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date: 17 August 2019

(p. 787) Index

(p. 787) Index

Abbasid period, 635–636
Abu Bakr (Caliph), 63
Acculturation, conversion as, 24, 26–28
Adler, Joseph, 540
Adorno, Theodor, 475
adventism, 757
Afghanistan, 498, 634, 638, 647
Africa, 53–54, 59, 61, 63, 613, 617, 619, 634, 641–642, 646, 647
African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church, 73
agency, 7
ajiva, 446
ajlaf, 638
Akbar (Emperor), 495, 637
Alcoholics Anonymous, 770
Allah, 3, 6, 17, 31–32, 308, 310, 371, 633
à Kempis, Thomas, 615
al-Azhar (University), 652
al-Ghazzali, 643
al-Jabbar, Kareem Abd, 646
Ali, M. Mahomed, 434
Ali, Muhammad, 646
Allievi, Stefano, 671, 675
Amardas (Guru), 494–495
American Zen Teachers Association, 478
Analects, 541, 546, 548–550
Anandpur, 497
Anatolia, 27, 31, 35–36, 639
Anathapindika, 468
Anthropology of Christianity, 84, 100–101
Antiquities, 588
Ambedkar, B. R., 436, 638
Amritsar, 494–495
ancestral worship (veneration), 542, 544, 546, 550, 552n24, 559, 563–564, 613
Andrews, C. F. 434
Angad (Guru), 493. See Lehina Trehan
animal rights, 456
apocalypticism, 583, 594
apostasy (apostate), 8, 96, 148, 170, 179, 271, 274, 412, 467, 510, 599, 610, 634, 706–707, 709–711, 714–715, 722–723. See deconversion and disengagement
Appel, Willa, 690
Arjan (Guru), 494–495
Arndt, Johann, 603
Archetype, 214
Arnobius, 611f
Arnold, Thomas Walker, 6, 165
Aristotle, 345
art, 327–342, 331 (as spiritual communication)
Arya Samaj, 431, 434
Asad, Muhammad, 344, 357, 361, 644
Asad, Talal, 103
asceticism (ascetics), 444–447, 454–455, 459n11, 472
ashraf, 638
Asian American, 190–191, 200, 472, 650
aslama, 633, 688
Asoka (King), 2, 468
Association of Confucian Learning, 543
atheists, 51–52, 54, 56–57, 470
Attachment theory, 216–217
attachments, 150, 142, 176, 180, 216, 225, 286, 305, 315, 696, 706–709, 711, 714–715, 723
Aurengzeb (Emperor), 495, 637
Austin-Broos, Diane, 84, 99, 104, 538
(p. 788) Austin, Margaret, 358
Australia, 69, 90, 95, 99, 101, 335, 468–469, 472, 499, 527, 746, 761
Australian Aborigines, 90, 335
autobiography, 119, 344–345, 347–348, 352–359, 361, 372, 600, 604
theory and criticism, 353–354
history, 354–356
self-identity, 356–357
ideology, 357–358
Axial Age, 2
Baba, 488
Babb, Lawrence A., 449
Babur, 491
Badal, Parkash Singh, 500–501
Baer, Marc David, 11, 15, 24–47
Baha’i, 746
Bainbridge, William Sims, 49, 142
Baker, Richard, 480
Bakhtin, Mikhail, 349, 373
Bali, 70, 71, 430, 432
bao ying, 559, 568, 570–571, 575n46
Balkans, 635, 637, 639–640
Barbour, John D., 271, 282, 289
Barclay, William, 607
Barker, Eileen, 143, 695, 720, 747
Barker, Irwin R., 143
bay’a, 633
Beatles (The Beatles), 456
Beckford, James, 715
Bede, 612
Bedi, Khem Singh, 500–501
Beecher, Henry Ward, 330
Beijing, 562, 564
Beit-Hallahmi, Benjamin, 216, 225
Belgium, 742
Belgium Taoist Association, 526
Benedict XIV (Pope), 513
Benedict XVI (Pope), 469
Berber, 636
Berkeley Buddhist Monastery, 474
Berkeley Buddhist Studies Group, 474
Berger, John, 329–330
Berger, Peter L., 312, 383, 407, 451, 465, 557
Berkhofer, Robert, 86
Bernard of Clairvaux, 615–616
Bernini, Gian Lorenzo, 337
Bernhardt, Sarah, 1
Berthrong, John, 551
Bhagavad Gita, 431
bhakti, 445, 447–448
Bharata, 331
Bhāratī Swami, Śrī Chandraśehara, 431
bhas khana, 490
Bhasour, Teja Singh, 500–501
bhikkhus, 468
Bhindrawale, Jarnail Singh, 500–501
Bielefeld-based Study on Deconversion, 281–287
Black Christian Methodist Episcopal Church, 73
Blake, William, 328
Blavatsky, H. P. (Madam) 473
Böhme, Jakob, 603
Book of Mormon, 757–758, 760–761, 771, 773, 775n14
Book of Three-Character Verse, 546
Booth, Wayne, 352, 363n26
born again, 91, 97, 118, 166, 171, 225, 313, 598, 600, 602–604, 607–609, 611, 672
Bourdieu, Pierre, 272–273
Boxer Uprising, 561
brahmans, 446, 494
brainwashing, 17, 250, 692–696, 698–699, 715, 720, 739–741, 743, 747
Brazil, 56, 59–61, 71, 74, 93, 149, 410–411, 469, 526, 769, 771
Brekke, Torkel, 539
Brereton, Virginia, 305, 327
British, 641, 646, 673
British Raj, 439
British Taoist Association, 526
Brockey, Liam Matthew, 542
Brokaw, Cynthia, 559, 570
Bromley, David, 695, 715
(p. 789) Brown, Jerry, 480
Bruce, Steve, 171
Brunn, Stanley, 71
Brusco, Elizabeth, 312, 315, 317
Buddha’s Light International Association (BLIA), 471
in America, 472
in Australia, 472
Buddhism, 48, 51, 57–58, 429–430, 432, 436, 445, 455–457, 478, 490, 549
in America, 468, 469, 472, 474, 477, 479
in Australia, 468–469
in Brazil, 469
in China, 469, 511, 517, 559–560, 613
in India, 539
in South Africa, 469, 472
in Tibet, 523
interdependence, 478
Japanese, 469, 477
“modern,” 475, 478–482
New Vehicle, 478–479
socially engaged, 478, 481
“white,” 479, 482
Buddhist Peace Fellowship (BPF), 478
Bulliet, Richard, 6, 632–633, 637
Burke, Kenneth, 117, 120, 127–128, 132
Burma, 474
Byden, William, 641
Byzantine Empire, 27, 173, 332, 639
Cabezón, José, 473
Caldwell, Patricia, 120, 128–129
Campbell, Alexander, 758
Cantón Delgado, Manuela, 98
Caravaggio, 336–337
Caribbean, 70, 74
Calvin, John, 74
Cannel, Fenella, 84, 102, 104
Canolly, Cecilia Mahmuda, 669
Carrithers, Michael, 445
Carpenter, Joel, 149
Carter, Lewis, 717, 721
caste system, 433, 439, 490, 638
Catechism of the Catholic Church, 540
Catholic Bishops’ Conference of India (CBCI), 438
Celestial Masters, 514, 516–519
Central Asia, 31, 173, 511, 574n21, 595, 637, 639
Ceylon, 432
Ch’an, 467. See Zen, 467
Chau, Adam, 558, 562
Chand (Sri), 493
Chapple, Christopher Key, 448
Charlemagne (Emperor), 619
charisma, 6, 72, 85, 87, 94, 446, 453, 457, 471, 478, 522, 528, 637, 696, 713–714, 717, 758–759, 761, 773, 781n104
Chaudhuri, Mohuya, 439
Chen, Carolyn, 146, 151
Chesnut, Andrew, 408, 410
Chaves, Mark, 144
Children of God (a.k.a. The Family), 690, 692, 696, 713–716, 738
Ching Chung Taoist Association, 527
Chishti, Muinuddin, 637
Chitrabhanu, 453
Chodorow, Nancy, 305–306
Coleman, James W., 481
Coleman, Simon, 84, 99
Chong, Kelly, 312, 316–317
(p. 790) Christian Missionary Activities Inquiry Committee, 437. See Niyogi Committee
Christianization, 26–29, 33, 35, 92, 509, 614
Christiano, Kevin J., 150
Church Universal and Triumphant (CTU) (New Religious Movement), 718
circumcision, 25, 383, 490, 579, 588–590, 593
City of Ten Thousand Buddhas, 471
Classics of Filial Piety, 546
Clement XI (Pope), 513
Coe, Albert, 213
cognitive neuropsychology, 15, 240–255
neurogenesis in adolescence, 246–247
plasticity, 247
temporal lobe epilepsy, 247–248
vision, meditation, contemplation, 248–250
Coleman, James W., 481
Collins, Randall, 144–145, 184
colonialism, 89–90, 174–175, 300, 349, 434, 455, 511, 582, 641–643
Columbia University, 473
Comaroff, Jean, 101, 126–127, 301–302
Comaroff, John L., 101, 126–127, 301–302
Communitas, 99
Community of Christ (Reorganized Church, RLDS), 756, 761
Confucianism, 429, 471, 523–524, 559–560
Boston Confucianism, 551
civil examination, 542–545
Political Confucianism, 547
Confucius, 2, 3
Congregation of the Holy Spirit (a.k.a. Spiritans), 303
Constantine (Emperor), 28, 170, 173, 261–262, 336–337, 339, 617
Constantinople, 639
Constitution (India), 437, 439
conversion, 430
and adaptation, 454
and authenticity, 436
and blogs, 453
and choice/volition, 141, 164–167, 169, 170–171, 174–175, 177, 179–180
and cognitive neuroscience, 240–255
and community, 433
and conflict, 439
and dreams, 256–270, 583, 672
and economic conditions, 436, 446, 508
and elites, 446, 465, 468, 473
and ethical movements, 452, 453, 456
and ethnicity, 53, 439, 519–520
and exorcism, 612–613
and healing, 449–450, 613
and heroes, 449
and Hinduism, 430
and imperialism, 436
and law, 437, 440
and marketing strategies, 452
and miracles, 449, 612–613, 637
and monastics, 449
and morality, 434, 453, 598
and peace, 434
and religious freedom, 440
and religious markets, China (red, black, and gray), 149–150, 444
and social conditions, 436, 450
and socioeconomic factors, 450–451
and speaking in tongues (glossolalia), 759
and spread of religions, 164–189
and technology, 451
and transnationalism, 451–453, 455–456, 468–469, 471, 474–476, 481, 509, 511512, 523, 526, 528, 621
and visions, 583, 617
as active/passive, 7, 412–413,
as acculturation, 25–28
as adhesion and syncretism, 5, 24, 28–32
as awakening, 466
as comparative category, 509
as continuous conversion, 84, 99–100, 102
as event, 24–25
as gradual, 467
as homecoming, 466–467
as intensification, 24, 545, 610, 614–616, 619
as process, 25, 95–96
as sudden, 466
as theoretical category, 361
as Tradition Transition, 24–25, 610–614, 624
as Transformation and turn to piety, conversion category, 32–34
by force, 438, 450, 511, 514, 610, 619, 632, 638, 670
globally, 451
horizontal, 440
mapping of conversion, 67, 69,
mass (conversions), 449, 515, 519, 612, 619, 632, 636, 638, 649–650
models of conversion, 15, 93, 103, 245, 353, 391n57), 395n104), 402, 409, 412, 416, 622, 638, 711, 715, 761, 764
motifs of conversion, 616–619
motivations for conversion, 7–8, 14, 17, 98, 177–178, 181, 183–184, 355
opposition to, 151, 434
politics of, 437
precariousness of, 102
resistance to, 438
vernacular language, 492
vertical, 440
conversion, definitions of
Apostolos-Cappadona, 328–330
Austin-Broos, 99
Baer, 9–11
Cantón Delgado, 98
Chaves, 144
Coleman, 99
Cucchiari, 100
Falla, 92–93
Harding, 97
Hefner, 89
Hiebert, 96–97
James, 5
Komjathy, 528
Kraft, 95
Leone, 170
Long and Hadden, 146, 155n45
Montgomery, 166
Nock, 5
Snow and Machalek, 122–134
Steigenga, 402, 412, 414, 416–417
Stromberg, 118–119
conversion careers, 8, 100, 313, 412, 414, 707, 770, 773
conversion, categories of
Acculturation, 26–28
Adhesion and Syncretism, 28–32
Transformation and Turn to Piety, 32–34
Conversion of Sacred Space, 34–36
conversion studies, 5–9
converts
Anneke/Sakina, 670–681
Asad, Muhammad, 344
Austin, Margaret, (Methodist), 358
Baxter, Richard, 348
Beecher, Henry Ward, 330
Bunyan, John, 347
Constantine, 261–262, 336–337
Jackson, Chris, 34
Jerome, 262–263
Kling, Gordon, 600–602
Lady Sarafina, 265–266
Ruth (Bible), 579–581
Saul/Paul of Tarsus, 336, 371
Shabbati Tzevi, 37 (Aziz Mehmed Effendi)
Staniforth, Sampson, 343–345, 350, 361
Te-ch’ing, 344, 347
Therese of Avila, 377
Tissot, James Jacques, 337–338
Victoria, 264–265
cosmopolitanism (cosmopolitan), 445, 448, 578, 582, 594, 595
Cowper, William, 348
Cucchiari, Salvatore, 100, 312
Cult of the Silkworm Mother, 562–563
Cultural Revolution (China), 561–562, 565–566
cultural geography, 65–66
Currie, Raymond, 143
Cyprian, 611
Cyril, 617–618
Dakshin Bharat Jain Sabha, 453
Dalai Lama, 469–470, 473–474, 478
Dalits, 436, 438–439
Damasio, Antonio, 259
dana (ritual giving to monastics), 444
(p. 792) Dannin, Robert, 675
Dante, 333
Daode jing, 514, 524
Darbar Sahib, 494, 500
Davidman, Lynn, 151, 311–312, 314
David-Neel, Alexandra, 473
Davis, Patricia M., 257, 268–269
da’wa (or da’wah), 71, 633, 645–648, 650–651, 653–656, 679
Dean, Kenneth, 556
deconversion, 8, 223–226, 251, 271–296, 599, 610, 614, 694, 707, 711, 714–715
as migration within and out of religious field, 272
avenues (paths) of, 272
definition of, 272–274
motives for, 276,
narratives of, 286–287
Deedat, Ahmed, 651, 661n96
Defoe, Daniel, 351
Delgado, Richard, 740
Delumeau, Jean, 614
demography, 15, 49–64
Brazil and China, case studies, 60–61
positive factors: births, 52;
converts, 53;
immigrants, 54
negative factors: deaths, 53;
defectors, 54;
emigrants, 54
rates of change: births/deaths; converts/defectors; immigrants/emigrants, 52–55
trends affecting growth and decline of religions, 63
United Nations Continental Areas, comparisons, 61–63
de Molinos, Miguel, 603
Deng, Xiaoping, 566
Denmark, 603
deprogramming, 17, 693, 694, 710, 712, 720, 722, 739–740
de Saussure, Ferdinand, 374-382
deversion, 476. See deconversion
development, 439
Devi (also Shakta), 490
devshirme, 640
Digambara, 449
Dharamsala, 470, 473–474
Dharma Masters, 469, 474, 481
Vietnam, 470
Taiwan, 471
Dharma Wheel, 466
dhikr, 633, 652
dhimmi, 636, 657n15
diaspora, 68, 70, 452, 489, 559, 585–586, 589
Dilthey, Wilhelm, 354
din, 491
disciplines (academic), 8, 10, 12–13
disengagement, 706–724. See apostasy, deconversion
definition, 709
process of, 711–714
role exit, 713–716
social movement theory, 716–719
Dominicans, 513, 542, 615
Domhoff, G. William, 259
Dönme, 37
Douglas, William G. T., 238
Dow, James, 94
dreams, 9, 14, 85, 94, 102, 256–270, 521–522, 583, 672
Droogers, André, 100
duality, 466
Duara, Prasenjit, 547
dukkha, 467
Dundas, Paul, 447
dunia, 491
Durkheim, Emile, 93, 114, 245, 356, 410, 444
East Asia, 511, 549, 551
Eaton, Richard, 638
Ebrey, Patricia, 549
ecology, 456
education, 439
Egypt, 51, 581, 632, 636–637, 644, 652
Eliade, Mircea, 245, 327, 330–333
Elijah, 2
Eliot, Sir Charles, 432
Elman, Benjamin, 542
epistrephein, 578, 598–599
Erikson, Erik, 648
eschatological (eschatology), 48, 515, 528, 594–595
(p. 793) ethnicity, 508, 514
European Court of Human Rights (ECHR), 743–745
Eusebius, 336
Evans, Carolyn, 744–745
Falla, Ricardo, 92–93, 103
Fan, Lizhu, 566
Falun Gong, 746
Family of Love (New Religious Movement), 717
Farhadian, Charles E., 467, 474, 509
Farrakhan, Louis, 646, 649
feminism, 297-326, 474, 479, 676
Fenesh, Louis E., 489
Fields, Rick, 479
filial piety, 546, 550
films
By the Dawn’s Early Light: Chris Jackson’s Journey to Islam, 47
Gospel According to the Papuans, The, 47
King of Kings, The, 328, 338
Malcolm X, 47
Mission, The, 47
Finland, 74, 76
Finke, Roger, 171, 183, 557
Finn, Thomas, 617–618
fiqh, 636, 643
Fish, Stanley, 350
Fisher, Humphrey, 88–89
fitra, 633
Fletcher, Richard, 605, 612
Foote, Peter, 614
Four Noble Truths, 467
Fox, Robin Lane, 611
Francis of Assisi, 337
Franciscans, 542, 615
Franke, August Hermann, 603
Freedberg, David, 334
French Taoist Association, 526
Freud, Sigmund, 97, 212–214, 219, 242, 245, 256–257, 259, 269, 350, 714
Frye, Northrop, 347
Fuller Theological Seminary, 195
fundamentalism, 48–49, 439
Fundamentalist Latter Day Saints (FLDS), 756, 762
ganadharas, 446, 449
Gannon, Shane P., 11
Gandhi, Mahatma, 434, 436, 440
Garma, Carlos, 94
Gautama, Shakyamuni Siddhartha, 3
Geertz, Clifford, 642
gender, 297–326, 478, 497, 508, 529n2, 561–562, 579, 648, 654, 667, 673, 675, 682
definition of, 298, 301
Gentiles, 262, 578, 582, 586–592, 594, 598, 611, 622
Gerlach, Luther, 84, 87–88, 103
Gerstel, Naomi, 150
GhaneaBassiri, Kambriz, 645, 648, 656
ghazi, 638
Ghosal, Sarela, 2
Ghost Dance, 85. See revitalization movements
Gibb, H. A. R., 636
Gifford Lectures, 213
Gilligan, Carol, 305–306
globalization, 9, 11, 85, 103–104, 141, 147, 408, 413, 416, 451, 465, 469, 481–482, 509–510, 621, 670, 748
Glock, Charles Y., 272
Gobind Singh (Guru), 496–499
Godin, André, 467
Goffman, Erving, 130, 132
Gombrich, Ernst, 333
Gooren, Henri, 8, 94, 100, 184, 412, 756, 770–771
Gore, Al, 472
Gospel, 583, 913
Graduate Theological Union, Berkeley (GTU), 474
Graham, Billy (Reverend), 621
Granoff, Phyllis, 445, 448
Granqvist, Pehr, 216–217
Great Awakening, 616
Great Britain, 50, 470
Greece, 581, 743
Gregory of Tours, 612
Greil, Arthur L., 151, 718
Greimas, Algirdas J., 375–382
Griffith, R. Marie, 312, 317
Guanyin, 571
Guenon, Rene, 674
Guatemala, 92–95, 98, 104, 412, 770–771
gurdwara, 488, 498, 501
Gujarat (India), 437, 449–450
Guru Granth, 491, 494, 497–499
ghusl, 634
Habermas, Jürgen, 3–4
Hackett, Rosalind, 746
Hacking, Ian, 550
hadith, 633
Hadot, Pierre, 548
Hadramaut, 641
hagiography, 516, 522, 637
Halevi, Yehudah, 595
Hall, Brian, 148
Hall, G. Stanley, 6, 212–213, 241, 246
Handsome Lake, 85–86
Hanson, Hamza Yusuf, 646
Harding, Susan F., 97, 103, 121, 124–125
Hargobind (Guru), 494–495
Haribhadra, 448
Hart-Cellar Act of 1965, 193. See migration
Harrison, George, 1
Haughton, Rosemary, 466
health, 439, 525, 527–528
Hefner, Robert W., 3, 85, 89–90, 99, 103, 612
Hellenism (Hellenistic), 578, 581, 583, 585–589, 594
Hellenization, 581–583, 585
Hesse, Herman, 476
Hiebert, Paul, 96–97
hijab, 654, 677
Hill, Jane 132
Hill, Patricia, 300–301
Hillel, 592
Hindmarsh, Bruce, 13–15, 121–122, 132, 343–368
Hinduism (Hindu), 50, 429, 434, 436, 440, 445, 450, 456, 489–496, 498–500, 637–638
and conversion, 429
Hinduization, 432
Hindustan Times, 438
Hindutva, 438, 638
Hine, Virginia, 84, 87–88, 103
history, 14
Ho, David, 570
Hodgson, Dorothy, 303–304, 317
Hofmann, Gabrielle, 675–677
Homer, 2
Hong Kong, 472, 509, 523–524, 526–527, 543
Horton, Robin, 7, 84, 88–89, 91, 101, 103, 642
Hsi-Lai, 471–472
huahu, 513–514
Huahu jing, 514
Huang, Chin-shing, 543
Hui Neng, 467
hukam, 491
Hungary, 73–74
Huntington, Samuel, 401, 404, 411, 476
Huxley, Aldous, 1
Iannaccone, Lawrence, 409
ibn Adham, Ibrahim, 643
ibn Sa’d, 633
icon, 332–333
Id (Eid), 651, 653, 661n98, 679
identity, 165–166, 168–170, 174–175, 177, 179, 181–184, 177–178, 181, 183–184, 190, 195, 197–199, 220, 223, 225, 263, 267–269, (p. 795) 290, 317, 319, 328–330, 344–345, 349–350, 352–353, 356–357, 359–361, 384, 402, 406, 413, 444–445, 448, 540, 557, 612
and modernity, 451, 480
Buddhist, 480
Christian, 605, 612, 620
Confucian, 539–540, 543, 545, 550
Daoist, 509, 512, 516
Hindu, 450
Jain, 450
Mormonism, 760
Muslim, 635, 678–680
iftar, 652
Ignatius of Loyola, 605
Ilyas, Muhammad, 638
images (power of), 334–335
iman, 636
immersion, 95, 593, 758
Immigration Act 1924 (a.k.a. Oriental Exclusion Act), 192
immigration, 54, 638, 640, 644
India Today International, 438
indigenization, 451, 476, 520, 556–557, 637, 641
of Chinese religions, 557–563, 569, 571–572
of Christianity, 613
of Buddhism, 476–477, 482
of Daoism, 511–514, 517, 526, 528
of Hinduism, 432
of Islam, 646
individualism, 89–91, 118, 122, 175–176, 179, 271, 313, 475, 480, 582, 595, 612, 671, 676
Indonesia, 32–33, 50, 71, 174, 408, 430, 637, 640–641
indri vaddani, 490
initiation, 432, 434, 450, 490, 494–495, 497, 508, 516, 528, 540, 583, 598, 617–618, 652, 689, 772
Insight Meditation Society, 474
Intellectualist theory of conversion, 88. See Horton
inter-faith relations, 439–440, 457
International Society for Krishna Consciousness (a.k.a. “Hare Krishnas”), 149, 697, 713, 716, 738–739
International Social Survey Programme, 276–279
internet, 667–670, 674, 698, 745
Introvigne, Massimo, 747
introspection, 244, 258
Iran, 74, 403, 407, 498, 632, 635–638, 643, 648
Iraq, 27, 408, 636–637, 648
Irvine, Judith, 132
Isaiah, 2
Isherwood, Christopher, 1
Islamic Circle of North America, 654
Islamic Society of North America, 652
Islamization, 6, 26–28, 33, 35, 509, 632, 641, 643
istikhara, 671–672
Italy, 54, 355, 742
Ivanhoe, P. J., 541
Ivy, Marilyn, 476
Jackson, Sherman, 646
Jacobs, Janet, 713–715
Jakobsh, Doris R., 489
Jain, 3
Jain Association in North America (JAINA), 451, 453
Jain, Karuna, 455–456
Jain, Aparigraha, 455
Jain Meditation Center, 454
Jainism, 444–464
Jains, 444, 490–491
Jamaica, 75
James, William, 1, 5, 120, 212–213, 245, 297, 538, 583, 607–609, 611–612, 619, 642, 648
Janam Sikhi, 491–494. See Puratan Janam Sakhi
Jameelah, Maryam, 644
Japan (Japanese), 172, 174, 182, 191–192, 196, 265, 335, 354, 370, 380, 404, 407, 469, 477, 482, 509, 512, 520, 523–526, 528, 551, 558, 561, 768–769
Jaspers, Karl, 2
Jehangir, 495
(p. 796) Jehovah’s Witnesses, 225, 510, 645, 718, 737, 739, 742–744
Jeremiah (Book of), 2
Jerome, 262–263
Jesuits (Society of Jesus), 29, 511, 513, 542, 613
Jesus (Christ), 3, 30, 35, 96, 165, 176, 178, 184, 223, 287, 299, 328, 333, 338, 343, 355, 381, 433, 466, 510, 539, 594, 598, 600, 602, 605–606, 611, 613, 616–618, 620, 622, 633, 669, 674, 757
Jesus (People) Movement, 718, 738
Jews (Jewish), 582–584, 619, 633, 644
jie-yuan, 472
jihad, 34, 641
jina, 445, 448, 450
Jindra, Ines W., 151, 225
jiva, 446
jizya, 636, 640
Jodhpur, 449
joti, 494
Judaism, 420, 430, 510, 514, 557, 610–611, 649
Judge, William Quan, 473
Juergensmeyer, Mark, 404, 411
Jules-Rosette, Bennetta, 617
Jung, Carl G., 213–214, 219, 256–257, 260–261
junzi, 548
Juster, Susan, 305–306
Justin Martyr, 611
Kang, You-wei, 543
Kang, Xiaoguang, 547
Kaufman, Deborah, 312–314, 319
Kean, Webb, 132
Kempe, Margery, 615
Kennedy, Andrew, 480
karma, 432–433, 446, 459n17, 517, 567, 569, 613
Kartarpur, 488–495, 497
Kashmir, 493, 498
kerygma, 594
kevalajnana, 446
Khadur, 493–495
khalsa, 494, 496, 499
Khalsa Panth, 494, 496–497
Khalsa Raj, 497–500
Khan, Genghis, 639
Khan, Hulagu, 639
khande di pahul, 496–497, 501
kharaj, 636
Khazars, 595
King, Jr., Martin Luther, 470
Kipp, Rita Smith, 98
Kirkpatrick, Lee A., 216–217, 227
kirtan, 491
Kleeman, Terry, 517
Knaus, John Kenneth, 470
Knight, David A., 151
Korean-Americans, 190–208
Kornfield, Jack, 474, 480
Köse, Ali, 647, 650, 673, 675
Kōshin, 525
Kraft, Charles H., 95–96, 103
Krishna, 431, 447
Kumar, Sushil, 454
Lancaster, Lewis, 471
langar, 491, 494, 496
Laos, 520
Laozi (Lao-tzu), 2–3, 513–515, 517
Learman, Linda, 468
Leuba, James, 212–213
levels of analysis
micro, 142–143
Lévi-Strauss, Claude, 129, 375
Levine, Gregory J., 78
Levtzion, Nehemia, 6, 639, 641
li, 548
Liberation theology, 404
lifeways, 3
Lifton, Robert J., 692
Lin, Xiangru, 563, 565, 574n40
(p. 797) Lodhi, Sikandar, 488
Lofland, John, 6–7, 142, 147–148, 150, 177, 616, 618
Longmen (Dragon Gate), 517, 524
Longwanggou temple, 562
Los Angeles, 645
Lotman, Iurij Michajlovich, 382–384
Lotus Sutra, 468
Lotz, Anne Graham, 328
Lucas, Philip, 746
Luther, Martin, 602–603, 607
Lutheran Church (Lutherans), 73–74, 76, 600, 602–603, 616
Maasai, 303–304
Machalek, Richard, 122–124
Mack, Phyllis, 350
MacMullen, Ramsay, 611–612
Madeley, John, 69
Mahaprajna, 455
Mahabharata, 447
Mahavira, Vardhamana (Lord), 3, 446, 449, 453
Mahayana (Buddhism), 466, 468, 472, 474, 511
Mahmud of Ghazni (Sultan), 638
Malherbe, Abraham, 599
Malaysia, 637, 640
Malcolm X, 34, 646
manjis, 492, 494
Mao, Zedong, 566, 568
Maoists, 438
marga, 467
market/marketplace (religion as, supply and demand), 140, 146, 148–150, 177, 201, 312, 402, 408–411, 414–416, 444, 446, 449, 451–454, 458, 475, 588, 619, 653, 671, 707, 723, 764
Markus, Robert, 612–613
Marshall-Fratani, Ruth, 91, 104
Marti, Gerardo, 145
Martin, Bernice, 312
Marty, Martin, 604, 621
Marx, Karl, 350
Marxism, 66, 566
masand, 494, 496
Master Xingyun, 471–472
Mata Khivi, 494
Matar, Nabil, 643
Matthiessen, Peter, 477
Mattson, Ingrid, 646
Mauryan Empire, 447
Mauss, Armand L., 123–124
mawali, 636
Mazeway, 85. See Wallace and revitalization movements
McCarran Walter Act 1952, 192. See migration
McCloud, Aminah, 649
McGuire, Meredith B., 722
McNeill, William H., 144
meaning, 220–222
Meaning-System Model, 217–220
Conversion Research Directions, 224–227
definition of, 221
Transformation of a Meaning System, 221–223
Mecca, 3, 31–32, 34, 344, 357, 635, 642, 644, 677
Mead, George Herbert, 123
Mehmed IV, Sultan, 37
Mehta, P. J., 440
meditation, 454–455
Melton, Gordon, 747
Mencius, 546, 549
Mencius, 568
messianism, 515–516, 592, 594
metanoia, 598–599
Methodist Church (Methodism), 73
Michelangelo, 336
Middle East, 49, 632, 637, 646, 648
millennialism, 757
Min, Pyong Gap, 194
ming, 568
ming yun, 568
Minkov, Anton, 640
Misch, Georg, 354
missionary (religion), 69, 72, 429, 510
Buddhism, 468, 472, 474–475. See bhikkhus
Christianity, 70–71, 73, 76, 438, 440, 499, 588, 594, 606, 612–614, 621, 641, 645, 654
Daoism, 509, 514, 520–524, 526, 528
Jainism, 451
Nestorian, 173
Mithras, 432
modernization (modernity), 84–85, 88, 90–94, 96, 102-104, 122, 140, 148–149, 271, 313, 356, 380, 401, 451, 455, 475, 476–477, 542, 560, 572, 604, 643, 649
and Buddhism, 475
and Christianity, 604
and Confucianism, 543
and Islam, 643, 671, 674
Moharpatra, Satyen, 438
Mombassa, 641
monasticism (monks), 444–445
Buddhist, 470–471, 473, 480–481, 571
Christianity, 612, 614–615
Daoist, 509, 517, 521–523, 556
Mongolian, 172
Mongols, 639
Moon, Sun Myung (Rev.), 688, 738, 742
Mormon Church (LDS), 16, 510, 687–689, 711, 756–785
Morrison, Karl, 616, 621
Moses, 633
mosque, 490, 540, 556, 647, 650–652, 654
Mount Qingxu, 561
Mu-ch’i (Zen artist), 330–331. See Six Persimmons
Mughals, 494–498
Muhammad, Clara, 655
Muhammad, Elijah, 307, 656
Muhammad (Prophet), 3, 17, 30–31, 34, 165, 178, 223, 311, 433, 632–633, 635–636, 644, 669
Muhammad, Warith Deen, 307–308, 649
Müller, Max, 429, 473
Murad, Khurram, 647, 650
Muslim Community Center of Chicago, 650
Muslim Student Association, 651
Myer, Birgit, 90–91, 104
mysticism, 37, 213, 245, 445, 508, 521–522, 527–528, 615, 698, 757
Nanak (Guru), 3, 488, 490–496
Naqshbandi Sufism, 650
narrative, 8, 343–352
ethical rhetoric, 351–352
formal system, 346–349
theory and criticism, 345–346
political ideology, 349–351
Nash, Manning, 93
Nash, June, 93
Nation of Islam, 34, 307, 309, 646, 649
Native American religions, 515
nativism, 513
Nattier, Jan, 469, 523
Navayana, 478. See New Vehicle
nectar, 491
Nestorian, 173
Netherlands, 310, 317, 670, 742
Neville, Robert, 551
neidan, 525
Neo-Confucianism, 549
Nepal, 432
Nevo, Baruch, 216, 225
Northern Ireland, 49, 53
New Age (religions), 48, 477, 608, 652, 670–671, 692
Newman, John Henry, 610
Newton, John, 348
New Religious Movements (NRM), 633, 647, 671, 687–706, 737–741
New Vehicle, 478–479. See Buddhism
New York, 454
New York Times, 454
Nichiren Shoshu Buddhism, 122–123
Niebuhr, Reinhold, 466
Nietzche, Frederich, 350
Nigeria, 50
Niyogi Committee, 437
Niyogi, M. B., 437
Nizami, Khawaja Hasan, 638
Noahide Rules, 589–591
Nock, Arthur Darby, 5, 89, 583, 611
non-missionary (religion), 429
non-proselytizing (religion), 71, 429–430, 435
(p. 799) North Africa, 637
Norway, 603
Nubian Islamic Hebrews, 649
Oceania, 59, 62–63
Olcott, Henry Steel, 473
Old Path White Clouds, 476
Oman, 641
Orissa (India), 437–439
Orissa Freedom of Religion Act, 439
Orthodox, 606
Ostrowski, Ally, 480
Ottoman Empire, 11, 27–37, 637, 639–640, 643–644
Overmyer, Daniel L., 559, 572
Oxford University, 473
Pacific Islands, 175
paganism, 614, 618
pahul, 491, 494–495
Pakistan, 432, 488, 500, 638, 644
Palestine, 644, 648
Pali (district), 449
Papua New Guinea, 30, 90, 101, 103
Panth, 488, 494
para-Church, 439
Paramahaṁsa, Ramakṛṣṇa, 434
passover, 578, 590
Patanjali, 448
Paul (Saint), 3, 466, 539, 583–586, 592, 594, 598, 607, 613, 620, 622
Pentecostals, 87, 100, 183, 410, 414
People of the Book, 633
People’s Republic of China, 543, 556, 563, 694
Parameswaran, Ashvin, 151
Peirce, Charles S., 382–384
Persian, 578–579, 581, 632, 635
Peterson, Linda, 348
Pew Religious Landscape Survey, 274–276, 279–280, 288, 468, 767
phenomenology, 14, 319, 383, 509–510
Philippines, 175, 766, 768
Pietists, 33, 118, 603–604, 607, 616
piety, 5, 25–26, 30, 32–34, 304, 308, 546, 550, 560, 579, 583, 589, 609, 620, 641, 643, 659n53, 679, 680n49, 681
Plato, 2, 349, 360–361
Platonism, 2
Popular Western Taoism (PWT), 526
Portugal, 74, 641
Posten, Larry, 645, 647, 650
postmodernity, 643
Pratt, James B., 213
Pratt, Parley P., 758
preksha, 455–456
Presbyterian, 143, 183, 194, 616, 692
primal (tribal) religions, 12, 429, 432, 556, 610, 613–614, 621
Protestantism (Protestants), 53, 69–70, 73, 75–76, 439, 476, 579, 602–604, 606, 612–614, 616–617
Proudfoot, Wayne, 609
psychoanalysis, 216, 257, 479
Priest, Robert J., 126
Puratan Janam Sakhi, 491. See Janam Sikhi
Puri, Harbhajan Singh, 501
qi, 559
Qigong (Ch’i-kung), 527
Qing, Jiang, 547
Qing Ming Festival (Qingming), 544, 563–564
Quanzhen, 516–517, 520–522, 524
Rababai, Pandita, 1–2
rabbi (rabbinic), 588–594, 596
Radhakrishnan, Sarvepalli, 430
Raika (people), 449
Rahit Maryada, 488, 501
Rajasthan (India), 437, 449, 450
Ramadan, 651–652, 669
Ramakrishna, 1, 433
Ramayana, 447
Rambo, Lewis, R., 444, 466–467, 474–475, 479, 509, 545, 599, 610, 668
Rastafarianism, 75
rational choice, 141, 183, 285, 477, 539, 571, 578, 582, 594–596, 604–605, 611, 671, 674
(p. 800) Ratzinger, Cardinal Joseph, 469. See Pope Benedict XVI
reconversion, 287, 434, 438–439, 599, 714
Reformation, 69, 73, 75
Reina, Rubin, 93
Reinders, Eric, 149
religion, definition of, 241
as sui generis or ascriptive, 245
as universal or plural, 245
as insider or outsider perspectives, 245
as ordinary or extraordinary perspectives, 245
Restorationism, 756, 758–760, 774n5
resurgence (of religion), 51–52, 557, 560, 563–564, 568, 572, 621
revelation, 495, 508, 515–518, 528
reversion (as homecoming), 431, 668–670
revert, 633, 654–655, 669
revitalization, 4, 17, 84–85, 100, 103–104, 482, 556–557, 572, 691–692
revitalization movements, 84–85
Ricci, Matteo, 266–267
Richardson, James T., 6–8, 290, 539, 746
Ricoeur, Paul, 350, 359–360, 368
Rigdon, Sydney, 758, 761
Rightly Guided Caliphs, 632
rija, 633
Rinpoche, Sogyal, 482
Rites Controversy (China), 513, 542
Rite of Christian Initiation for Adults (RCIA), 540
ritual, 8, 71, 77, 509, 622, 709, 719
Buddhism, 571
Chinese indigenous religions, 556–564, 567, 572
Christian, 598–599, 612, 616–618, 621
Confucianism, 538, 540–551
Daoism, 508, 516, 520, 522, 524–525
Hindu, 638
Islam, 634, 651, 669, 677–678, 681
Jain, 444–445, 448, 450
Mormonism, 759–760, 762, 765
Sikh, 489, 494–497, 501
Robbins, Joel, 84, 100, 414
Robbins, Tom, 746
Robertson, Roland, 465
Rolle, Richard, 615
Roman Catholics, 53, 69, 70–71, 73–76, 439, 511–513, 517, 606, 613–617, 670, 674, 688
Roman Empire, 73–74, 583
Romanization, 26–28, 35
Rouse, Carolyn Moxley, 307–310
Russell, James, 612–613
Rust, Val, 756
Sacred Books of the East, 473
sacred space, conversion of, 34–36
samanis, 455–456, 462n65
samudaya, 467
San Francisco Zen Center, 480
Saler, Benson, 93
Salinger, J. D., 1
sangha, 471
San Giovanni, Lucinda, 721
Sangh Parivar, 439
saomu, 544
Sarapis, 432
Saraswati, Lakshmanananda (Swami), 438
Sarkisian, Natalia, 150
Saudi Arabia, 33, 634, 644, 647, 654
Sauer, Carl, 65
Saul of Tarsus (Paul the Apostle), 3, 18n7, 211, 336-337, 371, 379, 381, 583–586, 592, 594
Scandinavia, 603, 609, 614, 619, 672
School of Youth for Social Services, 470
Scientology (Church of), 696–697, 738, 742
Scroggs, James R., 215
Sebastian, Rodney, 151
Second Great Awakening, 757
Second Vatican Council, 469
secularization (secular), 49, 52, 55, 479, 491, 523, 526, 540–541, 556-557, 643, 648
self-cultivation, 508, 521, 538, 545, 548–549
Semiotics, definition of, 374
Seneca, 85–86
Sermons on Conversion to Clerics, 615
Sexton, James, 94
Shaanbei temple, 561–562
Shah, Atul, 453
Shakir, Zayd, 646
Shakta, 403, 493
(p. 801) Shambhala Center, 480
Shandong, 521–522
shari’a, 641
Sharpe, Eric J., 433
Shenzhen, 566–571
Shia (Muslims), 490, 635
Shikoh, Dara, 637
Shinto, 432, 514, 525
Shupe, Anson, 715
Shipps, Jan, 758
Shiva (Shaivism), 448–449, 490, 493
Shvetambara, 449, 453–454
Siddhartha, 476
Sikh, 488–507
sikhia, 491
Sindh, 402
Singapore Taoist Mission, 526
Singer, Margaret, 690–692, 695–696
Singh, Fateh, 501
Singh, Gobind (Guru), 494
Singh, Manmohan, 500
Singh, Rajit, 498
Singh, Rana P. B., 76
Singing, 144, 491, 601, 699, 758
Sinicization, 528
Six Persimmons (Zen art), 331
Skonovd, Norman L., 711–712
Skötkonung, Olof, 614
Smilde, David, 151, 412–413, 416
Smith, Christian, 14, 171, 180, 184
Smith, Donald Eugene, 436–437, 440
Smith, John E., 466
Smith, Joseph (Prophet), 3, 757–761, 771
Socrates, 2
soteriology, 467, 529n6
Buddhist, 467
Daoist, 514–515, 528
Hindu, 433–434
Jain, 457–458n1
Mormonism, 760
South Africa, 126, 469, 472
South Asia, 29, 32, 308, 445, 457–458n1, 501, 637–639, 646
Southeast Asia, 31–32, 172–174, 182, 432, 471, 637, 640–641, 768
Spain, 74, 636–637
Spener, Philip Jacob, 603
Spirit Rock Meditation Center, 474
Sri Lanka, 474
Staples, Clifford L., 123–124
Starbuck, Edwin, 212–213, 216, 608
Stark, Rodney, 6–7, 49, 142–148, 150, 166, 171, 177, 183, 557, 618, 771–772
Stendahl, Krister, 605
Strickmann, Michel, 517, 520
Stromberg, Peter, 8, 10, 13, 15, 97, 117–139
Stump, Roger B., 71–72
šûb, 578–579, 598
submission, 445
suffering, 472, 481
Sufi (Sufism), 31, 35, 37, 171, 179, 309, 314, 367, 637, 640, 642–643, 646–650, 652, 655, 670, 674–675
Sumatra, 98
Sunni (Muslims), 11, 34, 307, 309, 557, 632, 649
Sure, Heng (Rev.), 474
Suri, Shanti, 450
Suri, Vijay Indradinna, 450
Sweden, 74, 602–603, 614, 619
Swiss Taoist Association, 526
synagogue, 583, 586, 590
syncretization (syncretism), 28–32, 477–478
tabligh, 638
Tablighi Jamaat, 643, 670
Tagore, Rabindranth, 1–2
Taiji quan (T’ai-chi ch’üan), 527
Taiping, 515–516, 518
Taiwan, 469, 471–472, 543
Tajfel, Henri, 165, 183
Tamils, 29–30, 448
Tamilnadu, 448
Tannen, Deborah, 305
tantra, 448, 466
tathagatagarbha, 466
Taoism, 429
Tatian, 611
tawba, 633
tawheed, 669
Taylor, Charles, 359, 361
Taylor, Paul, 744–745
technology, 53, 72, 258, 451, 477, 681
Tegh Bahadur (Guru), 495–497, 504n33
(p. 802) temples, 29, 35, 445, 490, 540, 556
Buddhist, 469, 479, 562
Chinese indigenous religions, 556, 558–565
Confucian, 543, 550
Daoist, 523–526, 556, 562
heathen, 614
Hindu, 438, 445
Tendzin, Osel, 480
Tennant, Gilbert, 616
Testimony (witnessing), 87, 95, 98, 103, 287, 297, 301, 317, 600, 669, 687, 723, 771
Thailand, 520
Theological Studies, 13
theosebeis, 587
Theosophical Society, 473
Theravada, 466, 474
Thich Nhat Hanh, 466, 469–470, 476, 478, 482
Thomas (Saint), 437
Thomas, Pradip Nina, 439
Thrift, Nigel, 77
Thurman, Robert, 473–474
tian, 541, 559, 568
tian ming, 568
Tianshi dao, 517
Tibet, 172, 470, 473, 523
Tibetan Book of the Living and the Dead, 482
Tibetan Book of the Dead, 473
Tillich, Paul, 338–339
Tippett, Alan R., 95, 103
Tissot, James Jacques, 337–339
toleration, 169, 173, 435, 477
Tolstoy, Leo, 1
Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), 527
transference, 478, 481
translation, 479, 578, 581–582, 586, 590
Trehan, Lehina, 493–494. See Guru Angad
tribes (tribal), 53, 71, 75–76, 112, 445, 451, 519, 612, 638, 649
Arab, 632–634, 636
Babas (Turkish), 637
Christian, 439
Daoist, 519–520
Ewe of Ghana, 112
Jain, 446, 449–450
Tswana, 101, 126–127, 302
Trinity, 669, 674
Trungpa, Chögyam, 480
Tswana, 101, 126–127, 302
Tu, Weiming, 551
Turkey, 36–37, 54, 415, 639, 742
Turner, Bryan, 681
Turner, Richard Brent, 646
Turner, Victor, 99, 330
Twain, Mark, 351
Tweed, Thomas A., 526
ulema, 640
Ullman, Chana, 216
ummah, 636
Umar (Caliph), 635
Umayyad period, 636
Unification Church (a.k.a. “Moonies”), 6, 142, 688–691, 713, 715, 720, 738–739, 742
Unitarian Universalist, 225
United Kingdom, 267, 300, 742, 745, 768
United Nations, 50, 56, 58, 644
Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 50, 440
University of California (Berkeley), 66, 471, 474
University of California (Santa Barbara), 473
University of Edinburgh, 213
University of Washington (Seattle), 471
Upanishads, 2
Uppsala, 614
Urapmin, 30, 101–102
urbanization, 27, 94, 148, 404, 411, 567
Uzbekistan, 746
Vanavasi Kalyan Ashrams, 438
van der Veer, Peter, 90, 104, 638
van Nieuwkerk, Karen, 309–310, 318, 667–686
Varieties of Religious Experience, 5, 297–298, 607, 609
(p. 803) Vecsey, Christopher, 92
Vedanta, 1
vegetarianism, 444, 449–450, 454, 456
Venerable Xuanhua, 469, 471, 474
Vietnam War, 470
Vincent, Peter, 67
vipassana, 474
Vishnu (Vishnava), 448, 490, 493
Viswa Hindu Parishad (VHP), 438–439
Viswanathan, Gauri, 434
Vivekananda (Swami), 1–2
waqf, 640
wali, 636
Wallace, Anthony F. C., 85–87, 103–104, 617
Wallace, B. Allan, 474
Walls, Andrew, 619
Wang, Chongyang, 515–516, 521
Warf, Barney, 67
Warner, R. Stephen, 141, 144, 200
Warring States Period, 563
Wars of Apostasy, 634
Watkins, Owen, 120
Weber, Max, 85, 89–90, 93, 103, 118, 273, 572, 642
Wesley, John, 607
Wiccans, 689
Witnessing, 97–98, 103, 670
Willems, Emilio, 93
Wilson, Pete, 471
Wilson, Thomas, 541
Wohlrab-Sahr, Monika, 310, 673, 675
Wood, Peter, 90
Woodhead, Linda, 151
Woodruff, Wilford (Mormon President), 762
Woods, Robert H., 151
World Parliament of Religions (Chicago), 1
worldview, 7, 16, 96–97, 143, 199, 312, 413–414, 477, 510, 517, 538, 548
worship, 76, 432, 469, 588
Chinese indigenous religions, 560–564, 567
Christianity, 586, 590
Confucianism, 541–547, 550
Hinduism, 431
Jewish, 586, 588–590
pagan, 614
wu, 571
Xavier, Francis, 380
yakshas, 448
Yang, C. K., 540, 557–559, 564, 567
Yang, Fenggang, 149–150
Yang, K. S., 570
Yemen, 641
Yijing (Classic of Changes), 527
yin-yang, 527
yoga, 1, 249, 328, 448, 453–456, 458, 501
Young, Brigham, 761–762, 764, 768, 773, 781n104
yuan fen, 568–571, 575n45
Zablocki, Benjamin, 722
zakat, 636, 653, 669
Zanzibar, 641
Zenana missions, 298–299
Zen, 330–331, 335, 467, 477, 479, 510, 527, 549. See Ch’an
Zhang, Daoling, 517
Zhejiang Province, 564
Zhongguo, 512
Zhu, Xi, 549
Zion, 759–763
Zoroastrianism, 74, 429–430