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date: 21 November 2019

(p. 807) Roman Kinship Terms

(p. 807) Appendix IV Roman Kinship Terms

Latin terms, with some Greek equivalents, all attested epigraphically.

General Kin

General Kin

adfinis, γαμβρός

relative by marriage, affine

cognatus, συγγενής, συγγονός

blood relative

necessarii, ἀναγκαῖοι

relatives, kin

propinquus

relative, kinsman

proximus

nearest relative, very close kin

Collateral

Collateral

collactius or collactia, collacticius, -a, collactaneus, -a, συντροφός

fellow-nursling (whether a blood-relative or not)

collibertus, -a

fellow-freedman/woman

concubina

ongoing partner not formally united in marriage

coniunx, σύνβιος

spouse

conlactius, -a, conlaticius, -a, conlacteus, -a

See collactius, etc.

conliberta

fellow-freedwoman

conlibertus

fellow-freedman

conservus, conserva, συνδουλός

fellow-slave

contubernalis

literally “tent-mate”; i.e., ongoing marital partner who could not be one’s formal spouse in a lawful Roman marriage (iustum conubium)

frater, ἀδελφός

brother

frater gemellus

twin brother

gemina/gemella

twin sister

geminus/gemellus, δίδυμος

twin brother

gemini, δίδυμοι

twins

marita, γυνή

wife

maritus, ἀνήρ

husband

sobrinus, ἀνεψιός

cousin or nephew (strictly, child of one’s sister, but more generally any cousin)

soror, ἀδελφή

sister

soror gemella, διδύμα

twin sister

sponsa, ἔκδοτος

fiancée

sponsus

fiancé

uxor, γυνή

wife

γαμβρός

brother-in-law

πενθεριδῆς

brother-in-law; stepbrother

πένθερος or πενθεριδεύς

brother-in-law

Ascendant

(p. 808) Ascendant

abavus

great-great-grandfather

amita, πατρή

aunt (paternal)

anus, τήθη

grandmother

atavus or abavus patris

great-great-great-grandfather

avia, τήθη

grandmother (paternal/maternal)

avunculus, μήτρως

uncle (maternal)

avus, πάππος

grandfather

mamma

“mom,” “mummy” (also found as affectionate diminutive: mammula)

mater, μήτηρ

mother

matertera, τηθίς

aunt (maternal)

noverca, μητρυιά

stepmother

novercus, πατρυιός, κηδεστής

stepfather

pappus, πάππος

“papa” (affectionate term for grandfather or grandfatherly figure)

parens, γονεύς, γεννητής

parent, kinman, relative

pater, πατήρ

father

pater adoptivus, πατροποίητος or θρέψας

adoptive father

patronus, πατρῶνος

patron, i.e., former owner of slave

patruus, πάτρων, πατρῶιος or πατραδελφός

uncle (paternal)

proavus

great-grandfather

propatruus

great-grandfather’s brother

prosocer

wife’s grandfather

socer, πενθερός or γαμβρός

father-in-law

socra or socrus, πενθερά

mother-in-law

tata

“dad” (also found in affectionate diminutive form tatula); used to designate male childminders as well as biological fathers)

vitricus, κηδεστής

stepfather

Descendant

(p. 809) Descendant

abnepos

great-great-grandchild

alumnus, θρεπτός, τρόφιμος

foster-child

consobrinus, ἀνεψαδοῦς

cousin (strictly: the child of one’s mother’s sister; more generally, the child of mother’s brother or sister)

filia, θυγατήρ

daughter

filiaster, προγονός

stepson

filii, τεκνά

children

filius, ὑιός

son

filius adoptivus, θρεπτός

adopted son

filius fratris, ἀδελφιδοῦς

nephew (on one’s brother’s side)

gener, γαμβρός

son-in-law

liberi, παῖδες

children

libertα, ἀπελευθέρα

freedwoman

libertus, ἀπελεύθερος

freedman

nepos, ἔκγονος, ὑιδιοῦς, θυγατριδοῦς

grandson or nephew

neptis, ἔκγονος, παιδὸς θυγατήρ, θυγατριδῆ

granddaughter or niece

nurus

daughter-in-law

privigna, πρόγονος

stepdaughter

privignus, πρόγονος

stepson

progener

granddaughter’s husband

pronepos

great-grandson

proneptis

great-granddaughter

papilla, ὀρφανή

orphan (female)

pupillus, ὀρφανός

orphan (male)

sobrina, ἀνεψιά

cousin or niece (strictly, child of one’s sister, but more generally any cousin)

sobrinus, ἀνεψιός

cousin or nephew (strictly, child of one’s sister, but more generally any cousin)

sororis filia

niece (on sister’s side)

verna

housebred (house-born) slave

ἀδελφιδοῦς

nephew (brother’s son)

Childcare

Childcare

(p. 810)

collactius or collactia, collacticius, -a, collactaneus, -a

See under Collateral Kin

mamma

See under Ascendant Kin

nutritor, παιδευτής

child-rearer

nutrix, τροφός, τιτθή

wetnurse

paedagogus, παιδαγωγός

pedagogue, child-minder

papas

tutor, governor

tata

See under Ascendant Kin