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date: 19 November 2019

(p. xiii) List of Figures, Maps, and Tables

(p. xiii) List of Figures, Maps, and Tables


  1. 1.1 Fragmented moulded plaque honouring the biographer Suetonius from Hippo Regius, North Africa. 4

  2. 1.2 Line-drawing by E. Marec and H.-G. Pflaum of the plaque honouring Suetonius from Hippo Regius. 6

  3. 1.3 Paper squeeze (retrograde underside inverted) of a Republican dedication to Mercury from Antium (CIL I2 992 = 9.2). BBAW-CIL archives (EC 0009295). 9

  4. 1.4 Early eighteenth-century engraving by B. de Montfaucon of a funerary monument from Rome with portraits of Iulia Secunda and Cornelia Tyche (CIL VI 20674), showing the complete monument including a section now lost. The original is now in the Louvre. 11

  5. 1.5 Statue base honouring a provincial priest of Hispania Citerior found in Tarraco. Editions by Emil Hübner, 1892 (CIL II 6096) and Géza Alföldy, 2011 (CIL II2/14, 1143), illustrating the editorial principles of the first and second editions of CIL II. 13

  6. 1.6 Putative CIL VIII entry for the inscription from Hippo Regius honouring Suetonius. 18

  7. 2.1 Extract from the epigraphic sylloge in the Codex Einsidlensis (Stiftsbibliothek 326, f. 72v), with various inscriptions from Rome: (a) IN CAPITOLIO (CIL VI 937, 938, 89): inscriptions from the temples of Saturn, Divus Vespasianus, and Concordia beneath the Capitol; (b) IN ARCV CONSTANTINI (CIL VI 1139): on the Arch of Constantine; (c) AD VII LVCERNAS (CIL VI 945): on the Arch of Titus (the toponym refers to the seven-branched menorah on the inside of the arch). 23

  8. 2.2 A page from the Sylloge Signoriliana (1409) (BAV, Barb. lat. 1952, f. 170r), with five monumental inscriptions attesting improvements in Rome’s water supply by several emperors (CIL VI 1256–59, 1246 = ILS 218a–c, 424, 98c). 27

  9. 2.3 Epitaph of Iulia Procilla from Rome (CIL VI 8703 = CLE 1028) from a manuscript written in elegant capitals by Bartolomeo Sanvito (BAV, Vat. lat. 10228, f. 5v). 32

  10. (p. xiv) 2.4 Altar of Iulia Procilla from Rome. Rijksmuseum van Oudheden, Leiden. Compare the difference in the appearance of the text on the monument and in Sanvito’s drawing (Fig. 2.3). 33

  11. 2.5 A page from Epigrammata antiquae Urbis (1521), showing two inscriptions concerning the Baths of Diocletian (CIL VI 1130 = ILS 646) and the Baths of Constantine (CIL VI 1750 = ILS 5703) and the start of a section on decrees on bronze tablets, with copious marginal comments (BAV, Vat. lat. 8495, p. xiiii). 35

  12. 3.1 Drawings by Pirro Ligorio of the same dedication to Fortuna Primigenia from Praeneste (CIL XIV 2865) in two different forms. Cod. Neap. XIII.B.7, p. 211 (upper right and lower left). 46

  13. 3.2 Fake funerary inscription from Rome (CIL VI 937*), reported by Pirro Ligorio. Museo Nazionale Romano. 50

  14. 3.3 Richly decorated funerary urn, produced in the eighteenth century, with a fake inscription supposedly attesting Catullus’ mistress Lesbia. Palazzo del Rettorato, University of Rome “La Sapienza.” 52

  15. 3.4 Invented epitaph of Lucretia allegedly set up by her husband L. Tarquinius Collatinus (CIL VI 13* = X 197*), probably from Cumae. Museo Archeologico Nazionale, Naples. 56

  16. 3.5 False inscription (CIL XI 34*) on a statue base commemorating Caesar’s crossing of the Rubicon in 49 BCE. Rimini, Piazza Tre Martiri. 59

  17. 4.1 Theodor Mommsen in 1863. Engraving by L. Jacobi. 67

  18. 4.2 Map of the Roman Empire, showing the areas covered by each regional CIL volume. 69

  19. 5.1 Sample entry from the Epigraphic Database Clauss-Slaby (consulted 19 June 2014). 81

  20. 6.1 Mosaic from the House of the Tragic Poet, Pompeii. 91

  21. 6.2 Pedestals in the curia at Labitolosa, Hispania Citerior. 93

  22. 6.3 Graffito of the first line of Virgil’s Aeneid from Pompeii (Regio VII.xv.8): [a]‌‌ rma virumque cano Troia(e) qui primus ab oris. 96

  23. 6.4 Lapis Niger, Forum Romanum. 97

  24. 6.5 Tabula patronatus contracted between the community of Baetulo, Hispania Citerior, and the local-born Roman senator, Q. Licinius Silvanus Granianus, 8 June 98 CE, from Baetulo, Hispania Citerior (AE 1936, 66 = IRC I 139). Museu de Badalona. 101

  25. 6.6 Final section of the Fasti Triumphales, Rome, recording inter alia the triumphs of M. Licinius Crassus for victories in Thrace, 27 BCE, and L. Cornelius Balbus for victories in Africa, 19 BCE. Musei Capitolini, Rome. 102

  26. (p. xv) 7.1 Small street-sign from Rome advertising a stonecutter’s workshop that produced inscriptions. Original in the Galleria lapidaria, Musei Vaticani. 112

  27. 7.2 Funerary altar for Cossutia Arescusa and Cn. Cossutius Cladus, late first century CE, from Rome. Musei Capitolini, Rome. 116

  28. 7.3 Rough draft in cursive lettering of an epitaph on the reverse of a plaque with the epitaph of Claudia Florentia Secundina, Rome, first/second century CE. Museo Nazionale Romano. 120

  29. 7.4 Marble plaque (tabula ansata) with the epitaph of Claudia Florentia Secundina, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano. 120

  30. 8.1 Equestrian statue base for M. Porcius M.f., scriba of Augustus, from the forum of Segobriga (Hispania Citerior). Museum, Archaeological Park of Segobriga. 133

  31. 8.2 Plan of the forum at Thamugadi, indicating the findspots of inscriptions. 134

  32. 8.3 Graph of S. Mrozek showing the supposed frequency of Latin inscriptions from all over the Roman Empire from Augustus to Diocletian, based on 1,680 inscriptions. 142

  33. 8.4 Graph of R. MacMullen showing the supposed average number of epitaphs per year from 1 to 300 CE, based on about 4,000 inscriptions from seven towns in North Africa collected by J.-M. Lassère. 143

  34. 9.1 Dedication set up to Hercules by M. Minuci(us) C.f., dictator 217 BCE, Rome (CIL I2 607 = ILLRP 118 = ILS 11). Musei Capitolini, Rome. 157

  35. 9.2 Altar dedicated to Mercury, Antium (CIL I2 992). Musei Capitolini, Rome. 162

  36. 9.3 Travertine cippus containing an edict of the praetor L. Sentius marking off part of the campus Esquilinus to prevent its use for cremations or as a rubbish dump, Rome, 90s or 80s BCE. Museo Nazionale Romano. 163

  37. 10.1 Dedicatory inscription from the Arch of Titus, Rome. 179

  38. 10.2 Section of the Latin version of the Res Gestae, from the interior wall of the Temple of Roma and Augustus, Ancyra (Ankara), showing chapter 1 and part of chapter 2. 180

  39. 10.3 Part of the Greek version of the Res Gestae from the exterior wall of the Temple of Roma and Augustus, Ancyra, showing chapter 34 and the Appendix. 181

  40. 10.4 Dedication to Septimius Severus from Alexandria, set up by veterans of the Legio II Traiana, 194 CE. British Museum. 184

  41. 10.5 Dedicatory inscription from the Arch of Septimius Severus, Roman Forum. 188

  42. (p. xvi) 10.6 Marble copy of the “shield of virtues” (clipeus virtutum) from Arelate, Gallia Narbonensis. Musée lapidaire d’art païen, Arles. 195

  43. 11.1 Statue base set up in Rome honouring the senator M. Valerius Quadratus, listing his political and military offices, later 2nd century CE. Museo Nazionale Romano. 210

  44. 11.2 Honorific plaque with the career of the Roman senator L. Funisulanus Vettonianus from Forum Popilii, late 1st century CE. Museo Archeologico Civico “Tobia Aldini,” Forlimpopoli (FC). 212

  45. 11.3 Statue base for Fufidia Clementiana, c(larissima) p(uella), tracing back her consular ancestry four generations, from Teanum Sidicinum, c. 170 CE. 216

  46. 11.4 Dedication of the equestrian prefect of Judaea, Pontius Pilatus, relating to the repair of a lighthouse (the “Tiberieum”) from the harbour at Caesarea Maritima, Israel. In situ. 220

  47. 12.1 Album of the local senate of Canusium. Museo Archeologico Nazionale, Florence. 230

  48. 12.2 Painted election posters from the Via dell’Abbondanza, Pompeii. 232

  49. 12.3 Map showing the posters supporting C. Cuspius Pansa for the aedileship. 234

  50. 12.4 Dedication of a stage for the theatre at Petuaria (Brough-on-Humber) in N. England during the reign of Antoninus Pius. 245

  51. 13.1 Inscription honouring C. Memmius Eutychus from Hierapolis, Phrygia, c. 220 CE. 259

  52. 13.2 Limestone statue base in honour of M. Antonius Idagras, citizen of Rome and Patara, c. 40–30 BCE. Patara, W. Lycia. 262

  53. 13.3 Honorific monument for T. Flavius Polybius from Olympia, second century CE. 267

  54. 13.4 A section of the genealogical inscription from the tomb of Licinnia Flavilla, inscribed in archaizing stoichedon style, early third century CE, from Oinoanda, N. Lycia. 268

  55. 14.1 Graffito on the wall of the underground complex at Caere (Etruria) naming C. Genucius Clepsina (here called “Clousinus”). In situ. 275

  56. 14.2 Stone marker set up in Rome in 177 CE on the orders of Marcus Aurelius and Commodus to indicate where taxes on goods imported to the city could be levied by those who had leased the right to collect them. Replica now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. 283

  57. 14.3 Seventeenth-century etching showing the epitaph of two imperial slaves, Sabbio and Sporus, who served as vilici of the Aqua Claudia aqueduct (CIL VI 8495 = ILS 1612). 284

  58. 14.4 Bronze stele with a copy of a letter of Hadrian to the people of Naryka in Locris (Greece), c. 138 CE. The Louvre. 289

  59. (p. xvii) 15.1 Second bronze tablet of the lex coloniae Genetivae Iuliae, Osuna, Spain. Museo Arqueológico Provincial, Seville. 303

  60. 15.2 Bronze plaque with the senatus consultum de Cn. Pisone patre (Copy A), reportedly from Irni, Baetica, 20 CE. Museo Arqueológico Provincial, Seville. 307

  61. 15.3–4 Stilus tablet from Murecine, on the outskirts of Pompeii, recording a legal procedure at Puteoli (TPSulp 25). 312

  62. 16.1 Cenotaph of M. Caelius, centurion of the Legio XVIII, found near Xanten. Rheinisches Landesmuseum, Bonn. 322

  63. 16.2 Tombstone from Aquincum of an auxiliary cavalryman of Gallic origin, with a portrait-bust and a relief of a groom and two horses below. Hungarian National Museum, Budapest. 324

  64. 16.3 Distance slab from the vicinity of the Castle Hill Roman fort on the Antonine Wall. The text reads: Im[p(eratori C(aesari)] / T(ito) Ae(lio) / Hadriano / Anto/nino / Aug(usto) / Pio p(atri) p(atriae) / vex(illatio) leg(ionis) / XX V(aleriae) V(ictricis) / fec(it) / p(er) p(edum) III (milia). Hunterian Museum, Glasgow. 325

  65. 16.4 Tombstone of the soldier C. Voconius, showing his military decorations, from Augusta Emerita (Mérida). Museo Nacional de Arte Romano, Mérida. 327

  66. 16.5 Bronze military diploma from Brigetio, Pannonia Superior, 149 CE. Metropolitan Museum, New York. 339

  67. 17.1 Record of the achievements (elogium) of the consul C. Duilius during the First Punic War from a commemorative column set up in Rome. Musei Capitolini, Rome. 346

  68. 17.2 Surrender document from Alcántara in Hispania Ulterior, 104 BCE. Museo Provincial de Cáceres. 350

  69. 17.3 Bronze copy of the emperor Claudius’ speech to the Senate regarding the admission of Gauls to that body, 48 CE, from Lugdunum. Musée de la Civilisation Gallo-Romaine, Lyon. 357

  70. 17.4 Statue base from Tarraco honouring Ti. Claudius Candidus, a general of Septimius Severus during the civil wars against Pescennius Niger and Clodius Albinus. British Museum. 359

  71. 18.1 Base of a statue of the emperor Julian, re-carved to honour Theodosius I or II. Aphrodisias, Caria. Aphrodisias Museum, Geyre, Turkey. 368

  72. 18.2 Detail of the rescript of Constantine and sons to the Umbrians, Hispellum. Palazzo Comunale, Spello. 369

  73. 18.3 Letter of the emperor Julian to the praetorian prefect Secundus from the island of Amorgos in the Cyclades. Epigraphic Museum, Athens (EM 10401). 371

  74. (p. xviii) 18.4 Constitution of the emperor Maurice, 585 CE, from Ephesus, with the last six lines containing a Latin dating-formula. In situ. 372

  75. 18.5 Base of a statue honouring the Roman senator Flavius Olbius Auxentius Draucus, from Rome. 383

  76. 18.6 Inscribed copy of a letter of Gregory the Great to the subdeacon Felix. Church of S. Paolo fuori le mura, Rome. 387

  77. 19.1 Altar dedicated to Cybele (Magna Mater) and Attis at Rome by a Roman augur, 295 CE. The relief shows the goddess in a chariot pulled by lions approaching a figure of Attis behind a tree. Villa Albani, Rome. Engraving by G. Zoega (1808). 400

  78. 19.2 Elaborately decorated altar dedicated to C. Manlius, a local censor, by his clients, from Caere (Etruria). Musei Vaticani (inv. 9964). 410

  79. 19.3 Votive plaque set up at Rome by a public slave to “rustic” Bona Dea to commemorate a sacrifice thanking the goddess for restoring his eyesight after doctors had been unable to heal him. Musei Vaticani (inv. 6855). 411

  80. 19.4 Graffito from the Palatine, Rome, showing a man, Alexamenos, worshipping a human figure with a donkey’s head in a Christ-like pose on a cross. Antiquario Palatino, Rome. 412

  81. 20.1 Frequency of epigraphic attestations of various gods in several regions of Italy and the Latin-speaking provinces expressed as a percentage of those of the most common god, Jupiter. Redrawn after R. MacMullen, Paganism in the Roman Empire, New Haven 1981, 6, based on the indices of the respective CIL volumes. 424

  82. 20.2 Votive dedication to the hero Manimazos with a relief showing the “Thracian Rider” from Odessus, Moesia Inferior. National Museum of Archaeology, Sofia. 426

  83. 20.3 “Confession text” from Soma in SE Mysia, describing how a man was punished and eventually redeemed by Zeus Trosou. Manisa Museum, Turkey. 431

  84. 20.4 Line-drawing of a curse-tablet from Aquae Sulis (Bath) directed at a thief. 433

  85. 20.5 Dedication to the Syrian god Sol Elagabal, set up by a cohort of Syrian archers at their camp at Intercisa, Pannonia. Hungarian National Museum, Budapest. 439

  86. 21.1 Epitaph of the young girl Euplia, who died during the papacy of Liberius (352–366), from the catacomb of St. Callixtus, Rome. Musei Vaticani: Museo Pio Cristiano. 447

  87. 21.2 Epitaph of Germanio, who died aged 30 years, 3 months, 7 days on 7 April, including the Christian expression fedelis in pace. Museo Paleocristiano, Aquileia. 454

  88. (p. xix) 21.3 A late third-century painted inscription on plaster from the catacombs of Pamphilus, Rome, containing a pious injunction urging Eutichius to live a godly life. In situ. 455

  89. 21.4 Epitaph of a military officer from Caralis, Sardinia, fifth century CE. The first five lines cite part of Psalm 50. Museo Archeologico, Cagliari. 457

  90. 21.5 Epitaph of Leo, emphasizing his date of death. The plaque includes key elements of Christian imagery with a Christogram (XP), a praying male figure in the orans-pose with arms outstretched, and a dove. Musei Vaticani: Museo Pio Cristiano. 458

  91. 21.6 Funerary plaque of the Christian grain merchant Maximinus, showing him alongside a grain-measure (modius) overflowing with grain. The epitaph reads: Maximinus qu/i vixit annos XXIII / amicus omnium: “Maximinus who lived twenty-three years, everybody’s friend (is buried here).” Musei Vaticani: Museo Pio Cristiano. 461

  92. 22.1 Inscription in large bronze letters commemorating the paving of the Forum Romanum by the praetor L. Naevius Surdinus, c. 10 BCE. In situ. 476

  93. 22.2 Lead pipe (fistula) bearing the name of the senator L. Annius Maximus, cos. 207 CE. Musei Vaticani: Museo Gregorio Profano, inv. 10369. 478

  94. 22.3 Lead tablet cursing the charioteer Cardelus. Via Appia, Rome. 480

  95. 22.4 Restoration of one of a series of marble plaques set up by various Hispanic communities to honour their patron, the Roman senator L. Aelius Lamia. Largo di Torre Argentina, Rome. 485

  96. 23.1 Statue base honouring Faustina the Elder, 139/140 CE, set up at Puteoli by the association of scabillarii. Museo Archeologico Nazionale, Naples. 497

  97. 23.2 Graffito with erotic content from one of the many brothels in Pompeii. 504

  98. 23.3 Marble plaque with a list of market locations in S. Latium and Campania. Line-drawing incorporating the surviving fragment (now in the Museo Archeologico Nazionale, Naples) and with the rest restored. 509

  99. 23.4 An inscribed relief mentioning L. Calidius Eroticus and Fannia Voluptas and showing (below) an innkeeper and a hooded traveller with a mule. Aesernia, Samnium. The Louvre (inv. MA 3165). 510

  100. 24.1 Bilingual inscription in Latin and neo-Punic (IRT 322) over the entrance to the orchestra in the theatre at Lepcis Magna. 1/2 CE. In situ. 520

  101. 24.2 Inscription on the architrave of the Capitolium at Brixia (Brescia), Cisalpine Gaul, commemorating Vespasian’s funding of the temple, 73 CE. In situ. 520

  102. 24.3 Text recording the building of, and approval process for, a temple of Castor and Pollux at Cora, Latium, supervised by two sets of successive local magistrates. 523

  103. 24.4 Moulded plaque commemorating the repair of an aqueduct called the Aqua Titulensis. Lambaesis, Numidia, late third century CE. 524

  104. (p. xx) 24.5 Small pedestal from Corduba (the Colonia Patricia) commemorating the generosity of a member of the local elite. Museo Arqueológico Provincial, Córdoba. 526

  105. 25.1 Funerary stele of the gladiator Urbicus (a secutor), commemorated by his daughter, his daughter’s slave, and his wife, from Mediolanum, late second/early third century CE. Antiquarium “Alda Levi,” Milan. 539

  106. 25.2 Announcement of gladiatorial munera to be presented at Pompeii by D. Lucretius Satrius Valens, priest of the imperial cult, and his son (CIL IV 3884). Pompeii: Insula IX.8. 546

  107. 25.3 Mosaic from a Roman villa near Smirat, Tunisia, showing venationes offered by Magerius, with inscriptions acclaiming him for his munificence. Third century CE. Sousse museum, Tunisia. 548

  108. 25.4 Reconstruction by Géza Alföldy of the dedicatory inscription in bronze letters of the Flavian Amphitheatre, Rome, commemorating the emperor Titus’ funding of the building, 79 CE (CIL VI 40454b). 552

  109. 25.5 Statue base set up to honour M. Septimius Aurelius Agrippa, leading pantomime of his day, at Lepcis Magna, Tripolitania. 211/217 CE. In situ. 554

  110. 26.1 Marble plaque set up at Augusta Emerita (Mérida) to commemorate the doctor P. Sertorius Niger, his father P. Sertorius, his wife Caecilia Urbana, and his sister Sertoria Tertulla. First half of the first century CE. Museo Nacional de Arte Romano, Mérida. 560

  111. 26.2 Granite funerary stele from Avila, Spain, with crude, stylized portraits commemorating Dobiterus Caburoniq(um) Equasi f. and Arena Mentovieq(um) Aelci f. Their names incorporate the wider kinship groups to which they belonged. Late first/second century CE. Museo de Ávila. 567

  112. 26.3 Funerary relief from Rome, showing a married couple, the freedman L. Aurelius Hermia, a butcher on the Viminal hill, and the freedwoman Aurelia Philematio, first century BCE. British Museum. 570

  113. 26.4 Marble funerary stele from Rome with a portrait-bust and bilingual epitaph commemorating L. Aelius Melitinus, set up by his parents. Late second/early third century CE. Musei Capitolini, Rome. 575

  114. 27.1 Letter of Claudia Severa to her friend (“sister”) Sulpicia Lepidina on a wooden writing tablet, from Vindolanda near Hadrian’s Wall, c. 100 CE. British Museum. 583

  115. 27.2 Section of the so-called Laudatio Turiae, Rome, reign of Augustus. Museo Nazionale Romano. 584

  116. 27.3 Epitaph of the freedwoman Cornelia Nothis, secunda mima, Augusta Emerita. Second century CE. Museo Nacional de Arte Romano, Mérida. 592

  117. (p. xxi) 27.4 Cinerary altar of the fishmonger Aurelia Nais, a freed slave, her patron C. Aurelius C.l. Phileros, and the freedman L. Valerius Secundus. Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano. 594

  118. 28.1 Stamps on Arretine terra sigillata fineware pottery (Samian ware) produced at Arretium (Arezzo) indicating the potter’s name: (a) Nicolaus Sex. Avi(lli) (servus); (b) P. Corneli / Anthus; (c) Apollo(nius) / P. Corne(li servus); (d) Rufre(nus), in a stamp in the form of a footprint (in planta pedis). 610

  119. 28.2 Large monumental slab from Rome commemorating Nero’s freedman Epaphroditus still powerful under Domitian. Museo Nazionale Romano. 618

  120. 28.3 Funerary monument in the form of an aedicula with statues of the freedmen M. Publilius Satur and M. Publilius Step(h)anus from Capua, erected by permission (arbitratu) of the auctioneer M. Publilius Gadia and M. Publilius Timotes, both freedmen. Second half of the first century BCE. Museo Provinciale Campano, Capua. 619

  121. 28.4 Late antique slave-collar found in Rome with a bronze disc announcing the reward for returning the runaway slave to his or her master, Zoninus. Museo Nazionale Romano. 621

  122. 29.1 Line-drawing of a marble slab showing the burial plot and cepotaphium (funerary garden) of Claudia Peloris and Ti. Claudius Eutychus, from Rome. The relief shows the funerary garden on the bottom left and various tomb buildings in the centre and to the right. Museo Archeologico Nazionale, Perugia. 632

  123. 29.2 Sarcophagus of C. Iulius Sabinus, a soldier of the Legio II Adiutrix, from Aquincum, Pannonia Inferior. Early third century CE. Aquincum Museum. 638

  124. 29.3 Ossuary containing the remains of an imperial freedman and his family, Rome (CIL VI 5318). The epitaph reads: Dis Manib(us) / Ti(berii) Claudi Aug(usti) l(iberti) / Chryserotis / et Iuliae Theo/noes et Claudiae / Dorcadis (“To the Departed Spirits of Ti. Claudius Chryseros, imperial freedman, and Iulia Theonoe and Claudia Dorcas”). Museo Nazionale Romano. 642

  125. 29.4 Bilingual funerary stele from Rome with a Latin epitaph for Licinia Amias, with Christian imagery and the Greek phrase, “Fish of the living.” Museo Nazionale Romano. 644

  126. 30.1 One of the so-called Tabulae Dolabellae from Salona (modern Croatia), commemorating the building of roads under the emperor Tiberius. 651

  127. 30.2 Milestone (replica) from near Brunico, N. Italy, set up during the reign of Macrinus and Diadumenianus, 217–218 CE (CIL III 5708 = XVII.4, 169 = ILS 464). 655

  128. 30.3 The so-called headless elogium from Polla (Forum Popilii) in Lucania, late second century BCE. 656

  129. (p. xxii) 30.4 Portable bronze sundial for travellers found near Mérida, Spain. Museo Nacional de Arte Romano, Mérida. 665

  130. 31.1 Funerary altar from Rome, mid-first century CE, commemorating L. Calpurnius Daphnus, a money-changer (argentarius) at the Macellum Magnum (Large Market), Rome (CIL VI 9183 = ILS 7501). It shows the money-changer holding a box of coins doing business with two men carrying baskets of fish on their shoulders. Palazzo Massimo alle Colonne, Rome. 674

  131. 31.2 Brick-stamp from a senatorial estate near Rome, mid-second century CE. 679

  132. 31.3 Stamps on Dressel 20 olive-oil amphorae produced in Baetica, from the Monte Testaccio, Rome, second and early third century CE. 685

  133. 31.4 Dressel 20 amphora, showing the position of tituli picti. 686

  134. 31.5 Lead ingot from the argentiferous lead mines in the Mendips, Somerset, naming the emperor Nero. Found in Hampshire, now in the British Museum. 689

  135. 32.1 Limestone cippus with a legal text inscribed on three sides from Tortora, S. Italy. Museo Archeologico Nazionale, Reggio Calabria. 700

  136. 32.2a–b Lusitanian rock-cut inscription from Cabeço das Fráguas, Sabugal, Portugal. 703

  137. 32.3 Potters’ accounts in Gaulish on a terra sigillata red-slip dish from La Graufesenque. Musée de Millau et des Grands Causses. 704

  138. 32.4 Tabula Cortonensis. Bronze plaque inscribed in Etruscan with legal agreements. Museo Archeologico, Cortona. 708

  139. 32.5 Trilingual (Latin, Greek, and Punic) votive inscription on the base of a bronze column, from San Nicolò Gerrei, Sardinia. Now in Turin. 712

  140. 33.1 Dedication to Aesculapius set up at Rome by M. Populicio(s) M. f., second century BCE. Museo Nazionale Romano. 724

  141. 33.2 Marble stele with a relief of the female tavern-keeper Sentia Amarantis from Augusta Emerita, late second century CE. Museo Nacional de Arte Romano, Mérida. 728

  142. 33.3 Wall-painting from Pompeii showing a scroll with a poem. 730

  143. 33.4 Epitaph of Mauricius, set up by his wife Montana, from Gondorf, sixth century CE. Rheinisches Landesmuseum, Bonn. 733

  144. 34.1 Drawing of part of a graffiti-covered wall from the Forum of Caesar in Rome showing examples of informal writing. It includes (beginning in the upper left): (a) a greeting (Crescens Publiolae ave); (b) to its right, a practice alphabet, omitting “H” (ABCDEFGIL); (c) below it to the right, the first of four attempts to write the phrase ad aram; (d) in the middle of the lower portion, conticuere, the first word of Aeneid 2, to the left (p. xxiii) of two busts, one with mouth open, the other with mouth closed, as if illustrating the action of the verb; written partly within the drawing of the lower bust is the beginning of the same word, cont(icuere); below it to the right is a third start, con(ticuere). 747

  145. 34.2 Small bilingual “shop sign” from Panormus (Palermo) advertizing a stonecutter’s services, probably first century CE. Museo Archeologico “Antonino Salinas,” Palermo. 748

  146. 34.3 Votive base to support an object dedicated to Mars, from Satricum. Early fifth century BCE. Museo Nazionale Romano. 754

  147. 35.1 Magical grid incorporating a metrical verse (senarius) from Madauros in Numidia (ILAlg I 2078). Drawing by Hermann Dessau. 766

  148. 35.2 Elogium of L. Cornelius Barbati f. Scipio from the Tomb of the Scipios, Rome. Etching by G.B. Piranesi of the inscribed face of a sarcophagus then preserved in the Palazzo Barberini, Rome. 768

  149. 35.3 Funerary plaque for L. Sentius Lucrio, his wife Pontia Procula, and their son L. Sentius Pietas from Carsulae (Umbria), with verse in lines 4–11. Museo Nazionale Romano. 773

  150. 35.4 Dedication to the Divine Spirit of the Aqua Alexandriana, with Alexandrianae excised from and then restored to line 2 of the text. Lambaesis, Numidia. 776

  151. 35.5 Graffito from a house in Pompeii. The lines of the inscription do not correspond to the verse, with the word hospes, which belongs metrically at the end of the first line, appearing in line 2. 777

  152. 35.6 Painted verse inscription from the Cueva Negra, near Fortuna, SE Spain. The two verses of the poem are spread over five lines. 778


  1. 2.1 The three redactions of Fra Giocondo, Collectio inscriptionum Latinarum et Graecarum 31

  2. 4.1 The international congresses of Greek and Latin Epigraphy, since 1977 organized by the AIEGL 68

  3. 4.2 The end-dates of the first fifteen CIL volumes and their supplements and indices 71

  4. 4.3 Some important national or local Latin epigraphic corpora 74

  5. (p. xxiv) 7.1 Some republican inscriptions illustrated in this volume (in chronological order) 123

  6. 7.2 Letter-forms of the imperial period on inscriptions illustrated in this volume 124

  7. 8.1 Number of words per inscription (excluding instrumentum domesticum and Greek inscriptions) 137

  8. 8.2 Number of Latin inscriptions in Rome, Italian regions, and Roman provinces 138

  9. 8.3 Number of inscriptions per city in Italy and the Latin-speaking provinces (excluding instrumentum domesticum) 140

  10. 9.1 The chronological distribution of republican inscriptions on stone from Rome 158

  11. 9.2 The chronological division of all republican Latin inscriptions 159

  12. 10.1 The nomenclature of a selection of emperors 183

  13. 10.2 Divi and divae: deified emperors and members of the imperial family in three periods: 42 BCE–66 CE, 112–180, 306–361 187

  14. 10.3 Extracts from the Commentarii fratrum Arvalium, 69 CE 192

  15. 11.1 Types of inscriptions mentioning senators and equites Romani 203

  16. 11.2 The hierarchy of the most common senatorial offices in ascending order 209

  17. 14.1 The proportion of known holders of some imperial offices during the Principate 277

  18. 14.2 The best preserved epigraphic evidence for senatus consulta from Augustus onwards 287

  19. 15.1 Roman statutes recorded on surviving inscriptions 301

  20. 15.2 Codes of Roman coloniae and municipia from Italy and the provinces 302

  21. 15.3 Treaties involving the Roman state attested epigraphically, 212/211–25 BCE 305

  22. 15.4 Private documents with legal content from surviving writing tablets 311

  23. 16.1 Military ranks below the centurionate (“Rangordnung”) 328

  24. 16.2 Auxiliary alae and cohortes stationed in Britain in 122 CE 329

  25. 18.1 Senatorial and equestrian grades from the late second century onwards 382

  26. 22.1 The main contents of CIL VI 472

  27. 25.1 Seat-inscriptions from Roman Amphitheatres, Theatres, Stadia 550

  28. 31.1 Inscriptions relating to tenant farming on imperial estates in the Bagradas valley, Africa Proconsularis 680

  29. III.1 The most common Roman male praenomina with their standard abbreviations 799

  30. III.2 Commonly abbreviated gentilicia in inscriptions 803

  31. III.3 The most common Roman onomastic formulae 804