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date: 21 November 2019

(p. 785) Epigraphic Conventions

(p. 785) Appendix I Epigraphic Conventions

The “Leiden System”

The “Leiden System”

f(ilius)

expansion of words abbreviated in the inscription

Corn[elio]

restoration of letters now lost through damage or loss of part of the inscription

ABC

letters are clear, but their significance is uncertain

ạ ḅ ḍ ṣ

only a small part of the letter survives as a result of damage or loss of part of the inscription, but it can be restored from the context

+ + +

traces of letters visible on the stone, but it is impossible to recognize what they are; one cross stands for each letter.

abc

letters were seen by a previous editor but are no longer visible

á é í ó ú

vowels marked with an apex

ì

I longa

âb

letters joined together in a nexus

[.]

one letter is lost that cannot be restored

[…]

letters lost that cannot be restored, the precise number of which can be conjectured (one full-stop for each lost letter)

[-c.5-]

letters lost that cannot be restored, the approximate number of which can be conjectured

[- - -]

letters lost that cannot be restored and their precise number cannot be conjectured

[- - - - - -]

loss of complete line

- - - - - -

loss of complete lines but their precise number cannot be ascertained

[[abc]]

letters erased from the original inscription

[[[abc]]]

letters erased from the original inscription, which the editors can restore

((abc))

the editor’s explanation of letters or symbols; e.g., inverted or retrograde letters, numerals ((decem milia)) or symbols ((centuria)), ((mulieris)).

{abc}

additional letters inscribed in error but suppressed by the editor

<abc>

letters incorrectly omitted but added by the editor

<<abc>>

letters inscribed in an erasure

abc

letters erroneously inscribed, but corrected by the editor

(vac)

space where no letters are inscribed

D •M •s

interpunction between words or letters

⊂columba⊃

image inserted into the inscription and described by the editor, commonly using Latin words (see p. 454 Fig. 21.2, p. 733 Fig. 33.4)

Additional Notes

(p. 786) Additional Notes

  1. 1. For reasons of space, editors sometimes prefer not to expand all abbreviations. In this case, a full-stop (i.e., a period) must be used to avoid any ambiguity.

  2. 2. Editors sometimes use (!) to indicate either spelling or grammatical errors in the inscribed text.

  3. 3. / is used by editors to indicate the end of a line.

  4. 4. // is used to separate texts written on different surfaces of the same monument.

  5. 5. When an apex appears in the Latin text, such as á or ó (see Figs. 14.3, 27.1, 35.3), the purpose was to mark a long vowel.