marinello, Juan, 347
Marinetti, Filippo Tommaso
with futurism, 313–15, 317, 321, 322–24, 335n25
iconic motivation and, 330
Russian travels of, 328–29, 335n28
transnational geography of futurist avant-garde and, 324–25, 328–29
Turkey and, 535
as visitor to Latin America, 362n19
and “wireless imagination,” 688
Marinković, Ranko, 41
Markandaya, Kamala, 225n9
Married Life (Fogel), 448–49
marronage (rebellious flight of slaves), 49, 55, 58. See also slaves
Marshall, Paule, 55
Marson, Una, 58, 70n5
Martí, José, 18, 110–18, 125n4, 345, 469
Martínez, Enrique González, 125n4
Martínez de Villena, Rubén, 349
Martín Fierro, 272
Martinson, Harry, 492
Martinson, Moa, 492, 493
Maruo Tuneki, 182
Marx, Karl, 111, 112, 118, 120, 124, 151, 236, 242n10, 556
camera obscura analogy and, 258
with capitalist systematicity and simultaneity, 647
on influence of civilization, 408n10
masculine identity, 73n29
Masiello, Francine, 349
“The Mass Production of the Senses” (Hansen, M.), 607–9
Masters, Edgar Lee, 470
Matar, Nabil, 677, 691
Mathabane, Mark, 657
Matisse, Henri, 326
Matueda Shigeo, 182
Mayakovsky, Vladimir, 545n30
Mayanja, Abu, 283
Mayans, 55
May Fourth New Culture Movement, 174, 197–98, 199
Africa and commonalities with, 239–40
free love in, 202n12
New Literature of, 201n3
origins, 201n2
past and future vision of, 202n5
Mazrui, Ali, 286n17
Mazzesinsel district (“Matzo Island”), 444–45
(p. 723) Mbembe, Achille, 662
McFarlane, James, 273, 481, 509
McKay, Claude, 4, 50, 52, 58, 61, 70n5, 72n25, 73n29, 303
media studies, 9
Melas, Natalie, 506
Melville, Herman, 151
Melville, Pauline, 52
Memmi, Albert, 84, 103n5
memory
in Ah Q–The Real Story with forgetting, 195–201
collective, 104n14
literature of, 82, 85
sites of, 103n11
time and reconstructing Berber, 87–94
Menand, Louis, 161
Mendelssohn, Moses, 435
Mendès, Catulle, 115
Mendl, Menakhem, 442–43
Menocal, Maria, 676, 691
Mercereau, Alexandre, 335n28
Meredith, James, 145n5
Metlitzki, Dorothee, 676–77, 691
Metropolis (film), 344
Micić, Ljubomir, 25, 26, 29, 41, 43
Middle Passage, 51, 52, 54
Migjeni, 31
Mignolo, Walter, 390, 514, 674, 693n3
migrancy, 67–69
migration, 300, 325, 612, 631
of Jews, 434–37
mass, 552
Russian culture as shaped by, 325
West Indian, 427
universal myth of, 437
Milestone, Lewis, 589
Milev, Geo, 33–34
Milton, John, 678, 689
mimetic desire
with Chinese modernism and European time, 149–70
globality and geography of, 153–55
inequity of, 160–62
A Mind at Peace (Tanpınar), 39
minoristas, Cuba’s, 344, 346, 347–49, 355–56
Minor Transnationalism (Shih and Lionnet), 502
minstrel songs, 63, 73n29
Mintz, Sidney, 57, 72n22
Mirbeau, Octave, 161
Mirón, Salvador Díaz, 125n4
mirroring, in poetry, 291
Misal (Thought), 33
“Miss Apperson,” 60f
Miss Julie (Strindberg), 482
Mitter, Partha, 388, 402–3
Mizoguchi Kenji, 572
Model, Lisette, 142
modern drama, in Scandinavia, 481–84
modern girls, 573, 603, 615–17
modernism. See also Anglo-American modernism; Balkan modernism; Caribbean modernism; Chinese modernism; Cuba; French modernism; Hebrew and Yiddish modernism; Hispanic modernism; Indian modernism; Islamic modernism; inflationary modernism; Japanese modernism; high modernism; photographic modernism; proletarian modernism; Scandinavian modernism; Spanish American modernismo; Taiwanese modernism; world modernisms
aesthetic autonomy and uneven, 313–40
African literature and, 228–45
African literature with capitalism, modernity and, 231, 232–37
alternatives, 20n27
combined and uneven, 237–41
comparison and appropriation of, 14–18
cosmopolitanism and, 387–412
with cosmopolitanism situation, 402–7
disfigured and Turkish literature, 529–50
Georgian, 335n33
global perspectives on, 3–7
with histoire croisée in Balkans, 25–43
Hollywood cinema and vernacular, 9, 607–9, 613
imagined proximity of revolution and, 12
little magazine and birth of, 268
lyrical high, 488–90
methodological apertures with Balkan, 41–43
moderated, 32
modernismo and difference between, 163n6
with modernity, 249–50
from old to new, 7–10
paintings, 326
as period and attitude, 150–51
peripheral, 334n12
positionality with, 342
(p. 724) provisionally definitive inductive definition of, i–701
South African cinema with modernity and, 647–51
as term in Catholic Church, 163n5
thirdspace of urban literary café with, 437–40, 442, 454n12
translations with, 551–70
Turkey with failed, 529–30
with Western history of modern, 150–53
women and relationship to, 164n10
modernismo, 362n13. See also Brazilian modernismo; Spanish American modernismo
modernism and difference between, 163n6
Modernisms: A Literary Guide (Nicholls), 151, 531
modernist
cultural expansion as modern or, 10–14
movements, 157
modernistas, 112–16, 125n4. See also Spanish American modernismo; specific modernistas
Modernist Journals Project, 474n3
Modernist Magazines Project, 474n3
modernist studies
belatedness reconsidered with, 675–80
brief history of, 7–10
inter-imperial geomodernisms and, 684–90
inter-imperiality in longue durée, 669–96
inter-imperial palimpsest and, 690–92
interlocked empires and, 672–75
longue durée of borrowing and, 671–72
with nineteenth-century empires, plural, 680–84
world modernisms and comparative strategies in, 507–18
Modernist Studies Association, 9, 153
modernity. See also global modernity
alternative modernities, debated, 12–14, 42–43, 101–102, 233–34, 506, 514, 551–52, 606, 673
African literature with capitalism, modernism and, 231, 232–37
in colonial India, 627–45
colonial India and spectacles of, 639–42
futurist avant-garde with time-space of, 315–18
as global capitalism, 117–19
as known history, 84
in Latin America, 341–66, 362n19
modernism as cultural expression of, 11, 249–50
plantation as laboratory of, 57, 72n22
poetry and globalization with, 288–309
semi-colonial, in China, 175, 617
singularity and simultaneity of, 233, 647
South African cinema with modernism and, 647–51
Spanish American, 109–28
transatlantic, 117–25
unthinkable, 70n6
modernity/coloniality, 693n3
Modern Language Association, 11
Modisane, Bloke, 656
Moerdijk, Gerard, 646, 648
moga. See modern girls
Mogotlane, Thomas, 658
Moi, Toril, 481
A Mölna Elegy (Ekelöf), 488
Mona Lisa and Si-Ya-U (Hikmet), 38
money. See also oil-based economies
clean, 259
magical, 251, 256–58, 261
Nigerian naira, 251, 253, 256–57, 259, 264n3
oil’s relation to, 264n17
Monroe, Harriet, 272, 691
Monroe, James, 676
montage, 11, 67, 489, 491, 516, 572, 576–91, 593n12, 614, 647
Montagu-Nathan, Montagu, 561, 562
Montenegro, 27, 32
Moody, Ronald, 58
Moore, G. E., 208
Moore, Marianne, 161
Morand, Paul, 350
Moréas, Jean, 98, 106n41, 116
Morente, Manuel García, 466
Moretti, Franco, 17, 70n3, 211, 502, 510
Morris, Meaghan, 84
Morris, Rosalind, 9, 686
Moskvich, Grigory, 441
mother figure
in Berber culture, 89
in India, 215, 218
motherhood, in film, 601–3
“Mourning the Dead” (Lu Xun), 202n12, 203n13
Mufti, Aamar, 506
Mühsam, Erich, 450
multiculturalism, 164n11
(p. 725) Mumford, Lewis, 470
Munch, Edward, 481
Munif, Abdelrahman, 234, 236
Munshi, K. M., 642
Müridoğlu, Zühtü, 544n27
Murphy, Michael, 430n3
Murray, Les, 299
musical form, 58
in Joyce’s language, 213
poetic creation as, 96–97
Musil, Robert, 445, 447, 448
Mutafov, Chavdar, 33, 42
Mutloatse, Mothobi, 649
Muybridge, Eadweard, 576
My Mother Gets Married (Martinson, M.), 492–93
Mythistory (Seferis), 35
Naci, Elif, 544n27
Nadja (Breton), 486
Nadrealizam sada i ovde (Surrealism Here and Now), 40
Naidu, Sarojini, 215
Naipaul, V. S., 415, 425
Naira (currency), 251, 253, 256–57, 259, 264n3. See also Nigeria
names
actresses and Hindu, 633
cynical change of, 193
identity with, 187
of imperialism and colonialism, 187, 202n10
namelessness with, 181
rectification of, 15–16, 180–86, 189–92, 200
Naomi (Tanizaki), 619n10
Narayan, R. K., 20n25, 213, 217, 223
Naruse Mikio, 601, 614
nation, 4, 5, 81, 101–2, 103n11, 149, 159–60, 177, 195–96, 211–12, 215–16, 261, 269–73, 288–89, 297–98, 303–4, 367, 370–72, 465–68, 479–80, 484–85, 534, 538–39, 551, 556, 602, 628–29, 631, 636–38
cosmopolitanism with race and, 393–96
-building and -formation, 34–35, 86–87, 94, 118, 351, 436
-states, 38, 82, 88, 99, 164n15, 165n16, 202n9, 211, 251, 297–98, 317, 319–20, 369, 472, 505, 511, 554, 582, 606, 609
temporality and, 129–48
National Academy of Arts and Letters, Cuba’s, 347
national allegory, 15, 164n12, 184
nationalism, 86, 142, 387, 462, 541, 582, 616, 633, 648, 662
Algerian, 84
Amrouche and, 93–94, 101
anti-colonial, 70n5 (and modernism), 101
Asia, 394
black, 145n5, 424
Caribbean, and modernism, 56
Chinese, 165n15, 575
cultural, 232, 238–40 (in Africa), 330–32 (aesthetic autonomy and), 628 (in India)
communalist, in Bulgaria, 33
cosmopolitanism and, 387–412
futurism, cosmopolitanism, and, 317–24, 335n33
Jewish, 436
Romantic, 31 (in Albanian literature), 39 (in Turkish modernism)
Russian, 328–29
Turkish, 546n58
state- and delayed modernisms, 45
Vietnamese, 369–70
white, 646 (South Africa)
World-system theory and, 502
national life, art reconciled with, 317–18
National Workers Confederation (CNOC), 343
Native Son (Wright), 130, 145n3
naturalism, 341, 352, 359, 397–98, 467, 539, 546n45, 559–60
Nature and Context of Minority Discourse (JanMohammed and Lloyd), 501
Naum, Gellu, 37
Nazis, 494
Ndebele, Njabulo, 649, 652, 658
Négritude, 51, 58, 70n5, 145n5, 232, 242n5
Negt, Oskar, 437, 438
Nehru, Jawaharlal, 224n1, 224n3, 225n10
Neogy, Rajat, 274, 280, 281–84. See also Transition
neo-Tarzanism, 231–32, 240–41
Neruda, Pablo, 362n5
Nervo, Amado, 125n4
New Literature (xinwenxue), 201n3
Newman, Francis, 557
New Republic, 473
newspapers, 313
readership, 285n9
Romanian, 43n8
serialization, 177
New Theatres studio, 641
New World Modernisms (Pollard), 56
(p. 726) New Yorker, 473
Nga jeta në jetë—Pse!? (From Life to Life—Why!?) (Spasse), 32
Ngũgĩ wa Thiong’o, 17, 234, 241
on capitalism’s brutality, 235–36
“decolonizing the mind” and, 228
Nguyến Công Hoan, 374–76, 377–79
Nicholls, Peter, 151, 531
Nida, Eugene, 560
Niels Lyhne (Jacobsen, J. P.), 486
Nietzsche, Friedrich, 33, 35, 176, 196, 481, 691
Nigeria. See also Black Orpheus
inflation in, 250–61
and inflationary modernism, 250–61
Civil War, 230, 251, 280, 291
magical realism in, 249–66
naira as currency in, 251, 253, 256–57, 259, 264n3
Nigeria Magazine, 275
Nikolla, Millosh Gjergj. See Migjeni
Niranjana, Tejaswini, 553
Nkosi, Lewis, 267, 273, 649, 656, 662n3
Nkrumah, Kwame, 130
Nobel Complex, 153–54, 155, 164n15
noble savages, 85
Noli, Fan S., 31
Nôm (ideographic, demotic Vietnamese script), 371
Nora, Pierre, 88, 91, 103n11, 104n14
Nordau, Max, 116
Norén, Lars, 483
North, Michael, 10–11, 421
The Notebooks of Malte Laurids Brigge (Rilke), 486
Nouvelle Revue Française (NRF), 464, 470, 475n8
Novak, Slobodan, 41
novels. See also specific titles
African, 270
Boom, 361
with Indian modernism, 205–27
publishers of, 275
Scandinavian modernist, 493–94
Nov put (New Way), 33
N.R.F., 272
“Nuestra América” (“Our America”) (Martí), 114, 469
Nussbaum, Martha, 391
Nwankwo, Kiddoe, 395
Nykl, Richard, 676
Obote, Milton, 283
Obstfelder, Sigbjørn, 486
Ocampo, Victoria, 462, 691, 692
Americas of Frank, Waldo, and Europe of, 469–72
friendship with Woolf, Virginia, 471, 474n3
literary activism of, 470–72
with uneven modernist cosmopolitanism, 472–74
Odessa, Russia. See also Hebrew and Yiddish modernism; Russia; urban literary café
Café Fanconi, 441, 442f, 443–44
Café Robina, 441, 444
as center of Jewish freedom, 440
urban ambivalence and New Jewish Woman in, 440–44, 454n13
Odissia (The Odyssey: A Modern Sequel) (Kazantzakis), 35
O’Dwyer, Michael, 224n2
Öffentlichkeit und Erfahrung (“The Public Sphere and Experience”) (Negt and Kluge), 438
“Of Other Spaces” (Foucault), 499
O’Hanlon, Rosalind, 636
Ohnet, Georges, 120, 126n14
oil-based economies
dream-world in, 253–54, 257
ecological impact on, 261
excrement of wealth and human life in, 261, 264n4
hyperinflation of, 12, 250–63
money in, 251, 253, 256–59, 261, 264n3, 264n17
phantasmagoria with, 258–59, 261, 264n13
tour of Nigerian inflation as, 250–61
Venezuela, 251–52, 261
Okara, Gabriel, 278
Okigbo, Christopher, 14, 230, 274, 278, 291–92, 294
Okri, Ben, 14, 238, 243n13, 249–66
Olesha, Yuri, 441
Oliver, María Rosa, 470
Olsson, Hagar, 487
Omeros (Walcott), 294
O’Neill, Eugene, 483
On the Wire (film), 661
On Overgrown Paths (Hamsun), 489
Ophuls, Max, 602
Opium Wars, 675
Oppenheim, James, 463
(p. 727) oral poetry, 82, 86–87, 96. See also Berber poetry
The Order of Things (Foucault), 531
Organization of Oil-Producing Countries (OPEC), 250–51, 264n12
Orsini, Francesca, 637
Ortega, Julio, 116
Ortega y Gasset, José, 342, 462, 691
with feminine Latin body, 469–70
with modernism and “invertebrate Spain,” 465–68
ratio-vitalism and, 466
with uneven modernist cosmopolitanism, 472–74
Orthodox Church, 43n6
Ortiz, Fernando, 350, 513, 520n17
Osborne, Peter, 144n1, 319, 333n11, 505
the other, 153. See also mimetic desire
recognition by, 159
West and Turkish literature, 529–50
Ottoman alphabet, 546n46
Ottoman Empire, 27, 38, 325, 530–35, 673–74, 677–78, 681, 687. See also imperialism
Our America (Frank, W.), through Europe’s eyes with Hispanic modernism, 463–65
O ve Ben (Kisakürek), 540
Owen, Stephen, 156, 165n17, 294
Ôya Sôichi, 573
Özel, İsmet, 541
Ozu Yasujirô, 572, 603, 614, 622n43
Pabst, G. W., 589
painters. See specific painters
paintings, 576
artistic appropriation in, 297
modernist, 326
post-Expressionist, 249, 254, 263
Palacio, Ernesto, 471
Pal Fejos, 605
Palm-Wine Drinkard (Tutuola), 270, 275
Pamuk, Orhan, 529
Pan-American Conference, 114, 120
parataxis, cultural, 96, 516
Paris, France, 40, 112, 116, 398–99
as center of cultural modernity, 314, 315, 319, 329, 335n28
futurism in, 314–15, 319–21, 335n28
futurist geographies and aesthetic autonomy in, 313–40
Left Bank, 416–18
Park, Josephine, 160
Park, Robert, 130
Parla, Jale, 39
Parland, Henry, 487
Parnassian School, 112
parochialism, 395
Pasha, Mustafa Reşit (Grand Vizier), 532, 674
past, 53, 202n5, 243n11
Patel, Divia, 643n6
Paulhan, Jean, 475n8
Paz, Octavio, 116, 117
p’Bitek, Okot, 292–94, 295
Peña, Roque Sáenz, 120
People’s Home, 490–91
Pepys, Samuel, 63
“Pequeña oda a un negro boxeador cubano” (“Small Ode to a Black Cuban Boxer”) (Guillén), 357, 363n33
Peredonova, Obraz, 562
Peret, 447
Pérez, Louis, 343
Pérez de Ayala, Ramón, 465
periodicals. See also specific periodicals
Bulgarian, 33
Greek, 35
Romanian, 36
Yugoslavia, 40
peripheral modernism, 334n12
periphery, 88, 153, 164n15, 316, 407, 472, 591, 648, 655, 681
and world-systems theory, 6–7, 320, 333n4, 501–3, 509, 519n5, 6, 8, 688
Perloff, Marjorie, 153, 318
Perón, Juan, 474
Përpjekja Shqiptare (The Albanian Endeavour), 31
“Persimmons” (Lee, L.-Y.), 302
Pessoa, Fernando, 475n9
Peterson, Nicolas, 144n1
Peter the Great, 325, 329
petro-magical realism, 252–53, 264n1. See also oil-based economies
Petrov, Evgeni, 441
phantasmagoria, 258–59, 261, 264n13
phantasmic, 643n4
Philippa of Aragon, 677
Philippe, Louis, 121
Phillips, Ray, 651
photographers, 576. See also Wright, Richard; specific photographers
(p. 728) photographic modernism
blindness and, 140, 141f, 142
frontal vision and, 137–39, 147n15
Gold Coast photos, 132f, 133f, 135f, 139f, 140f, 141f, 143f, 146n6
history, postcolonial state and, 130–33
time with, 131–34, 144n1
with Wright’s Black Power, 129–48
photography, 18n1, 576, 654
Picasso, Pablo, 95, 297, 321, 421, 513
pictographs, 52
Pinney, Christopher, 144n1
Pinsker, Shachar, 5, 669, 686–87
Pinter, Harold, 483
Pipa, Arshi, 31, 32
Pippi Longstocking (Lindgren), 493
Piyâle (The Wine Cup) (Haşim), 38
Plaatjie, Sol, 651, 656
Plamen (Flame), 40
planetary, 3, 4–5, 72n23, 73n35
Caribbean modernism, plantation to, 48–77
as elusive concept, 68
vs. global, 5
globalization distinct from, 52
literary writing’s circulation with, 56–57, 70n8
poem, 73n36, 301
as terminology, 5, 70n3
time, 70n8
plantation
Caribbean modernism and, 48–77
cries of, 50, 56–67
as laboratory of modernity, 57, 72n22
slaves, 53
plantation melodies
“Cries of London” and, 59–67
“Shake That Thing,” 61
Plantation Melodies, 63
plantation zone, 69
Playthings (film), 604
Pocock, J. G. A., 693n8
Podbevšek, Anton, 40–41
Poe, Edgar Allen, 116
poetics of Relation. See Relation, poetics of
poetry, 40. See also specific titles
Berber, 6
Chinese, 156–58
compound figure in, 289
constructivist, 41–42
Delphic, 34
global space with, 298–300
haiku, 296, 489, 579
imperalism of English language with, 302–4
journals, 574–75
Kitagawa on, 587
localist, 301
mirroring in, 291
modernity and globalization with, 288–309
as musical form, 96–97
oral, 82, 86–87, 96
as personal verbal rite, 12
planetary, 73n36, 301
as resistance tool, 292–93
Scandinavian, 487–90
shin sanbunshi, 574
as song, 85, 87–94
sugar industry and combat, 350–52
tanshi, 574, 577–78
translocal, 299, 301, 305n9
visual, 41
women in labor force, 359–60
Zulu, 649
poets. See also “The Bourgeois King”; specific poets
Chinese, 156–58
First New and Second New, 542, 545n31
literary economy’s preferred languages and, 156–59
Poggioli, Renato, 316, 318
Polgar, Alfred, 438, 448
political writings, of Hussain, 218–19
politics
Americanist artistic, 346
of despair, 102
homosexuality in Vietnam and coded, 376–79
of Indian modernism with Anand, 207–14
of time and writing, 183
Pollack, Sheldon, 396, 409n14
Pollard, Charles, 56, 512, 514
Pollock, Sheldon, 609–10
Pomeranz, Kenneth, 166n27
Pontalis, J. B., 643n4
Popa, Vasko, 41
Popdimitrov, Emanuil, 33
populism (“narodnichestvo”), 435
Poradeci, Lasgush, 31, 32
La Porte étroite (Strait Is the Gate) (Gide), 367
(p. 729) Porter, Dennis, 296
Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man (Joyce), 210–13
positionality, 5, 342
positive forgetting, 176
postcoloniality, 126, 269, 662
and African literature, 228–45, 249–66
and belatedness, 675–80
and Berber poetry, 81–108
vs, globality, 298
and little magazines, 267–87
magical realism in Nigeria and, 249–66
modernism and, 5, 6, 8, 19n13, 56, 58, 81, 95–96, 166n26, 205–27 (India), 237–41, 299–300, 304, 417–18, 420–21, 429–30, 499–525 (methodology), 591, 671–72, 685–86
poetry and, 288–309
postcolonial studies, 5, 49, 81, 113–14, 160, 228, 233–36, 295, 499–502, 553, 680, 687–88
print culture and, 278–79
Rhys and, 413–32
split temporality of emerging state, 129–48 (Gold Coast, Africa)
writers, 8, 275, 289, 298, 301, 415, 419, 421, 686
post-Expressionist painting, 249, 254, 263
Postmodern Geographies (Soja), 499
postmodern literary criticism, 7–9
Pound, Ezra, 6, 8, 16, 71n16, 157, 166n28, 267, 295–96
with black vernacular forms, 421
China’s influence on, 160–61
on modernist translations, 557–58
Pourgouris, Marinos, 43n7
Powell, Adam Clayton, 131, 145n5
power. See also colonialism; imperialism; oil-based economies
of cinema, 641–42
of the collector, 121
comparison and, 505
cultural, and global imbalance of, 153, 162, 499–525
economic and world-systems theory, 6–7, 320
labor and, in Latin America, 341
of magical money, 251, 256–58, 261
male sexual, 73n29
parochialism and provincialism with centers of, 395
of spectacle, 252
relationships in zenana, 218
sexualized dynamics of, in Scandinavian modernism, 482
translation and, 533
of the word and poetic discourse, 89, 123, 213, 296, 317–18, 374–75, 396–97
“The Powerline Incarnation” (Murray), 299
Pratt, Mary-Louise, 88, 93–94, 103n12, 104n15, 145n5, 512
Prendergast, Christopher, 510
Présence Africaine, 274, 276, 280
Price, Richard, 55
A Priest’s Diary (Sigbjørn), 486
Prima verba (Macedonski), 36
primitivism, 25–29, 95, 326, 349–50, 356–57, 362n20, 403
Proctor, Elaine, 661
proletarian modernism, 492–93
Prosanatolismoi (Orientations) (Elytis), 35
Prosas profanas (Darío), 116
proscription, in Ah Q–The Real Story, 186–95
prostitutes, as actresses, 633
prostitution, in film, 601–3
Proto-Indo-European (PIE) language, 554–55
Proust, Marcel, 6, 12, 467, 486, 488, 489, 492, 534
provincialism, 395
Provincializing Europe (Chakrabarty), 86, 514
public opinion. See also oil-based economies
financial value determined by, 249, 255–56
publishers, 275, 278, 473, 557
Puchner, Martin, 333n1, 334n20
puns, 563–64
Purdah and Polygamy: Life in an Indian Muslim Household (Hussain)
Austen’s influence in, 215–17, 221
Indian modernism in zenana with, 215–23
plot and structure in, 222–23
polygamy in, 220–21
purified language, 34
Putevi (Ways), 40
Pynchon, Thomas, 494
Pyramides (Pyramids) (Ritsos), 35
Qian, Zhaoming, 160–61
Quartet (Rhys), 72n25, 387–88, 397–98
queer internationalism
Gide’s particularity and, 370–71
modern Vietnamese aesthetics and, 367–84
Vietnam’s art for art’s sake versus art for life’s sake debate and, 368–69, 371–76
(p. 730) Quicksand (Larsen), 486
quốc ngữ (romanized Vietnamese script), 371
print culture, 372
race, 6, 9, 53, 55, 58–67, 83, 132, 136–37, 145n5, 160, 288, 300, 304, 341, 343, 356, 357, 403, 414–16, 500, 506, 516, 538, 582, 606, 633, 648, 657, 687
banjo with, 59, 67
cosmopolitanism with nation and, 387–88, 393–96, 406–7
crossing color lines, 420–23
Hindu, considered as a, 393–94, 408n11
Marinetti and, 325, 326
Rhys and, 413–32
South African cinema and, 646–65
Spain and racial difference, 468, 475n5
West Indies writing and, 413–32, 430n4
whiteness and vulnerability, 423–28
Räderscheidt, Anton, 254
Radhakrishnan, R., 15, 92, 101, 105n32, 504, 516
on comparison, 506
curse of derivativeness and, 513–14
Raine, Michael, 618n3
Rainov, Nikolai, 33–34
Ram, Harsha, 6, 12, 114, 669, 688
Rama, Angel, 111, 119–20, 123, 125n1, 344
Ramalho Santos, Irene, 475n9
Ramazani, Jahan, 12, 14, 72n24, 74n36, 503, 512, 672
on translocation, 507
Ramchand, Kenneth, 430n4
Ramos, José Antonio, 344
Rampolokeng, Lesego, 660
Randall, A. W. G., 562
Ranjit Studios, 634
Rao, Raja, 217–18
Los raros (The Odd Ones) (Darío), 116
rationalism, Enlightenment, 403
ratio-vitalism, 466
Ravitch, Melekh, 439, 444, 452
Ray, Sangeeta, 207, 215, 225n9
“Razor” (Kitagawa), 578
readers
of little magazines, 275–76, 280–84
of newspapers, 285n9
text and relationship to, 177–78
Reading 1922 (North), 10–11
reading
close, 17, 511, 515
distant, 17, 502
vertical, 517
realism, 222, 317, 368. See also magical realism
Albanian literature, 31
Anand and, 208–9, 214
black literary circles in South Africa and, 658
Caribbean resistance to, 51–52, 55, 69
Chinese “New Literature,” 201n3
French, 566
“market,” 557
modernism and, 5, 11, 39, 380n4, 381n14, 415, 481–82, 658
“petro-magic,” 249–66
photographic, 133
Russian, 566
Scandinavia and, 481–82, 491
South African, 649, 658
Turkish, 39
Vietnamese, 368, 373–75, 380n4, 381n14, 15, 382n17
reciprocal defamiliarization, 506
recognition, Ah-Q–The Real Story with forgetting and desire for, 195–201
recovery, in modernist studies, 10, 16, 507, 509–11, 529
rectification, of names, 15–16, 180–86, 189–92, 200
reggae, 58
Reinhardt, Max, 450, 483
Relation, poetics of
Glissant and, 56, 57, 59, 72n21, 72n24, 73n35
with Voyage in the Dark and Banjo, 59
Remizov, Alexei, 562, 565
Republican People’s Party (CHP), 535
The World Republic of Letters (Casanova), 164n7, 319, 502, 519n6, 673
resistance
language of, 32
poetry as tool of, 292–93
Rethinking Modernism (Thormählen), 531
Return to Ithaca: The Odyssey retold as a modern novel (Johnson, E.), 492
reviews, 466, 467, 564, 632
and European revitalization, 462–63
in little magazines, 268, 278–79
and modernistas, 114
Revista de Occident (Review of the West) (Ortega y Gasset), 462, 466–67
revolts, slave, 53
revolutionary style, in South African cinema, 654–59
(p. 731) revolutions
of August 1945, 375
of 1848, 119
French, 400, 534
Haitian, 51–52, 53, 70n2, 70n6, 71n15
modernism catalyzed by imagined proximity of, 12
modern Jewish, 435–37
Xinhai, 201n1, 202n7
La Revue Indigène, 272
“El rey burgués.” See “The Bourgeois King”
Reyes, Alfonso, 467, 468
Rhys, Jean, 5, 15, 52, 69, 71n11, 72n25
with cosmopolitanism, 387–88, 397–98
crossing color line and, 420–23
Left Bank days, 416–18
literary reincarnation of, 418–20
as modernist literary refugee, 430n4
as postcolonial intellectual, 413–32
Voyage in the Dark, 4, 50, 58, 59, 63–67, 73n34
with whiteness and vulnerability, 423–28
rhythm, in Japanese modernism, 585
“The Rhythm of Cinema” (Iijima), 585
Rich, Adrienne, 508
Richter, Hans, 29
Rifat, Oktay, 545n31
Rifbjerg, Klaus, 491
Rilke, Rainer Maria, 486
Rimbaud, Arthur, 488, 531, 691
Ritsos, Yannis, 35
Rive, Richard, 656
Rivera, Miguel Primo de, 467
Rivière, Jacques, 475n8
Robbins, Bruce, 300, 301, 408n7, 409n21
Robinson, first, 146n13
Rodó, José Enrique, 114, 343
Rodríguez Acosta, Ofelia, 342, 357, 359–60
Rogers, Gayle, 6, 691
Rogosin, Lionel, 656
Roh, Franz, 249, 254
Roig de Leuchsenring, Emilio, 346–47, 349
Roldán, Amadeo, 355
Rolland, Romain, 463
Romania
avant-garde in, 36
modernism in, 27, 36–37
newspapers, 43n8
periodicals, 36
symbolists, 36
Romanisches Café, 437, 449, 450f, 451–53
Roman Stoic cosmopolitanism, 407n2
Ronda, García, 363n25
The Roofing Ceremony (Strindberg), 484
A Room of One’s Own (Woolf, V.), 471
“To Roosevelt” (Darío), 114
Rose, Derrick, 1
Rosenberg, Fernando, 342
Rössner, Michael, 453n9
Rostagno, Irene, 469
Roth, Joseph, 445, 446, 448
Rowlandson, Thomas, 64