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date: 16 October 2019

(p. 639) Index

(p. 639) Index

Abdulmutallab, Umar Farouk, 521
absence channel, 134–135, 141–142
acculturation, assimilation and, 257, 383, 384, 386, 387, 394, 395
Act to Discourage the Immigration to This State of Persons Who Cannot Become Citizens (California), 435
Act to Prevent the Further Immigration of Chinese or Mongolians to This State (California), 435
Act to Protect Free White Labor Against Competition with Chinese Coolie Labor (California), 435
acute refugees, 40, 41
Adamic, Louis, 417
Adams, John, 275
Addams, Jane, 416–417
admissions policies
immigration, 253–256
terms of immigrant admission, 256–257
Advanced Passenger Information System, 586
advocacy groups, lobbying by, 333
Afghanistan, 59, 143, 524, 525
AFL-CIO, 332, 333, 534, 556–562, 564, 619
Africa
displaced population integration in, 66
female genital cutting practice in, 69
gender issues in the Cameroons, 489
large-scale migrations from, 143–144
and migration issues, 372
1968 Africanization policy in Kenya, 157
regionalism in, 584–585
African Americans
racial identity of, 444, 447, 448
relationships between immigrants and, 197, 198–201
in U.S. population, 285, 286
and Vietnamese immigrants, 399, 400
voting by, 181
women and domestic work, 193
African immigrants
U.S. immigration laws and increase in, 287–288, 291
and U.S. naturalization, 175, 280
visas for U.S. immigration for, 255
African Union (AU), 584
afro-descendent and indigenous peoples, 461
Agiprocessors Inc., 296
agribusiness lobby, 332, 333
Alabama, 430, 433, 488
Algeria, 109, 223
Al-Huda women's network, 226
Alien Friends Act of 1798, 275
al-Qaeda, 522, 523, 524, 525
al Shehi, Marwan, 524–525
al Turabi, Hassan, 524
al Zawahiri, Ayman, 523
Amalgamated Clothing and Textile Workers Union (ACTWU), 559
American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), 619
American Development Bank, 86
American Federation of Labor (AFL), 332, 333, 437, 534, 556–562, 564
American Health Care Association, 627
American Hotel and Lodging Association, 627
American Immigration Lawyers Association (AILA), 336, 624
Americanism, 415–416
American Legion, 333
American Protective Association (APA), 279
amnesty, 291, 293
amnesty programs, 622
Amsterdam Treaty, 1997, 536, 589
anchor babies, 257, 486
Andean Community, 585
Andean Labour Migration Instrument, 585
Angle, Sharon, 615, 633
Anglo-Americans, 462
anomie, 307
anti-Catholic movement, 278–279, 432, 433–434
anticipatory refugees, 40, 41
antidiscrimination laws, immigration and, 155
Anti-Federalists League (UK), 158
antigang, antiterror, and antidrug policies, 471
anti-immigrant radical Right parties, 154
anti-Semitism, 155, 285
Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996, U.S., 555, 624
APEC Business Mobility Group, 586
APEC Business Traveller Card, 586
Arab American organizations, 334
Arab immigrants, 292
Aristide, Jean-Baptiste, 92
Arizona, 430, 435
Arizona Taxpayers and Citizens Protection Act, 297
Armey, Dick, 624
arranged marriages, 225
Ashcroft, John, 292
Asia, 35
Asian Americans
assimilation of, 384–385
in civic and political activities, 176–177
gender and family issues, 494–496
interracial/interethnic marriages among, 392
racial identity of, 445, 446, 447
transnationally engaged, 183–184
voting by, 172, 179–180, 181
Asian American second generation
assimilaton and, 391–395
children of Vietnamese refugees, 399–405
(p. 640) Asian immigrants
and Africa Americans, 200
arrival in U.S., 286, 384, 432
exclusion of, 434–436
Protestant, 207–208
racism towards, 279–281, 430
U.S. immigration laws and increase in, 287–288
and U.S. naturalization, 175
in U.S. population, 285–286
Asian Indian Americans, 391, 392
Asian Indian occupational niches, 195
Asian Punjabis, South, 217
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), 366
Asiatic Barred Zone Act, 435
Assemblies of God in America, 208
assimilation, cultural, 89, 257, 383–385, 405–406
Asian American children, 391–395
Chinatown and Koreatown in Los Angeles, 396–399
downward assimilation, 249–250, 389, 390
multilevel social integration, 399–405
perspectives, 385–388
theory of segmented assimilation, 389–391
Vietnamese refugee children in New Orleans, 399–405
Assimilation in American Life: The Role of Race, Religion, and National Origins (Gordon), 418
Associated Builders and Contractors, 627
Association for American Universities, 333
astronaut families, 494–495
asylum
asylees, 39, 255
EU action on, 587, 588, 589
political, 514
Asylum and Immigration Act of 1996 (UK), 539–540, 541
Asylum and Migration Policy (EU), 536
asylum seekers, 296
British, 160, 539
from Central America, 289
from developed countries, 66
humanitarian visas for, 255–256
labor migration and, 85
labor unions and asylum policies, 536
asylum-seeking migration, 575
asylum shopping, 364–365
Atlanta, Georgia, 30
Atta, Mohamed, 524, 525
attitudes. See immigration attitudes
Australia
as destination for migrants, 35
effect of immigration on employment in, 111
immigration surplus in, 115
and impact of immigration on wages, 110
jus soli citizenship in, 257
One Nation Party, 310, 311
Vietnamese migrant homes in, 222
visa point system in, 254
Austria
effect of immigration on employment in, 111
radical Right party in, 155, 165, 167
Austrian Freedom Party (FPÖ), 165, 167, 310, 311
authorized immigrants, 39
Balkans, 116, 365
Balladur, Edouard, 163
Bangladeshi Americans, 392
banking industry, remittance business and world, 86
Barber, Brendan, 543
beggar-thy-neighbor policies, 368
Belgium, 178
Belgium's Royal Commission on Policy towards Immigrants, 165
“beneficial brain gain,” 134
Bene Israel immigrants, 223
bifocal vision approach, with transborder migrants, 467
bilateral approaches to managing migration, 263–266
bilingual education, 203
bin Laden, Osama, 523, 524
birthright citizenship, 174, 256–257, 362–363
blackness, 462
black utility heuristic, 444
Blair, Tony, 160
Bollywood movies, 234–235
Bolshevik Revolution, 56
border enforcement
border control and the economy, 294–296
border crossing cards, 295
border passes, 295
of EU's borders, 258
U.S.-Canadian border, 258
U.S. immigration policies and, 29, 31
U.S.-Mexico border, 258, 267, 285, 292–293, 470, 471, 472, 622–623
border hawks, 618, 626
Border Patrol, U.S., 258, 293, 295, 298, 335, 518, 625, 631
borders
border crossings, and borderlands, 459–460
colonial, 460–462
international and national, 54
regional borders within national borders, 463–466
smuggled illegal border crossers, 518
Border Security and Immigration Act of 2007, U.S., 561, 629
Bosnian women, 225
Boston, Massachusetts, 82, 198, 203, 425
bottom-up regionalism, 581–582
boundaries
between developed and less-developed countries, 581
migration and crossing, 594–597
boundary buildup, 581
Bourne, Randolph, 417
Box, John, 284
Bracero program, 265, 289, 358, 470, 484, 535, 553, 557, 558, 562, 620
“brain circulation,” 132
“brain drain,” 132, 585, 601
“brain gain,” 134
Brazilian immigrants, 296, 485
Bretton Woods system, 368
British Conservative Party, 156–161
British Labour Party, 156–161
British National Front (BNF), 158
British National Party (BNP), 158, 159, 160–161, 310
British Pakistani wedding rituals, 219
British South Asian immigrants, 219
British West Indies, 286, 288
Brown, Gordon, 161
Buchanan, Patrick, 291, 353, 627, 632
Budapest Process regional dialogue, 575, 580, 582
Buddhism, 207
(p. 641) Buddhist temples, 207
Burgess, John F., 420–421
Burma, 55
Bush, George H. W., 290, 620
Bush, George W., 293, 298, 372, 440, 470, 555
and immigration reform, 615, 616, 617, 623, 626–630, 632, 633
business lobby, 332–333
Business Roundtable, 336, 619
Byrd, Robert, 629
California
efficiency gains from immigration in, 118–119
exclusion of Chinese immigrants in, 435
farm workers in, 289–290
fiscal impact of immigration in, 120
Hindu homes in Southern, 222
illegal immigrants in, 337
Latina families in, 497
Mexican migrants in, 31, 463–465
Proposition 187, 290–291, 310, 325, 441, 554
Silicon Valley, 117, 145
Vietnamese-owned nail salons in, 193
Vietnamese voters in Southern, 181
California Foreign Miners’ License Tax, 435
California Police Tax, 435
California Supreme Court, 435
California Vagrancy Act, 1855, 437
Cambodian Americans, 392
Cambodian immigrants, 396
camp management cluster, UN's, 60
Canada
effect of immigration on employment in, 111
and guest worker programs, 265
immigrant integration in, 257, 258, 439
immigrant selection in Quebec, 606
and impact of immigration on wages, 108, 109, 110
international migrants in, 2
Italian Canadians, 228
jus soli and jus sanguinis citizenship rights, 257
and naturalization in U.S., 174–175
naturalized citizens in, 174, 175
political participation among Canadian immigrants, 439
traveler partnership with U.S., 266
U.S.-Canadian border, 258
visa point system in, 254, 540
wage inequality in, 112
Caribbean
female domestic workers, 193
immigration and British colonies in the, 286, 288
regionalism in the, 583–584, 585–586
Caribbean Community (CARICOM), 586
Caribbean Single Market and Economy (CSME), 586
Cariceri, Don, 297
Cartagena Declaration, 57–58
Carter, Jimmy, 288, 619
Case, Clifford P., 412
Castro, Fidel, 288, 513
Catholic Charities, 400
Catholic Church, 207, 217, 228
Catholic cults, 229
Catholic diaspora, 227–229
Catholic immigrants, 227–229, 277–279
anti-Catholic movement and, 278–279, 432, 433–434
Celler, Emanuel, 287
Census Bureau, U.S.
immigrant voting data, 179
2000 Census, 117–118, 483
Central America, 288, 289, 291, 520, 521
chain migration, 288
Chamber of Commerce, U.S., 619, 627
Changing Face of Home: Transnational Lives of the Second Generation, The (Levitt and Waters), 95
chaorders, 227
chattel slavery, 432–434
Chavez, Cesar, 559, 617
Chicago, Illinois, 205
children of immigrants. See second generation; women; women and children
ChileGlobal, 145
China, 80
Chinese student returnees, 141
human smuggling from, 516, 517, 518, 520–521
inducements for return to, 146
large-scale migrations from, 135, 143
Chinatown, in Los Angeles, 396–399
Chinatown Service Center (CSC), 397
Chinese Americans, 386, 391, 392
Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association, 441
Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882, 280, 286, 391, 435
Chinese immigrants
arrival to U.S., 286, 391, 434
exclusion of, 440–441
gender and family issues, 494–495
in NYC garment industry, 196–197
and racial classification, 434–436
racism against, 279–280
in restaurant business, 191–192
smuggled, 516, 517, 518, 520–521
transnational engagement among, 184
women in low-skilled jobs, 194, 196
Chinese restaurants, 191–192
Chirac, Jacques, 163, 164
Christian Coalition, 624–625
Christian immigrants, 207
Churches’ Committee for Migrants in Europe, 165
circular migration, 39, 85
Citizens Committee on Displaced Persons (CCDP), 56
citizenship
based on ancestry and blood lineage, 257
birthright, 174, 256–257
for children of immigrants, 171, 174
democratic, 606–610
derivative, 485
dual, 146, 609
immigrant, 421–422
migration and, 594–611
naturalization and dual, 146
U.S. immigration laws and applications for, 291
visas and eligibility for, 256–257
wages and immigrants who marry U.S. citizens, 108
Citizenship and Immigration Services, U.S. Bureau of, 173, 258
civic and community activities, immigrant participation in, 176–177
civic education, 413–415, 417, 418–421
(p. 642) Civil War, U.S., 278, 431, 433
classical assimilation theory, 388, 389
Cleveland, Grover, 283
client politics, interest groups and, 328
climate change, 43, 53, 71, 580
Clinton, Bill, 180, 289, 291, 555, 578, 616, 623–625, 632
closed territorial societies, 596–597
cluster leadership approach, 60–61
CNN, 291, 305, 617
Code de la Nationalité Francaise (CNF), 163
codevelopment agreements, 266
coethnics
coethnic economies, 393
coethnic political candidates, 447
jobs and coethnic networks, 196–197
U.S.-born, 181
Cold War, 56, 57–58, 553
international relations and, 349, 350, 352, 358, 359, 360, 368
post-Cold War era, 56, 58–61, 142, 353, 579
collaborative leadership approach, 60
colocation, 139
Colombia, 79, 82, 143
Colombo Process regional dialogue, 575, 580
colonial borders, 460–462
Commission on Immigration Reform, U.S., 624
Commission on Racial Equality (UK), 165
Common Market, 587, 589
Commonwealth Immigrants Act, 1962 (UK), 157, 539
communism
collapse of, 58
French Communist Party, 162, 548
community, culture and, 216
community-based organizations (CBOs), 397
comparative advantage theory, 362
comprehensive immigration reform (CIR), 614–615, 621, 622, 630–631, 633, 634
concentrated benefits and concentrated costs, interest groups and, 327–328
concentrated benefits and diffuse costs, interest groups and, 327–328
concentration camps, 57
Confederation Francaise Democratique du Travail (CFDT), 549–550
Confederation Generale du Travail (France), 161, 548–551
Confederation of British Industry (CBI), 542
conflict-induced displacement, 56, 70–72
early twentieth century, 56–57
needs of conflict- and disaster-induced forced migrants, 67–70
post-Cold War challenges, 58–61
refugees, decolonization, and the Cold War, 57–58
conflicts
between immigrant minorities and African Americans, 198, 200–201
between physicians and immigrant patients, 206
identity-based, 249
immigration and economic conflict, 247–248
Korean-African American, 200–201
Latino-African American, 199–200, 201
Congressional Budget Office, U.S., 289
Congressional Hispanic Caucus, 630
Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO), 332, 333, 534, 556–562, 564
consciousness, racial group, 446–448
conservatism, 326–327, 439
Constitution, U.S., 411
drafting of, 274
Fourteenth Amendment, 171, 257, 432
construction industry, 34, 295, 537
construction lobby, 332, 333
contact with immigrants, immigration attitudes and, 304
control
border control and the economy, 294–296
immigration and migration, 258–261, 598
Controlling Immigration: A Global Perspective (Cornelius et al.), 573
Corker, Bob, 629
cosmic race, 461
cosmopolitanism, 489
Costa Rica, 489
costs and benefits distributions, interests groups and, 327–328
Counter-Terrorism Committee Executive Directorate (UN), 523
coyotes (smugglers), 295, 471, 518
cricket, 219
crime, 511–512
human smuggling, 369, 471, 515–519
migration as a factor of, 519–521
and terrorism as factors of migration, 512–515
Criminal Alien Program, U.S., 259
criminalization provisions, and U.S. immigration policy, 171
criminal networks, 143, 516
Crocker, E. P., 279
cross-border connections, transnationalism and, 75, 79, 81, 84–88
cross-national spatial mobility, 135, 142
C-TPAT, 259
Cuban Adjustment Act of 1966, 288
Cuban Americans, 181, 445
Cuban-Haitian entrants, 288
Cuban immigrants, 109, 114
and African Americans, 199–200
Catholic, 228
and political effects of migration from Cuba, 135, 142
political participation in U.S. politics, 440
U.S. immigration policies and increase in, 288–289
cultural pluralism, 416–418
culture
as discourse, 220
as embodiment, 219
as a field of relatedness, agency, and power, 217–219
immigrant artistic creativity and the culture industries, 233–236
public festivals, processions, and carnivals, 227–233
rituals, 221–227
sacralization of homes, 222–223
translocation of, 215–216
culture of migration, 487–490
cumulative causation theory, 36–37, 41
Current Population Survey, U.S., 392
Customs and Border Patrol (CBP), U.S., 622
Cyprus, 60
Danish Progress and People's Parties, 311
Davis, David, 160
day laborers, 297
deaths, refugee/migrant, 68–69, 471
(p. 643) Debre immigration laws (France), 547, 549, 550
debt bondage, 516, 517, 520–521
decolonization, 57–58
de Gaulle, Charles, 161
de Gotari, Raul Salinas, 372
demand-based systems, employment-based visas as, 253
democratic citizenship, 606–610
democratic cultural pluralism, 417–418
Democratic Party, U.S., 180, 181, 291
immigration reform and, 614–635
demographic aging, 34
demographic transition, 32
denaturalization, 173
Deng Xiaoping, 147
Denmark
education and immigration issues in, 114
fiscal impact of immigration in, 120, 121
immigration control measures in, 260
visa point system in, 254
voting rights for immigrants in, 178
Department of Justice (DOJ), U.S., 292
deportation, 172, 173, 259, 261, 264, 265, 296, 471, 520, 631
depression, 69
derivative citizenship, 485
deterritorialization, 458
deterritorialized nation-states, 77–78, 354
developed countries
asylum seekers in, 66
demand for immigrants from, 34–35
psychosocial service programs in, 69
wages and low-skilled immigrants in, 110
development, migration and, 132–141
developmental pluralism, 421–422
Dewey, John, 414
diaspora channel, 135–136
diaspora cultivation, 92
diaspora effect, 139
diaspora engagement, 91–92
diaspora human capital, 139–140
diaspora networks, 139, 145
diasporas, 81, 97
Catholic diaspora, 227–229
and effects on political economy, 142
and international criminal networks, 143
nation-states and, 78
diaspora stock-flow model, 139
Dickstein, Samuel, 286
diffuse benefits and concentrated costs, interest groups and, 327–328
diffuse benefits and diffuse costs, interest groups and, 327–328
diffuse reciprocity, multilateral, 361
digital border crossing, 473–474
Dillingham Commission, 283–284
Dillingham, William, 283
Directory for Population and Migrations, 1966 (France), 161
disequilibrium, labor market, 32, 33
Displaced Persons’ Act, U.S., 412–413
displaced persons (DPs), 553, 556
displacement
conflict-induced displacement, 56–61, 70–72
natural-disaster-induced displacement, 61–65, 70–72
distributive justice, global, 603–606
diversity visa, 255, 290
division of labor, 490, 494
Dobbs, Lou, 291, 305, 617, 627
documents verification, 260
Dole, Bob, 632, 633
domestic human capital, 139–140
domestic justice, 597, 599, 607
domestic spatial mobility, 135, 142
domestic violence, 484
domestic workers, 193–194
Filipina Catholic, 223–224
Irish immigrant women, 490
West Indian, 193, 194
Dominican immigrants, 79, 82, 94, 183
Dominican women, 489, 497
“don't touch my buddy” campaign (France), 155
Dorgan, Byron, 629
Douglas, Paul, 557
downward assimilation, 249–250, 389, 390
Drachler, Norman, 421
drivers’ licenses, 297, 439, 627
drugs
and deportation of Salvadoran immigrants, 471–472
and international criminal networks, 143
Mexican drug-trafficking organizations, 520
dual citizenship, 146, 609
dual track visas, 256, 267
Dutch disease effects, 139
Dutch National Bureau against Racism, 165
earned legalization system, 263
earned citizenship, 617, 622
earnings
earnings inequality, 28, 112–113
effects of immigration on, 107–111
Eastland, James, 619
Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), 584, 585
Protocol Relating to Free Movement of Persons and the Right of Residence and Establishment, 584
economic conflict, immigration and, 247–248
economic downturn, 2007, 2, 268
economic effects of emigration on sending countries, 131–132, 146–147
effects on political economy, 141–144
international architecture and destination country policy, 144–145
overview of migration and development, 132–141
remittances and development, 136–140
send-country policies, 145–146
the return channel, 140–141
economic effects of migration, 105–106, 121–123
earnings, 107–111
earnings inequality, 112–113
economic growth, 116–117
efficiency gains, 118–119
employment and unemployment, 111–112
fiscal impacts, 119–121
labor market effects, 106–107
macroeconomic effects, 115–116
price effects, 114–115
self-employment, 117–118
skill and output mix, 113–114
economic growth
effects of immigration on, 116–117
migration and, 27
(p. 644) economic immigrants, 256, 372
economic preferences, on immigration policy, 326
economic protectionists, 617
economic regionalism, 576–579
economic stagnation, migration and, 27, 35
economic visas, 253, 254
economies of scale, efficiency gains and, 119
economy, U.S.
border control and, 295–296
dependence on illegal immigration, 617–618
Ecuadorian immigrants, 193, 461
education, 120
Catholic schools, 278–279
and Chinese children in California schools, 435
and cultural assimilation, 387, 388
foreign-educated returnees, 141
higher-education levels of Asian Americans, 392, 394
of immigrants in Chinatown and Koreatown in Los Angeles, 396, 397–398
and immigration issues in Denmark, 114
progressive, 413–415, 417
public schools, 198, 199, 202–204, 417
and support for immigration, 302–303
of Vietnamese Americans, 400, 403
education lobby, 333
efficiency gains, of immigration, 118–119
egalitarianism, 307
Egypt, 525
Egyptian Islamic Jihad, 523
Eisenhower, Dwight D., 286
electoral participation, immigrant, 177–182
Elementary Forms of Religious Life, The (Durkheim), 219
elites, 135
El Salvador, 63
emergencies, humanitarian, 54, 55, 67–70
“emerging gateway” metropolitan areas, 30
emigrant stocks, 133
emigration, 250, 264
costs associated with, 348
and diaspora engagement, 92
early Swedish emigration to U.S., 33–34
effects on sending countries, 131–147
and free movement, 600–601
Indian emigration to the U.S., 139
from Latin America, 35
within sub-Saharan Africa, 35
employer sanctions, and hiring of unauthorized immigrants, 29, 31
employer sponsorship, 253–254
employment
employer sanctions and workplace enforcement, 538, 618
employment eligibility screening system, 260
entrepreneurial immigrants, 117–118, 139, 191–193
immigration attitudes and, 303, 308–309
migrant inflows and job types, 113
migration and economic effects of unemployment and, 111–112
employment-based visas, 253–254, 256, 534, 556, 629, 630
empowerment of women, 493, 496
enclave economies, 28, 118
enforcement and prevention, immigration, 258–261
enforcement gap, 268
English as a second language (ESL), 203, 445
English-language ability
barriers in public schools, 203
cultural assimilation and, 386, 389
job placements and, 191
of Vietnamese American children, 400
entered without inspection (EWIs), 622–623
entrepreneurship
among return migrants, 140
immigration and, 117–118, 139, 191–193, 492–493
interest groups and entrepreneurial politics, 328, 334
environmental disasters, 62–64
environmentally induced migration, 42
environmental refugees, 42
equilibrium-restoring migration, 32
Essential Worker Immigration Coalition (EWIC), 627
ethnic and national origin, visas issued on, 254–255
ethnic cleansing, 43, 67, 141
ethnic diversity, 417
ethnic enclave communities
Chinatown and Koreatown in Los Angeles, 396–399
Vietnamese children in New Orleans, 399–405
ethnic enclave economies, 28, 118
ethnic group-employer coalition, 336
Ethnic Heritages Act, 419
Ethnic Heritage Studies Centers, 418–421
ethnic occupational niches, 191–197, 492–493
ethnic tourism of immigrants, 86
ethnoburbs, 393, 398
ethnocentrism, 305, 306
ethnoracial groups, 196
ethnoracial identity, 446
ethnoracial relations, 197–201
eugenics movement, 282, 284, 432, 436
Eurobarometer, 307
Europe
Arab Spring of 2011, 260
documents verification in, 260
effect of immigration on employment in, 111–112
fiscal impacts of immigration in, 119
immigrant self-employment rates in, 118
immigration policy in, 249
immigration surplus in, 115
labor dilemmas in, 535–538
large-scale migrations from, 135, 143
low worker mobility in, 119
and naturalization in U.S., 175
naturalizations in, 173–174
political presence of immigrants in, 172
transnational engagement among immigrants in, 184–185
voting rights for immigrants in, 178
European Catholics, 433
European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), 366, 587
European Commission (EC), 165, 166, 167, 518, 587
European Community, 362, 541
European Convention of Human Rights, 549
European Council, 166, 167
European Court of Justice, 587
European integration, 586–587
European mass migration, nineteenth- and early twentieth-century, 33–34
European Parliament (EP), 159, 166
European return fund, 146
European social fund, 258
European Trade Union Confederation, 541
European Trade Union Council, 536
(p. 645) European Union (EU)
Asylum and Migration Policy, 536
blue card program, 267, 371
borders of, 581
codevelopment agreements, 266
effect of immigration on employment in, 111, 112
efficiency gains from immigration in, 118
fiscal impact of immigration in, 120–121
freedom-of-movement clauses in EU treaties, 363
illegal migrants in, 518
immigration control measures in, 260
immigration surplus in, 115, 116
Integration of Third Country Nations fund, 258
labor dilemmas in, 536–537
migration issues and, 358, 359, 363, 364–365, 366, 367, 370, 371, 372
organized labor and, 544
Posted Workers Directive, 537
Racial Equality Directive, 154, 165–167
readmission agreements, 266
regionalism in, 576, 578, 586–589
Schengen area, 358, 359, 363, 364–365, 366, 368, 589, 598
single market integration, 576, 578
Temporary Protection Directive, 63
European voluntary workers (EVWs), 539
Evangelical churches, 208
E-Verify electronic employment eligibility screen system (U.S.), 260, 261, 628, 630, 631
exclusion laws, racial, 440–441, 462
Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882, 280, 286, 391, 435
exit revolution, 601
exit theory, 601
Exit, Voice and Loyalty: Responses to Decline in Firms, Organizations, and States (Hirschman), 141
expatriate voting, 89, 93–94
expulsion, 598
extreme Right parties, 310
factor-price equalization, 348, 349
families
Asian immigrant, 394–395, 494–496
matrifocal, 496
mixed legal status families, 484
naturalization, marital status, and children, 424–425
remittances to family members, 137
transnational, 493–498
Vietnamese Americans, 399–405, 496
family-based visas, 254, 255, 629
family businesses, immigrant women in, 493
family migration, 485, 575
family reunification policies, 164, 249, 288, 484, 534–535, 536, 548, 560
farm workers, 37, 285, 289–290, 557, 558, 559, 617
Farm Workers Association (FWA), 559
fascism, 56
fatalities, migrant border, 471
federal regulation, of immigration, 279–280
Federation for American Immigration Reform (FAIR), 293, 332, 333, 334, 627
feedback effects, of migrant remittances, 35–36
female circumcision, 225, 485
female genital cutting practice, 69
female henna rituals, 224–225
female migrants, 2, 483
femininity, and culture of migration, 487–490
feminization of migration, 482–484, 491
fertility rates, 32, 121, 144
festivals and holidays, immigrant, 222, 226–227
few defeat the many idea, the, interest groups and, 327
Fiji, 134
Filipina immigrant women
migration of, 484–485, 487
rituals of Catholic, 223–224
Filipino Americans, 391, 392
Filipino immigrants
gender roles and, 486–487
racism against, 281
rituals of, 229
films, Bollywood movies, 234–235
finance lobby, 332, 333
Finland, 178
Finnish Aliens Act, 63, 64
fiscal effects, of immigration, 119–121, 248
Flemish-Belgium Vlaams Blok, 311
flight, 66, 68
Florida
Catholic Haitian immigrants in South, 207
Cuban American voters in, 181
immigrant voters in, 180
See also Miami
food
for displaced populations, 68
in immigrant rituals, 222, 223
raid on food facility, 296
food businesses, immigrant-owned
Chinese restaurants, 191–192
Korean greengrocers, 192–193
forced marriages, 225
forced migration, 38, 39, 43, 53–55
of convicts, 513
forced migrants in Africa and Middle East, 372
life cycle of, 65–67
needs of conflict- and disaster-induced, 67–70
slave trade, 144
forced transnationalism, 472, 474
Ford Foundation, 334
Ford, Gerald, 632
foreign direct investment (FDI), 349
Foreign Influences in American Life (Bowers), 416
forever foreigner image, 394
Fox, Liam, 159
Fox, Vicente, 372, 626
France
displays of cultural differences in, 257
expatriate voting in, 94
family reunification issues in, 164, 249
fiscal impact of immigration in, 121
headscarves issue in, 485–486
immigration and political parties in, 155, 161–165
immigration control measures in, 260
and impact of immigration on wages, 108, 109
jus soli citizenship, 257
Malian immigrants in, 485
naturalized citizens in, 173, 174
organized labor and immigration policy in, 545–552
Paris uprisings, 154
rituals of Sufi immigrant women in, 223
Francophone immigrants, 606
freedom of exit, 601–603
(p. 646) freedom of movement/free movement, 363, 536, 584–585, 586, 587, 589, 597–603, 609
free migration, 39
free migration area, 371
free-rider problem, interest group, 327
free-trade coalitions, 359
free-trade policies, 360
free-trade zones, 34, 371
free white persons, 274, 281, 282, 411, 433, 462
French Communist Party, 162
French Confection (TV documentary), 162
French Democratic Confederation of Labour (CFDT), 161, 162
French General Confederation of Labour (CGT), 161
French Revolution, 274, 275
French Socialist Party, 162, 163
Friends or Strangers: The Impact of Immigrants on the U.S. Economy (Borjas), 352
Frontex, 258
Front National (FN), 155, 162–165, 309, 310, 547, 550–551
funerary rituals, 218–219, 224
fusion of the races, 461
Gallegly, Elton, 624, 625
Gangmasters Licensing Act (UK), 543
gangs, Salvadoran, 471–472, 520
Garifuna society in Honduras, 496
garment industry, 196–197
Gastarbeiter program, 358, 484
gateway states, 118–119, 438
gender-based violence, 68
gendered immigrant workplace, 490–493
gender, family, and migration
feminization of global migration flows, 482–484
gendered immigrant workplace, 490–493
gender, households, and transnational families, 493–498
gender, the state, and the governance of migration, 484–487
immigration attitudes and gender, 303
masculinity, femininity, and the culture of migration, 487–490
stories about, 478–482
gender hierarchies, 489, 491–492, 495
gender ideology, 494
gender inequality, 495
gender oppression, 497
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), 358, 359, 361, 363, 364, 366
Geneva Convention, 1950, 347, 364
Geneva Conventions on Armed Conflict, 59
Geneva Refugee Convention, 1951, 602
genocide, 43
Gentlemen's Agreement, 1907–1908, 281
geography, immigration attitudes and, 305
Georgia, 199, 201, 430
German Democratic Republic, 305
Germany
Catholic immigrants from, 277
effect of immigration on employment in, 111
ethnic heritage visas, 254–255
family reunification issues in, 164, 249
fiscal impact of immigration in, 121
Gastarbeiter program in, 358, 484
immigration and political parties in, 155
and impact of immigration on wages, 108–109, 110
international migrants in, 2, 25
jus sanguinis and jus soli citizenship rights, 257
migrant mobility in, 119
naturalization criteria in West Germany, 356
naturalized citizens in, 173, 174
racism against German immigrants, 282
returnees from, 140
self-employed immigrants in, 118
terrorists in, 523, 524–525
Ghanaian migrants, 218–219
Gilchrist, James, 298, 627
Gilded Age (1870s-1900), 279, 281, 563
Gilpin, Robert, 350
Gingrich, Newt, 624
glass-ceiling barriers, 394
global care work, 492
global city, 354
global distributive justice, 603–606
Global Entry, 259
global governance, migration and, 360–365
globalization
digital border crossing and, 473–474
of domestic politics, 523
organized labor and, 544–545
transnationalism and, 78, 80, 97, 353–357
globalization losers, 634
global mobility, 521–522
Global North, 34, 43
Globalscot, 145
Global South, 34, 43
goods and services
immigration and price effects on, 114–115
immigration and production of, 113
Gore, Al, 180, 632–633
government lobby, 333
Graham, Lindsey, 630–631
Grant, Madison, 282
Grassley, Charles, 629
Greaser Act, 437
greasers, 437
Great Britain. See United Kingdom
Great Depression, 33, 285, 432, 437
Great Famine, 277
Great Recession, 268, 295
Greece, 120
Greenberg, Stan, 629
green cards, 267, 291, 335, 439
gross domestic product (GDP), 115, 119, 120, 133, 308
gross national product (GNP), 115
group identity, 442–448
Growing up American: How Vietnamese Children Adapt to Life in the United States (Zhou and Bankston), 399–405
Guardian, 159–160
Guatemalan immigrants, 184, 396, 498
guest workers, 249
Bracero program, 265, 289, 358, 470, 484, 535, 553, 557, 558, 562, 620
programs for, 265, 372, 534, 553, 622
as transnational citizens, 355
Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement, 54, 59, 62
Guiterrez, Luis, 617, 630
Gulf War, 523
H-1B visas, 117, 267, 332, 335, 484
H4 visas, 484
Hague, 589
(p. 647) Hahn, James, 181–182
Haider, Jörg, 165, 167, 310
Haiti, 63, 92, 143, 275
Haitian immigrants, Catholic, 207
Haitian Refugee and Immigrant Fairness Act of 1998, 289
Hamburg cell, 524, 525
Handbook on Voting from Abroad (IDEA), 93
Hanson, Pauline, 310
Hapsburg Empire, 56
Harlem Désire, 155
Hart-Celler Act of 1965, U.S., 286–287, 289, 384, 392, 534, 535, 553, 620
Hassidic Jews, 227
Hayworth, J. D., 291–292
headscarves, 485–486
health care
for displaced populations, 68
hospitals, 204–206
immigrant nurses, 194–195, 204, 491
health-care industry, West Indian women in, 194–195
health insurance, 206
Heath, Edward, 158
hegemonic stability, 358
henna rituals, female, 224–225
herbs and remedies, 206
High Commission for Refugees, 56
high land-to-labor ratios, 143
Highly Skilled Migrants Program (UK), 540
high-skilled immigrants
economic growth and, 116–117
migration of, 85, 108, 135
self-employment rates among, 117
hijab (veil), 225
Hindu homes, sacralization of, 222
Hinduism, 207
Hindu temples, 207
Hispanic immigrants
and African Americans, 198–200
as business owners, 118
in Chinatown and Koreatown in Los Angeles, 396, 397, 399
in construction industry, 295
legalization issues and, 617
in raids, 296, 472–473
in U.S. population, 285, 286
Hispanic label, 462, 466
Hispanic organizations, 334
Hispanic voters, 172, 179, 291, 441, 630, 632–634
Hmong Americans, 392
Home Bound: Filipino American Lives across Cultures, Communities, and Countries (Espiritu), 484–485
Homeland Security, U.S. Department of, 470, 514, 522, 627
home-making rituals, immigrant, 222–223, 224
homo economicus, 362, 371
Honduras, 63, 496
Hong Kong, 35
hospitality lobby, 332, 333
hospitals, 204–206
Hotel Employees and Restaurant Employees Union (HERE), 559
hourglass economy, 247, 388
housing
effects of immigration on rent and, 114–115
and racially based zoning laws, 440
Howard, Michael, 160
Hoxha, Enver, 598
Huckabee, Mike, 294
Hughes, Bishop John, 278
human capital stock, 134, 135–136
humanitarian emergencies, 54, 55, 67–70
humanitarian immigrants, 256
humanitarian intervention, 59
humanitarianism, 307
humanitarian law, 59
humanitarian migration, 251
humanitarian refugees, 257–258
humanitarian visas, 255–256
human rights
and humanitarian law, 59, 251
immigration attitudes and, 307
human smuggling, 70, 295, 369, 471, 515–519, 520–521, 522
human trafficking, 70, 515, 516, 517
Huntington, Collis, 279
Huntington, Samuel, 292
hybrid films and books, culturally, 235–236
hybrid systems, economic visas as, 254
Iceland, 178
identity politics, 430–431
illegal immigrants
crossing U.S.-Mexico border, 469–470, 471
designation as, 54
fiscal effects of, 120, 248
in U.S. and Europe, 517–518
illegal immigration, 336, 337, 515–516, 614–635
Illegal Immigration Reform and Responsibility Act (IIRIRA), 1996, U.S., 554–555, 625
immigrant citizens in the U.S., 410, 426
civic education and multicultural and global nationhood, 418–421
cultural pluralism and public image from the Great Depression to the Cold War, 416–418
immigrant citizen and rise of state-empowered developmental pluralism, 421–422
the immigrant community and naturalization, 422–423
the immigrant in a revolutionary republic, 411–412
local naturalization environments, 425–426
marital status and children, 424–425
progressive civic transculturalism, 413–416
reinvention of the refugee images, 412–413
return migration, 423
immigrant emergencies, 293
immigrant entrepreneurs, 117–118, 139, 140, 191–193, 492–493
immigrant friends, 304
immigrant-headed households, welfare program benefits in, 120–121
immigrant nurses, 194–195, 204, 491
immigrant participation, 171–172, 185–186
civic and community engagement, 176–177
electoral participation, 177–182
naturalization patterns, 172–176
transnational engagement, 182–185
immigrant reception, 438–441
immigrant rights groups, 334–335
immigrant settlement industry, 439
Immigrants National Commission (France), 162
(p. 648) immigrant transnationalism, 74–76, 97–98
development of, 76–83
everyday cross-border activity, 84–88
home-country connection and immigrant offspring, 94–97
home-country responses, 91–94
homeland politics, 88–91
importance of politics and place, 83–97
Immigrant Workers Project (AFL-CIO), 561
immigrant workplace, gendered, 490–493
immigration
anti-immigrant sentiment, 290–292
border control and the economy, 294–296
federal regulation, 1875–1920s, 279–280
immigrants, 1830s-1880s, 277–279
a new nation and, 274–275
and organized labor, 532–566
racism and, 281–285
renewed, 285–290
renewed anxiety about, 290–294
state regulation of, 276–277, 297–298
and transborder communities, 469–473
Immigration Act of 1917 (U.S.), 435
Immigration Act of 1965 (U.S.), 286–287
Immigration Act of 1971 (UK), 158, 539
Immigration Act of 1990 (U.S.), 290, 294, 336, 559, 624
Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE), U.S., 259, 470, 622, 631
Immigration and Nationality Act (INA), 1990, 63, 620
Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS), U.S., 289, 555, 557, 627
immigration and organized labor, 532–533, 564–566
dilemmas in the U.S., 534–535
France, 545–552
labor dilemmas of Western Europe, 535–537
policy dilemmas common to the U.S. and Europe, 537–538
United Kingdom, 538–545
United States, 553–564
Immigration, Asylum and Nationality Act of 2006 (UK), 540, 542, 543
immigration attitudes, explaining, 301–302, 312–313
across countries, 307–308
over time, 308–309
psychological approaches, 305–307
socioeconomic approaches, 302–305
immigration choisie, 548, 551
immigration control, 258–261
immigration, crime, and terrorism, 511–512, 526–527
crime and terrorism as factors of migration, 512–515
human smuggling, 515–519
migration as a factor of crime, 519–521
migration, mobility, and terrorism, 521–526
immigration laws
anti-Catholic, 433–434
British, 164
France's 2006, 164
race-based, 432–433, 440
immigration policy, 29, 31, 245–247, 252–253
admissions policies, 253–256
antigang, antiterror, and antidrug policies in, 471
bilateral and multilateral approaches to managing migration, 263–266
explaining, 266–268
immigrant integration, 257–258
immigrant legalization, 261–263
immigration and economic conflict, 247–248
immigration and international interests, 250–251
immigration and political culture, 248–250
interest group politics and, 324–339
migration control, 258–261
multidimensional politics of immigration policymaking, 251–252
organized labor and, 532–566
public opinion and, 311–312
racial classification and, 429–449
terms of admission, 256–257
immigration preferences, 326–329
Immigration Reform and Control Act, 1986 (IRCA), U.S., 29, 31, 263, 289–290, 291, 293, 372, 484, 543, 554, 559, 560, 619, 620–621, 629, 635
immigration reform in U.S., 614–616
Bush and, 626–630
Clinton and, 623–625
five barriers to, 616–623
Obama and, 614, 615, 616, 630–631
Immigration Restriction League, 283
immigration surplus, 115–116
Immigration Works USA, 298
impelled migration, 39
income
of immigrants in Chinatown and Koreatown in Los Angeles, 396
immigration attitudes and, 303
of Vietnamese Americans, 400
income gains, 110–111, 133, 136, 137
income inequality, 28, 33, 37, 112–113
India
Bollywood movies, 234–235
citizenship rights in, 257
female nurses from, 484, 491
immigration to U.S. after World War II, 286
Indian emigration to the U.S., 139
Indian GDP, 139
Indian returnees, 140, 141
inducements for return to, 146
large-scale migrations from, 135, 143
Indian Ocean slave trade, 144
indigenous peoples, 461
indivisibility, multilateral, 361
Indonesia, 55, 392
industrial restructuring, demand for immigrants and, 34
Industrial Revolution, 33
Inheriting the City (Kasinitz et al.), 96
in-migration and immigration, 28
In Mortal Danger: The Battle for America's Border and Security (Tancredo), 292
Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (IDEA), 93, 94
integration
of displaced populations, 66–67
immigrant, 257–258, 439
Integration of the European Second Generation (TIES), 184–185
Integration of Third Country Nations (INTI) fund, 258
intensity interest, 328
(p. 649) Interagency Standing Committee (IASC) Guidance Note on Using the Cluster Approach, 60–61
interest group coalitions, 329–330
interest group politics and immigration policy, 324–326, 337–339
creation of individual preferences, 326–327
from preferences to organization and from organization to action, 333–337
how groups seek to influence policy, 329–330
how individual preferences are translated into organized groups, 327–329
interest group effectiveness, 330–331
preferences and groups in U.S. immigration politics, 331–333
interethnic
conflict, 196
racial relations in U.S., 197
Intergovernmental Conference on Asylum, Refugees and Migration in Europe, North America, and Australia, 582
internally displaced persons (IDPs), 54, 55, 59–60, 61, 62, 66–67, 68
internal migrant designation, 54
internal migration, 71, 135, 489–490, 514
international borders, persons crossing, 54
International Centre for Migration Policy Development (ICMPD), 582
international criminal networks, 143
international division of labor, 490
international interests, immigration and, 250–251
internationalists, 604
International Labour Office (ILO), 359, 363, 364, 365
International Labour Organization (ILO), 517, 542
International Ladies Garment Workers Union (ILGWU), 559
international law
and internally displaced persons, 59
on refugees, 251
and those displaced by natural disasters, 62–63
international migrants, 54
international migration, regions and regionalism, 573–590
international migration architecture, 144–145, 575
International Migration Review, 573
International Monetary Fund (IMF), 86, 358, 359, 364, 575
International Organization for Migration (IOM), 64, 359, 364, 365, 517, 575, 582
international political economy (IPE), 350, 351, 352
liberalism and, 357–360
international refugee law, 59, 251
International Refugee Organization, 57
international relations (IR), migration and, 345–373
international relations theory, 251, 366, 580
International Social Survey Programme, 307
International Trade Organization (ITO), 366
interpreting services, hospital, 205
interracial and interethnic marriages, 392
interstate regionalism, 573, 574
involuntary migration, 40, 41, 42
IQ tests, 282
Iran, 135, 142
Iranian immigrants, 222
Iraq, 59, 522
Ireland
Great Famine in, 277
and impact of immigration on wages, 109
return immigration to, 146
visas for U.S. immigration, 255
voting rights for immigrants in, 178
wage inequality in, 112
Irish Echo, 194
Irish immigrants
arrival to U.S., 277
Catholic, 207, 228, 277, 432, 433–434
New Irish, 290
racism against, 282
returning, 140
visas for, 290, 336
women in the U.S. labor force, 490–491, 492
Irish Immigration Reform Movement, 336
Iris Recognition Immigration System, 259
Islam, 164, 207, 225, 299
Islamic fundamentalism, 524, 525
Islamic migrants, 485
Islamic study groups, female, 226
Israel
Bene Israel immigrant rituals in, 223
effect of immigration on employment in, 111
ethnic heritage visas to Jews, 255
immigration surplus in, 115
and impact of immigration on wages, 108, 109–110
jus sanguinis citizenship, 257
Law of Return, 255
migrant inflows and production techniques in, 113
North African Jewish immigrants in, 230
price controls in, 114
rituals of Filipina Catholic women in, 223–224
Israeli-Palestinian conflict, 1948, 57
Italian immigrants, 84–85, 89
Catholic, 207, 227–228
Italy
effect of immigration on employment in, 111
fiscal impact of immigration in, 120
women and gender issues in, 488, 497
Jacoby, Tamar, 298
jail screening programs, 259
Japan
as destination for migrants, 35
immigration to U.S. after World War II, 286
jus sanguinis citizenship, 257
and migration issues, 372
temporary work visas to descendants, 255
UNHCR dependence on, 365
Japanese American Citizens League, 334
Japanese Americans
fourth generation of, 393
mixed-race heritage of, 392
in U.S. Asian American communities, 391, 392
Japanese immigrants
quotas for, 284
racism against, 281
Jarrah, Ziad, 524–525
Javits, Jacob, 288
Jefferson, Thomas, 275, 429–430
Jewish American interest groups, 334
Jewish culture
and anti-Semitism, 155, 285
Jews and Israel's Law of Return, 255
in New York City, 192, 218, 227
Passover celebration, 226–227
Jewish immigrants, 299
(p. 650) Jewish lobby, 335
Johnson, Hiram, 279–280
Johnson, Lyndon, 287, 289, 558
Johnson-Reed Immigration Act of 1924, 284, 285, 286, 287
Jordan, Barbara, 624
Jordan Commission, 624
jus sanguinis citizenship rights, 257, 356
jus soli citizenship rights, 256–257, 547
Kalin, Walter, 62
Kallen, Horace, 417
Kant, Immanuel, 355, 604
Kearney, Dennis, 280
Kennedy, Edward, 293, 336, 619, 629, 630
Kennedy, John F., 558
Keohane, Robert, 350, 357, 358
Kerry, John, 172
kidnapping, 514
Kirkland, Lane, 559
Kohl, Helmut, 525
Korea, 35
Korean Church Directory of America, The, 208
Korean churches, 208
Korean greengrocers, 192–193
Korean nail salons, 193, 196, 492–493
Koreans
and African Americans, 200–201
gender issues and immigrant women, 494
health-related beliefs of, 205
Koreatown in Los Angeles, 396–399
racism against Korean immigrants, 281
in U.S. Asian American communities, 392
women and family issues, 495
Korean Youth and Community Center (KYCC), 397
Krasner, Stephen, 350
Kurdish Workers’ Party (PKK), 523
Kuwait, 2
Kyl, Jon, 629
Labor Council for Latin American Advancement (LCLAA), 559
labor lobby, 332, 333
labor market effects of immigration, 106–107, 247
labor migration, 26, 28–30, 164
and cross-border activities, 84–85
homeland politics and, 89
international, 364, 365
from Mexico to the U.S., 578–579
regionalism and, 575, 578–579, 580, 585
labor recruiters
migration industry and, 37–38
recruitment processes, 491
labor unions
Change to Win Coalition in U.S., 560–561
in France, 548–552
immigration attitudes and, 303
immigration politics and, 332
in United Kingdom, 540–545
in United States, 332, 333, 534, 543, 556–562
Lagan (Indian film), 219
land-to-labor ratios, 143
language
cultural assimilation and, 386, 389
English as a second language (ESL), 203, 445
job placements and, 191
Korean and Chinese-language schools, 397, 398
problems in hospitals, 205
problems in public schools, 203, 204
programs in public schools, 203, 204
Laotian Americans, 392
large-scale immigration, 190, 291–292
large-scale migrations, 53, 135, 143–144
large-scale refugee movements, 58
Latina immigrant women
domestic workers, 193–194
gender and family issues, 497, 498
Latin America
Catholic immigrants from, 228–229
Christian immigrants from, 207
emigration from, 35
expatriate voting in, 94
immigrants from, 460
and OAU/Cartagena Declaration, 57–58
regionalism in, 585
Latin American immigrants, Mexican and, 30, 31
Latino Christians, 207, 208
Latino immigrants
and African Americans, 197, 199–200, 201
and California's Proposition 187, 441
Catholic, 207
in civic and political activities, 176, 177
exclusion of, 440
health-related beliefs of, 205
in Evangelical and Pentecostal churches, 208
and Korean grocery businesses, 193
in meat-processing industry, 195
Protestant, 207–208
racial classification of, 430, 432, 434, 436–437
racial identity of, 444–445, 447, 462
support for U.S. Democratic Party, 180
transnationally engaged, 183
and U.S. naturalization, 176
Latino label, 462, 466
Latino National Survey, 87, 89, 91, 445
Latinos, naturalized, 179, 181
Latino Threat, 470, 486
Latino voters, 172, 179, 181, 191, 441, 630, 632–634
Lautenburg Amendment of 1989, 299
Lawrence, Stephen, 165
Leadership Conference on Civil Rights (AFL-CIO), 559
League of Nations, 56–57
League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC), 334
Lefebvre immigration law (France), 551
left-wing parties, 154, 155, 161, 165
Legal Immigration Family Equity Act of 2000, U.S., 291
legalization, immigrant, 293, 555, 622–623
programs for, 261–263, 293, 294, 537–538, 617, 622
legal permanent residents (LPRs), 108, 288, 291, 439, 561, 625
Le Pen, Jean-Marie, 155, 162, 163–164, 165, 310, 547
Le Pen, Marine, 164–165
Lesotho, 138
Lewis, John L., 560
Liaison Bureau (Israel), 334
liberal internationalists, 604
liberalism, and international political economy, 357–360
Lijst Pim Fortuyn, 310, 311
(p. 651) linked fate concept, 444
Lisbon Treaty, 2009, 589
literacy tests, 283–284
lobby groups, 327, 329, 330, 332–333
Lodge, Henry Cabot, 283, 412
loi Bonnet, 547
loi Chevenement, 547
loi Debre, 547
loi Hortefeux, 548
loi Mehaignerie, 547
loi Pasqua, 547
loi Sarkozy, 548
London
funerary rituals of Ghanaian migrants in, 218–219
Notting Hill carnival in, 231–232
London School of Economics, 158
long-distance nationalism, 142
Los Angeles, California
children of immigrants in, 184
Chinatown and Koreatown in, 396–399
exclusion of Latino immigrants in, 440
Latina domestics in, 194
Latinos and African Americans in, 199, 201
migrant inflows and employment rates, 112
Salvadoran gangs in, 471, 472
Los Angeles Times, 285
loss of limbs, 68
low land-to-labor ratios, 143
low-skilled immigrants, 31, 326
fiscal impact of, 120
homeland politics and, 88
migration of, 85
skills acquisition among, 113–114
as wage and salary workers, 117
wage effects of immigration on, 109, 110
Luxembourg, 595
Lyon, Matthew, 275
Maastricht Treaty, 178, 589
MacKinnon, George E., 412
macroeconomic effects, of immigration, 115–116, 247
macrolevel models of migration, 27–28, 29
macropolitical economy, effects of remittances on, 138–139
mail
transatlantic, 86
voting by, 94
Malaysia, 35
male migrants, 2, 483
asylum seekers, 66
male gender roles, 486–487
masculinity and culture of migration, 487–490
malnutrition, 68
Manifest Destiny, 461–462
manufacturing, 31, 34
Mariel boatlift, 109, 114, 115, 288, 513
marital status
immigration attitudes and, 303
naturalization, children and, 424–425
Marxism, 356
Maryland, 178, 203, 204
masculinity and migration, 485, 487–490
Mason, Walter, 557
Massachusetts, 82, 178, 198, 203, 425, 433
mass-influx, 63
mass migrations, 33–34, 35, 39, 368, 488
materialism, immigration attitudes and, 306–307
matrifocal family, 496
Mazzoli, Romano, 619
McCain, John, 293, 294, 614, 630, 633
McCarran-Walter Immigration Act of 1952 (U.S.), 286, 287, 288, 553, 556–557
McKinley, William, 280
Meany, George, 558
meat-processing industry, 31, 195
media, portrayal of immigrants in the, 305
Medicaid, 205, 206, 439
medical labor force and immigration
conflicts between physicians and immigrant patients, 206
hospitals, 204–206
immigrant nurses, 194–195, 204, 491
West Indian women and health-care industry, 194–195
medical lobby, 333
melting-pot concept, 417, 420
mental health problems, among displaced persons, 69
MERCOSUR, 585
meshworks, 468–469
mestizos, 461
methodological nationalism, 74
metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs), 114–115
Mexican-American Legal Defense and Education Fund (MALDEF), 334, 619
Mexican Americans, 445, 559
Mexican Chicago, concept of, 460
Mexican immigrants, 354
and African Americans, 199, 201
cross-border activities of, 85, 87–88
farm workers, 285, 557, 558, 559, 617
gender issues and, 487–488, 496–497
impact of wage effects on, 110, 247
and Korean grocery businesses, 193
in Koreatown in Los Angeles, 396
in meat-processing industry, 195
migration experiences of indigenous, 463–465
national identity of, 462
in New York, 82–83, 95–96
occupational niches of, 195
quota laws for, 284–285
racial classification of, 434, 436–437, 462, 463–466
temporary work program for, 265, 285, 289
transnational engagement among, 184
and U.S. naturalization, 175
voting by, 89–91, 93, 94
Mexican Migration Project (MMP), 30
Mexican Revolution, 461
Mexican-U.S. migration, 30, 31, 79, 87–88, 89–91, 110, 119, 142, 372, 487–488
Mexico
Bracero program, 265, 289, 358, 470, 484, 535, 553, 557, 558, 562, 620
and Bush's support for immigration reform for, 626
Christian immigrants from, 207
crime in, 514
drug-trafficking organizations from, 520
female immigration from, 484
human smuggling from, 295, 518, 520, 521
indigenous peoples in, 461, 463
international migration in, 134
(p. 652) labor migration from Mexico to U.S., 578–579
mestizaje in, 456, 461
mestizos in, 461
migration and effects on politics in, 142
Mixtec and Zapotec from Oaxaca, 458, 463–465
1990s financial crisis in, 354–355
terrorists from, 292
traveler partnership with U.S., 266
and Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, 436, 462
Tres Por Uno program, 145
U.S.-Mexico border, 258, 267, 285, 292–293, 459, 460, 469–470, 471, 472, 578–579, 581
Miami, Florida
African Americans and Latinos in, 199–200
Cuban immigrants in, 109, 114, 228, 288
Mariel boatlift, 109, 114, 115, 288, 513
migrant inflows and employment rates, 112
microlevel models of migration, 27, 28, 29
middle-class, 393, 397
Middle East, 292, 372
migrant border fatalities, 471
migrant smugglers, migration industry and, 37–38
migration
and citizenship, 594–611
crime and, 519–521
culture of migration, 487–490
deterrent efforts towards, 29, 31
and domestic service, 193–194, 223–224, 490
feminization of, 482–484, 491
four main classes of, 39
mobility and terrorism, 521–526
return, 66, 140–141, 423
migration and international relations
the emerging migration state, 369–373
a global migration crisis?, 345–348
liberalism and the IPE, 357–360
migration and global governance, 360–365
migration and IR theory, 351–352
securitizing migration, 352–353
strategies for regulating international migration, 365–369
transnationalism and the globalization thesis, 353–357
whither migration and international relations?, 348–350
migration control, 258–261
migration hump, 37
migration industry
migrant smuggling, 369
refugees and development of, 41
undocumented migrants and, 37–38
Migration Policy Group (MPG), 165–166
Migration Policy Institute, 483, 560
migration streams, 35, 36, 37, 38
migration theory, 25–27, 44–45
defining a volitional dimension of, 38–44
incorporating the temporal dimension into, 32–38
refugee movements and, 40–41
spatial dimension of, 27–32
militarization and security, in transborder communities, 469–473
Milner, Helen, 359
Minutemen, 297–298, 470
Minutemen Civil Defense Corps, 628
Minutemen Project, 616, 626
Mitterrand, François, 162, 353, 547
mixed legal status families, 484
mobility
low worker, 119
migration and, 345–346
migration, terrorism and, 521–526
population, 42–43
mobility transition, 32
mobilization
interest group, 328–329
and political engagement, 177
model minority image, 393, 394
Montserrat, 63
Morocco
and guest worker programs, 265
Moroccan women in Italy, 497
wedding rituals in, 218, 224
Morse, Samuel F. B., 277
mosques, 207
most favored nation (MFN), 360, 366, 367
motherhood, transnational, 493–494
Movement Against Racism, Anti-Semitism and for Peace (France), 155
movement, freedom of, 363, 536, 584–585, 586, 587, 589, 597–603, 609
multiculturalism, 257, 306
multiethnic neighborhoods, 197, 396
multiethnic societies, migration from, 134–135, 142
multiethnic workplaces, 196, 197
multilateral approaches to managing migration, 263–266
multilateralism, 361, 364, 366, 368, 371, 580
multilevel social integration, 399–405
multinational corporations (MNCs), 350
multiple citizenship, 609
Murids, 230
Murray, Philip, 557, 558
music, 201, 234
Muslims, 207, 225, 229–230
in European countries, 249, 525
and events of 9/11, 292, 440
and headscarves issue in France, 485–486
women and gender issues, 485–486
nail salon industry, 113, 193, 196, 492–493
Nansen International Office for Refugees, 56
Nansen passports, 56
National and Local Government Officers Association (UK), 541
National Asian Pacific American Legal Consortium, 334
National Association of Manufacturers, 619, 624
National Association of Teachers (UK), 541
national borders, persons remaining within their, 54
National Conference of State Legislatures, 297
National Council of Chain Restaurants, 627
National Council of La Raza (NCLR), 334, 619
National Council of Social Studies, 417
National Front (France), 155, 162–165, 309, 310, 547, 550–551
National Guard, U.S., 293
National Immigration Forum, 624
nationalism, 74
colonial borders and, 460–462
immigration attitudes and, 306
Nationality Act of 1948 (UK), 539
Nationality Act of 1964 (UK), 539
Nationality Act of 1981 (UK), 539
national origin
termination for immigration to U.S., 287
visas issued on, 254–255
(p. 653) National Retail Federation, 627
national security, 358
nation-states, 346, 355
deterritorialized, 77–78, 354
transborder communities and, 458, 469
Nations Unbound: Transnational Projects, Postcolonial Predicaments, and Deterritorialized Nation States (Basch et al.), 77, 83, 91
Native Americans, 279
nativism, 439
natural-disaster-induced displacement, 55, 61–65, 70–72
naturalization, 172–176
Canadian application process for, 175
criteria for West Germany, 356
and dual citizenship, 146
exclusion from, 431–438
immigrant community and, 422–423
marital status and children, 424–425
pamphlets, 425–426
petitioning for, 425–426
promotion activities for, 175–176
of ritual, 221–227
those who do and do not naturalize, 174–175
U.S. application process for, 175
U.S. immigration laws and applications for, 291
U.S. oath of naturalization, 411–412
visas and eligibility for, 256
voting by U.S. naturalized citizens, 178–182
Naturalization Act of 1790, U.S., 274, 280, 282, 433
Nazism, 56, 57, 588
Nelson, Alan, 620
neoclassical economic models of migration, 27–28, 33
Netherlands
female henna rituals in, 224
fiscal impact of immigration in, 120, 121
and impact of immigration on wages, 110
naturalized citizens in, 174
preclearance systems for travelers in, 259
UNHCR dependence on, 365
voting rights for immigrants in, 178
networked governance, 582
network migration, 28, 35
networks
criminal, 143, 516
diaspora, 139, 145
labor migration, 578–579
social network-based migration, 28, 35, 36, 37
and transborder communities, 468–469
transnational, 369
transnational advocacy network, 165–166
women's, 226, 496
new citizens, immigrants becoming, 414
New Commonwealth countries, 540
New Commonwealth (NCW) immigrants, 539, 544
New Community, 166
new destination states, 438
new economics of labor migration (NELM) theory, 29–30, 35, 36
new ethnic occupational niches, 191–197, 492–493
New Jersey, 120
newly industrialized countries, 35
New Orleans, Louisiana, 399–405
New World migration, 33, 37, 39, 256
New York Board of Immigrant Commissioners, 276
New York City
anti-Catholic immigration laws in, 433
Chinatown, 192, 196
Chinese restaurants in, 192
debt bondage arrangements for migrants, 517
garment industry in, 196–197
hospitals in, 205, 206
human smuggling from China to, 516
Italian festa in, 228
Jewish neighborhoods in, 192
Korean-African American conflicts in, 200–201
Korean families in, 495
Korean greengrocers in, 192–193
Korean-owned nail salons in, 193, 492–493
Latino immigrants in Queens, 444
Mexican immigrants in, 82–83, 95–96
multiethnic neighborhood in Queens, 197
new forms of music in, 201
public schools, 202, 203, 204
terrorism and attacks of 9/11 in, 515
West Indian carnival in, 232–233
West Indian domestic workers in, 193, 194
West Indian health workers in, 194–195
West Indians and African Americans in, 198
New Zealand
jus soli citizenship in, 257
and security issues, 515
visa point system in, 254
NEXUS program, 266
Ngai, Mae, 620
Nicaragua, 63
Nicaraguan Adjustment and Central American Relief Act of 1997, U.S., 289, 291
Nigeria, 584, 585
Nigerian immigrants, 521
nomadic groups, 595
nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), 165, 330–331
normative integration, 404
North Africa, 367
North African Jewish immigrants, 230
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), 37, 295, 366, 367, 370, 372, 470, 535, 563, 576, 578, 581, 586
North Carolina, 204
Norway, 110, 178
Norwegian Progress Party, 311
Numbers USA, 293, 294, 333
nurses, immigrant, 194–195, 204, 491
Nye, Joseph, 350, 357
Obama, Barack, 172, 179, 260, 470
and immigration reform, 614, 615, 616, 630–631, 634–635
occupational specialties, immigrant, 191–197, 492–493
O'Connor, Herbert R., 412
offering and sacrifice, rituals of, 223, 224
Office National d'Immigration (France), 545–546
Office of the High Commissioner for All Refugees under League of Nation Protection, 56–57
official development aid (ODA), 367
“off-whiteness,” 437
Old World migration, 33, 37, 39
1.5 generation, 392
One America: The History, Contributions, and Present Problems of Our Racial and National Minorities (Brown and Roucek), 416, 417
(p. 654) One Nation Party (Australia), 310, 311
Operation Gatekeeper, 470
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), 2, 111, 354, 359, 360, 363, 552
organizational costs, interest group, 327
Organization for the African Union 1969 Refugee Convention, 54
Organization of African Unity (OAU), 57–58
Organization of Chinese Americans, 334
organized crime, 369, 519–520
Orientalism (Said), 215
O'Sullivan, John, 461–462
“other-whiteness,” 437
Otis, Harrison Gray, 274
Ottoman Empire, 56
Pacific, the, 35
Page Act of 1875, 280
Pakistan, 70, 524
Pakistani immigrants
rituals of, 218, 219, 223, 224–225
in U.S. Asian American communities, 392
participation. See immigrant participation
Pasqua immigration laws (France), 547, 549, 550
patents, 117, 140
patriarchy, 66, 483, 488, 491, 495, 497
Patriot Act, 2001, 440
patriotism, migrant long-distance, 89
patrons, interest group sponsorship by, 328, 334
pay-as-you-go programs, 121
Pentecostal churches, 208, 217
per capita income, 133
peripheral vision approach, with transborder migrants, 467
permanent migration, 39
permanent residents, 175
permanent visas, 256, 267
Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA), 1996, U.S., 555, 625
persons other than Mexicans (OTMs), 296
Peruvian immigrants, Catholic, 228–229
Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life, 206–207
Pew Hispanic Center, 90, 517–518
Philippines
English-speaking nurses from, 195, 491
and guest worker programs, 265
immigration to U.S. after World War II, 286
ritual icons from, 229
women and gender issues in, 494
pioneer migrants, 36
planned migration, 160
pluralism
cultural, 416–418
developmental, 421–422
point systems, visa, 254, 540, 556, 629
Poland, 367
political asylum, 514
political culture, immigration and, 248–250
political economy
economic effects of emigration on, 141–144
effects of remittances on, 138, 139
political parties, effects of migration, 153–156, 167–168
European Union politics and the Racial Equality Directive, 165–167
France, 161–165
Great Britain, 156–161
immigration and party politics, 156–165
politics
expatriate voting, 89, 93–94
homeland political involvement, 88–91
immigrant electoral participation, 177–182
immigrant political engagement participation, 176–177
political persecution, 41
political rights and democratic citizenship, 607
Pompidou, Georges, 161
population
global refugee, 346
U.S., 285–286
world, 1–2, 25, 133
Population Division (UN), 595
population mobility, 42–43
populist parties and movements, 310–311
ports of entry, enforcement at, 258, 518
Portugal, 109, 484, 488, 493
Posted Workers Directive (EU), 537
post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 69
Postville, Iowa, 472–473
poverty
in Chinatown and Koreatown in Los Angeles, 396–397
global justice and, 605
impact of remittances on, 138
and Vietnamese Americans, 400
Powell, Enoch, 158, 310, 353
preclearance systems, at ports of entry, 259
prejudice, 417
prevention and removal policies, in immigration control, 260
prices, immigration and its effects on, 114–115
primitive migration, 39
principles, norms of conduct, multilateral, 361
PRIVIUM, 259
proactive migration, 40–41
professional immigrant women, 491–492
Programa de la Naciaones Unidas para el Desarollo, 86
Progressive Era, 257, 282, 413–416, 417, 562
Promised Land, The (Antin), 415
Proposition 187 (California), 290–291, 310, 325, 441, 554
prospect channel, 134
prostitution, forced, 516, 521
protection, for displaced populations, 67–68
protectionism, 359
protectionist economic model, 35
Protestant churches, 207–208, 433
Protocol Relating to Free Movement of Persons and the Right of Residence and Establishment (ECOWAS), 584
provider of last resort concept, 61
provisional visas, 256
Psychosocial Working Group, 69
public festivals, processions, and carnivals, 227–233
public opinion
causes of public support for xenophobic popuist parties and movements, 310–311
characteristics of immigrant groups and immigration-related, 309
and immigration policy, 311–312
public schools. See education
public sphere, immigrant, 220
Pucinski, Roman C., 418–420
Puebla Process regional dialogue, 575, 580, 582
Puerto Rican migrants, 497
Punjabi women migrants, 217, 225
push-pull migration models, 27, 347
quarantine laws, 433
quota systems, 284, 286, 537, 553, 557, 558
Race Relations Act, 1965 (UK), 157, 158
racial classification in the U.S., 429–431, 448–449
classifying, selecting, and excluding by race, 431–438
context of immigrant reception, 438–441
defining whiteness to assign rights, 436–438
protecting chattel slavery and anti-Catholic nativism, 432–434
racial identity and group consciousness, 442–448
the yellow peril and Asian exclusion, 434–436
Racial Equality Directive (EU), 154, 165–167
racial hierarchies, 283, 309, 430, 461–462
racial identity and group consciousness, 442–448
racial stereotyping, 394
racism, 165, 166
against Asian Americans, 394
against Chinese immigrants, 279–280
and immigration, 281–285
immigration attitudes and, 306
radical immigrants, 281
radical Islamists, 250
radical Right parties, 154–155, 158, 160, 162, 163–165
Rally pour la Republique (France), 163
rape and sexual violence, 67, 68, 70
reactive migration, 40–41
Reagan, Ronald, 619, 620, 625, 633
REAL ID Act of 2005, U.S., 297, 439
realistic group conflict, 303
receiving-country policies, 145–146
reception, immigrant, 438–441
referendum, immigration policy by, 325
Refugee Act of 1948, U.S., 413
Refugee Act of 1980, U.S., 288
refugee camps, 41, 54, 58, 68, 498
Refugee Convention (OAU), 57
refugee movements, 40–41, 58, 89
refugees, 26, 38–39
acute, 40, 41
anticipatory, 40, 41
decolonization, and the Cold War, 57–58
defined, 41, 57
designation as, 54
environmental, 42
and forced displacement, 66–67
global refugee population, 346
humanitarian, 257–258
humanitarian visas and, 255
image of, 412–413
international interests over, 251
labor migration and, 85
migration and, 358–359, 364–365, 372
misuse of term “refugee”, 71
Muslim refugees and events of 9/11, 440
needs of displaced, 67–70
post-Cold War and refugee issues, 58–61
resettlement programs, 440
UN's solutions for, 54–55
Vietnamese refugee children, 399–405
refugee studies, 40–42
refugee theory, 40
regional borders, and national borders, 463–466
regional consultation processes (RCPs), 582
regions and regionalism, 573–574
economic effects of regionalism, 576–579
European Union, 586–589
forms and types of regionalism, 574–576
overview of existing regional structures, 583–586
regional trade-based groupings, 576, 577
renewed interest in, 579–583
Reid, Harry, 615
reintegration, of displaced populations, 67
religion
immigration and religious congregations, 206–208
immigration attitudes and, 304
remittance flows, 136
remittances
and development, 136–140
and effects on political economy, 142
to Mexico, 145
migrant, 33, 35–36, 37, 86, 488, 490
social, 489
renewed immigration, 285–290
repatriation
of displaced populations, 66, 67
of felons, 143
migration control and, 264
1990s as the decade of, 58
policies, 432
replacement migration, 34
Republican Party, U.S., 180, 441
immigration reform and, 614–635
resettlement programs, 67
Resisting Protectionism: Global Industries and the Politics of International Trade (Milner), 359
restaurants
Chinese, 191–192
immigration and ethic diversity of, 113
reterritorialization, 458
returnees or resettled persons, 54, 55
return migration, 66, 140–141, 423
Reuther, Walter, 558
Revolutionary War, American, 275
revolutions, absence in aftermath of, 135, 141–142
Riess-Passer, Susanne, 167
right-wing, radical Right parties, 154–155, 158, 160, 162, 163–165
right-wing conservative parties, 154
rituals, 221–227
Rodino, Peter, 619
Roosevelt, Franklin D., 416
Roosevelt, Theodore, 281, 415–416
Ross, Edward A., 282
Rubio, Marco, 633
Rushdie, Salman, 235–236
Russia, 518
Russian Federal Security Service, 518
Russian Federation, 2
Russian immigrants, 109–110, 492
Russian organized crime, 519–520
Russian Revolution of 1917, 281
sacralization rituals, 222
Salinas, Carlos, 578
Saltonstall, Leverett, 412
Salvadoran immigrants
drugs and deportation of, 471–472, 520
gangs, 471–472, 520
(p. 656) in Koreatown in Los Angeles, 396
transnational engagement among, 184
in U.S., 79, 82, 139
Sandoval, Brian, 633
San Francisco, California
Chinese immigrants in, 441, 494
immigrant students in, 203, 204
Russian immigrants in, 492
Sarkozy, Nicolas, 164, 551
Satanic Verses, The (Rushdie), 235–236
Saturday Evening Post, 284
Saudi Arabia, 2, 523–524
Schattschneider, E. E., 633
Schengen area, European, 358, 359, 363, 364–365, 366, 368, 589, 598
Schumacher-Matos, Edward, 617
Schumer, Charles, 630–631
Schüssel, Wolfgang, 167
“science” of anthropology, 436
science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields, 117
seasonal male migration, 489
second generation (children of immigrants)
Asian American, 392–395
citizenship for, 171, 174
and ethnic niche jobs in NYC, 197
family and domestic rituals and, 225
new culture creation by, 201
and translocation of culture, 217
transnational engagement among, 184
transnationalism and, 94–97
Vietnamese refugees, 399–405
second generation decline, 387
Secure Communities, 259
securitization of migration, 511, 521
security communities, 513
segmented assimilation, 384, 389–391, 400
segmented labor market (SLM) theory, 28
Select Commission on Immigration and Refugee Policy (SCIRP), 336
selective immigration, 164
self-determination, democratic, 607–608
self-employment
effects of immigration on, 117–118
immigrant women and, 493
self-government, democratic, 607, 608, 609–610
self-identity, 442
sending countries, economic effects of emigration on, 131–147
sending-country policies, 145–146
Senegalese migrants, 230
Sensenbrenner, James, 628
SENTRI program, 266
September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks of, 153, 196, 292, 346, 372, 440, 470, 511, 515, 518, 521, 522, 524, 555, 623, 626
service-based economy, and demand for immigrants, 34
Service Employees International Union (SEIU), 559
shelter, for displaced populations, 69
Sidgwick, Henry, 603
Sierra Club, 334
Sierra Leonian Muslim women, 225
Simcox, Chris, 628
Simpson, Alan, 291, 336, 619, 624, 625
Simpson-Mazzoli Act, 629
Singapore, 35
Single European Act, 589
single-issue party, 159
single market integration, 576, 578, 586
Six Companies, 441
skilled international migration, 108, 135, 139
slavery
America's history of, 275, 278, 431, 432–434
slave trade in Africa, 141, 143–144
Smith, Lamar, 624, 625
smugglers (coyotes), 295, 471, 518
smuggling, human, 70, 295, 369, 471, 515–519, 520–521, 522
social capital theory, 404
labor migration and, 29, 30, 35, 36
social diffusion theory, 33
social effects of immigration, 190, 208–209
hospitals, 204–206
immigrants and native minorities, 197–201
impact on work, 191–197
public schools, 202–204
religious congregations, 206–208
social field concept, 468
social integration theory, 405
social network-based migration, 28, 35, 36, 37, 348, 354
social network effect, 35
social networking technology, 473–474
social remittances, 489
Social Security benefits, 120, 121, 146
socioeconomic status (SES)
assimilation and, 384, 385, 388, 389, 392, 393–394
of Vietnamese Americans, 400, 401, 403
Socrates, 600–601
Somali immigrants, 473
Soros, George, 176
SOS-Racisme, 155
South African Network for Skills Abroad (SANSA), 145
South America, 585
South Asian immigrants, British, 219
South Asian Muslims, 229–230
South Asian Punjabis, 217
South Asian women, 225
Southern African Development Community (SADC), 584, 585
Southern African Development Coordination Conference (SADCC), 585
Southern California Chinese Consumer Yellow Pages, 398
South Korea
citizenship rights in, 257
inducements for return to, 146
and migration issues, 372
Soviet Jewry, 334, 335
Spain
Ecuadorian immigrants in, 461
effect of immigration on employment in, 111
fiscal impact of immigration in, 120
and guest worker programs, 265
international migrants in, 25
naturalized citizens in, 174
2004 attacks in Madrid, 522
wage inequality in, 112
Special Agricultural Worker legalization program (U.S.), 263
Spector, Stanley, 421
spiritual healers, 205–206
splinter groups, 334
(p. 657) Sri Lanka, 55, 70, 489
Stanford, Leland, 279
Starting Line Group (SLG), 166
State Department, U.S., Trafficking in Persons Report, 517
state drivers’ licenses, 297, 439, 627
State of Emergency: the Third World Invasion of America (Buchanan), 291
State of the World's Refugees: Human Displacement in the New Millennium (UNHCR), 64–65
state regulation of immigration, 276–277, 297–298
Stein, Dan, 627
Stockholm Programme, 589
structural assimilation, 386
student migration, 575
students, 39, 198
student visas, 117
sub-Saharan Africa, 35
Sufi migrants, 223, 229–230
Sumner, Charles, 433
Supplemental Security Income (SSI), 555
Supreme Court, U.S., 260, 281, 297, 431, 436, 440
Sweden
Bosnian women in Stockholm, 225
early Swedish emigration to U.S., 33–34
and environmental migrants, 63–64
expatriate voting in, 94
fiscal impact of immigration in, 120, 121
self-employed immigrants in, 118
UNHCR dependence on, 365
voting rights for immigrants in, 178
Swiss People's Party, 311
Switzerland
displays of cultural differences in, 257
immigration policy in, 325
naturalized citizens in, 173–174
and security issues, 515
Systematic Alien Verification for Entitlements (SAVE) Program (U.S.), 260, 261
systems feedback, for proactive and reactive migration, 41
tactical issue linkage, migration and, 366, 367
Taft, William Howard, 283
Taiwan
as destination for migrants, 35
inducements for return to, 146
and migration issues, 372
Taiwanese immigrants, 494
Taliban, 524
Tampere agreement, 589
Tancredo, Tom, 292, 626, 627
Tanton, John, 334
task force-style enforcement, 259
taxes
on Catholic immigrants, 433
fiscal impact of immigration on, 119–120
head tax, 280
Tea Party movement, 616, 630
Tebbit, Norman, 219
technology lobby, 332–333
telecommunications industry, migrants and, 86, 182
temporary migration, 39, 85
temporary protected status (TPS), 62–63, 294, 554
Temporary Protection Directive (EU), 63
temporary residence permits, 535–536
temporary visas, 256
temporary worker programs, 265, 285, 289, 484, 537, 557
temporary workers, 39, 535–536
temporary work visas, 117, 255, 629
territorial boundaries, 594–597
terrorism, 249, 250, 292, 511–512, 515, 521–526
Texas
Buddhist temples in Houston, 207
efficiency gains from immigration in, 118–119
Hispanics and African Americans in, 199
illegal immigrants in, 337
Latino immigrants in, 441
Mexican migrants in Dallas-Fort Worth, 30
Texas proviso, 553, 557
Thai Americans, 392
third-country nationals (TCNs), 371, 536
third-country resettlement, 67
third generation, 392
tourism, ethnic, 86
tourist visas, 194
trade, and migration, 359–360, 361, 364, 370
trade-based economic regionalism, 576, 577, 584
Trades Union Congress (UK), 540–545
trafficking, human, 70, 515, 516, 517
Trafficking in Persons Report, 517
transatlantic migrations, era of, 86, 135
transatlantic slave trades, 144
transborder communities, 456–457, 473–474
borders, border crossing, and borderlands, 459–460
colonial borders, 460–462
compression of space and time, 466–468
immigration, militarization, and security in, 469–473
networks and meshworks, 468–469
positioning individuals and communities in the transnational, 457–459
regional borders within national borders, 463–466
transculturalism, civic, 415–416, 417
transferred rituals, 221
transitional bilingual programs, 203
transmigrants (transnational migrants), 77, 80, 82, 457–458
transnational advocacy network, 165–166
transnational citizenship, 369
transnational communities, 354, 355, 356
transnational corporations (TNCs), 355, 519
transnational criminal organizations, 519–520
transnational families, 493–498
transnationalism
defined, 77
and globalization, 78, 80, 97, 353–357
and international migration, 369–370
transnationally engaged immigrants, 182–185
transnational motherhood, 493–494
transnational networks, 369
transnational NGOs, 165
transnational social practices, 38
transnational social space, 496–497
travel
migrant, 86–87, 182
migration control and, 258–259
trusted-traveler and watch list systems, 259
Treaty of Ascuncion, 585
Treaty of Cartagena, 1969, 585
Treaty of Chaguaramas, 1973, 585–586
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, 436, 462
(p. 658) Treaty of Rome, 1957, 362, 536, 587
Treaty on European Union (TEU), 166, 167
true acquaintance theory, 304
Truman, Harry S., 286, 557
trusted-traveler and watch list systems, 259
Turkish returnees, 140
unauthorized migrants, designation as, 39, 54
undocumented agricultural workers (SAW), 289
undocumented immigrants
benefits for children of, 624, 625
crime and, 512
designation as, 54
farm workers, 290
hospital care for, 206
labor unions and undocumented labor migrants, 536
migration industry and, 37–38
politics and issue of undocumented immigration, 294
remittance business and, 86
state regulation of, 297–298
terrorists as, 292
in the U.S., 82, 290, 291
U.S.-Mexican border, 292–293, 469–470, 471
West Indian women, 194
Union Democratique Francaise (UDF), 163
United Arab Emirates, 2, 265, 524
United Farm Workers (UFW), 559
United Kingdom
ancestral visas for British descendants, 255
“cricket test” for British South Asian immigrants, 219
effect of immigration on employment in, 111
family reunification issues in, 164
fiscal impact of immigration in, 120, 121
hybrid visa system in, 254
immigration and political parties in, 155, 156–161
and impact of immigration on wages, 109, 110
Indian-educated returnees from England, 141
interest groups and immigration policy in, 330–331
jus soli and jus sanguinis citizenship's in, 257
naturalized citizens in, 173, 174
organized labor and immigration policy in, 538–545
Pakistani immigrant rituals in, 218, 219, 223, 225, 230
preclearance systems for travelers to, 259
Punjabi women migrants in, 217
race relations policy in, 157, 158, 165
“shortage industries” list, 254
South Asian Muslims in, 229–230
visa point system in, 254
wage inequality in, 112
West Indian carnival in, 230–233
United Kingdom Independence Party (UKIP), 158–160, 161
United Nations (UN), 25, 34
definition of global mobility, 521
definitions of smuggling and trafficking, 517
global refugee population, 346
leadership approaches for internally displaced persons, 60
1951 Refugee Convention, 160, 255
Population Division, 595
recognition of environmental refugees, 42
world emigrant stock, 133
United Nations Convention on Refugees, 251
United Nations Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, 54, 57
United Nations Development Programme, 86
United Nations Economic Commission for Africa, 584
United Nations Global Forum on Migration and Development, 266
United Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR), 43, 251, 602
client states, 365
definition for refugee, 41
during Cold War and post-Cold War, 57, 58, 59–60, 61, 359
establishment of, 57
and forced displacement, 66
humanitarian visas and, 255
and migration, 358, 359, 363, 364, 365
and natural-disaster-induced displacement, 64–65
and protection for displaced populations, 68
regionalism and, 575, 583
solutions for refugees, 54–55
and total refugee population, 346
United Nations High-Level Panel on System-wide Coherence, 61
United Nations Population Division (UNPD), 1, 2
United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA), 57
United Nations Relief and Work Administration for Palestinian Refugees, 57
United Nations Security Council, 523
United Nations Transnational Crime Convention, 517
United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO), 522
United States
Asian American second generation in, 391–395
and birthright citizenship, 256–257, 362–363
border control and the economy, 294–296
Bracero program, 265, 289, 358, 470, 484, 535, 553, 557, 558, 562, 620
Chinese students in, 141
Colombian migrants in, 79, 82
crime in, 514
Cuban immigrants in, 199–200, 288–289, 440
cultural assimilation of ethnic minorities in, 383–391
diversity visa, 255, 290
documents verification requirements in, 260
Dominican migrants in, 79, 82
early history of immigration in, 274–275
early Swedish emigration to, 33–34
efficiency gains from immigration in, 118–119
E-Verify electronic screening program in, 260, 628, 630, 631
federal regulation of immigration, 1875–1920s, 279–280
fiscal impact of immigration in, 119, 120–121, 248
illegal immigration in, 614–635
illegal migrants in, 517–518
immigrant electoral politics in, 178–182
immigrant integration in, 257–258
immigrants who marry U.S. citizens, 108, 294
immigrant traveler partnerships, 266
immigration enforcement measures in, 259–260
immigration policy and racial classification in, 429–449
immigration policy in, 246, 248, 249, 250, 255, 256–257, 258
and impact of immigration on wages, 107–111, 247
Indian emigration to the, 139
Indian returnees from, 140
interest groups and immigration politics in, 331–333
international migrants in, 2, 25
jail screening programs for immigration violations, 259
(p. 659) jus soli and jus sanguinis citizenship rights, 257
labor dilemmas and immigration policy in, 534–535, 537–538, 553–564
legislation on immigrant residence in, 171, 182
low worker mobility in, 119
Mexican-U.S. migration, 30, 31, 79, 87–88, 89–91, 110, 119, 142, 372, 487–488, 578–579
migrant inflows and production technologies in, 113
Muslim immigrants in, 440
naturalizations in, 172–173, 174–175, 176
organized labor and immigration policy in, 534–535, 553–564
patents granted to U.S. immigrants, 117
pathways of incorporation for immigrant citizens in, 410–426
political parties in, 154
political presence of immigrants in, 171–172
racial hierarchies in, 461–462
racism and immigration in, 281–285
renewed immigration, 285–294
Salvadoran migrants in, 79, 82, 139
self-employed immigrants in, 117–118
social effects of immigration in, 190–209
Social Security program in, 121
state regulation of immigration, 276–277, 297–298
temporary protected status for its nationals, 62–63
transnationally engaged immigrants in, 183–184
U.S.-Mexico border, 258, 267, 285, 292–293, 459, 460, 469–470, 471, 472, 578–579, 581
U.S. national identity and homeland politics, 89
Vietnamese immigrants in, 113
in Visa Waiver Program, 265–266
voting by naturalized immigrants in, 178–182
wage inequality in, 112
welfare programs in, 120–121
Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 602
universal personhood, 356, 369
upward assimilation, 389
urban flight, 514
Van Gogh, Theo, 153
Vecoli, Rudolph J., 418
venue shopping, immigration policy and, 329, 335
verification, documents, 260
veteran migrants, 85
Vietnamese Americans
children of Vietnamese refugees, 399–405
in low-skilled jobs, 392
in U.S. Asian American communities, 392
voting by, 181
Vietnamese Catholic Church, 400, 402
Vietnamese immigrants
Buddhist, 207
in Chinatown in Los Angeles, 396
gender and family issues, 496
immigration to U.S., 288, 289
refugee children in eastern New Orleans, 399–405
sacralization of homes and gardens by, 222
Vietnamese-owned nail salons, 113, 193, 492–493
Vietnam War, 289, 384, 422
Villaraigosa, Antonio, 181
visa abusers, 296
visa point systems, 254
visas
diversity, 255, 290
dual track, 256, 267
economic, 253, 254
employment-based, 253–254, 256, 534, 556, 629, 630
ethnic and national origin, 254–255
family-based, 254, 255, 629
green cards, 267
H-1B, 117, 267, 332, 335, 484
H4 visas, 484
humanitarian, 255–256
permanent, 256, 267
point systems, 254, 540, 556, 629
provisional, 256
student, 117
temporary, 256
temporary work, 117, 255, 629
and terms of admission, 256–257
Z visa, 629
Visa Waiver Program, 265–266
voluntary migration, 26, 38–39, 40–41, 42, 346, 514
voting
by immigrants, 89–91, 93–94, 172, 191, 630, 632–634
naturalized citizens and, 173, 177–182
wages
effects of immigration on, 107–111, 247–248
wage inequality, 28, 33, 37, 112–113
Wagner Act of 1935 (U.S.), 563
War Brides Act of 1944, U.S., 286
war on terror, 292
Washington, D. C., 30
Washington, George, 298
Washington State, 337
watch list systems, 259
wedding rituals, 218, 219, 224–225
Weil, Patrick, 422
welcome and integration contract (France), 164
welfare programs
and immigrant-headed households, 120–121
fiscal impact of welfare, 121
and illegal immigration, 625
visas and welfare benefits, 335
welfare states, 607
Western Hemisphere immigration, 288, 289
West Indian carnival, 230–233
West Indian immigrants
and African Americans, 198, 201
and immigration policies to U.S., 286, 288
West Indian women
domestic workers, 193, 194
in health-care industry, 194–195
We Who Built America: The Saga of the Immigrant (Wittke), 416
white Anglo-Saxon Protestants (WASPs), 385, 386, 389, 486
whiteness, 274, 281, 282–283, 411, 432, 433, 434, 436–438, 462
Who Are We? The Challenges to America's National Identity (S. Huntington), 292
Wilson, Woodrow, 283
women
empowerment of, 493, 496
enslaved women and children, 144
female domestic workers, 193–194, 223–224
(p. 660) female Islamic study groups, 226
femininity and culture of migration, 487–490
feminization of migration, 482–484, 491
fertility rates, 32, 121, 144
and gendered immigrant workplace, 490–493
henna rituals, 224–225
immigrant rituals, 217, 218, 219, 222, 223, 224–225
labor markets and influx of native, 113
migration experiences, 478–481
naturalization, marital status, and children, 424–425
professional immigrant women, 491–492
trafficking of women and children, 516, 521
wedding rituals, 218, 219, 224–225
women's networks, 226, 496
women and children, displaced
children and loss of education, 69
female migrants, 2
and forced displacement, 66
health complications among, 68–69
malnourished women and children, 68
rape and sexual violence against, 6, 67
in resettlement programs, 67
shelter for, 69
Women and Migration in the U.S.-Mexico Borderlands (Segura and Zavella), 460
Working Sub Group Number 10 on Labour Relations, Employment and Social Security, 585
workplace
employer sanctions and workplace enforcement, 538
gendered immigrant, 490–493
new ethnic occupational niches, 191–197, 492–493
World Bank, 86, 138, 139, 359, 364, 575, 605
world population
international migration rate and, 1–2, 25
total emigrant stock and, 133
world systems theory, migration and, 35
World Trade Organization (WTO), 359, 362, 364, 366
World Values Survey, 307
World War I, 33, 37, 56, 282, 283, 285
World War II, 34, 56, 57, 153, 156, 254–255, 285, 345, 347, 358, 416, 417–418, 513, 534, 553, 556, 557, 563, 574
xenophobia, 166, 303–304, 305, 306, 307, 308, 312
xenophobic populist parties, 310–311
Zammar, Mohammed Haydar, 525
Zamora, Rodolfo Garcia, 514
Zedillo, Ernesto, 372
zero tolerance, 472
zoning laws, racially based, 440
Z visa, 629