Abstract and Keywords
This article explores immigrant integration over time and identifies major historical pathways of immigrant civic incorporation which highlight the importance of historical developments and transitions that shape this process. It traces the civic construction of immigrants from late eighteenth-century thought to the Progressive Era, and from the Great Depression and the Cold War to the civil rights revolution of the 1960s. It places special emphasis on two significant dimensions of civic incorporation for newcomers. The first lies in how the symbolic representation of immigrants was produced by public discourse in legislation, public education, and government-promoted racial categories and policies. The second centers on the naturalization process as it was influenced by national policies and overall immigration trends, but especially by the local contexts of family and communal ties, demographic structures, community organizations, and civic institutions.
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