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date: 26 June 2019

(p. x) (p. xi) List of Figures

(p. x) (p. xi) List of Figures

  1. 3.1 Les Misérables, “the world’s longest running musical,” at the Queen’s Theatre, London, January 2009. Photo Derek B. Scott. 61

  2. 4.1 Joseph Urban. Costume drawings for a staged performance of Mendelssohn’s Die erste Walpurgisnacht at the Boston Opera, 1910. Joseph Urban Archive, Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Columbia University. 79

  3. 4.2 Oskar Achenbach, “Ananias.” Painting for a dramatized performance of Mendelssohn’s Paulus in Düsseldorf, 1870, using tableaux vivants. Theaterwissenschaftliche Sammlung Universität zu Köln. 80

  4. 4.3 Front page of libretto booklet for a dramatized production of Mendelssohn’s Elijah by the Moody-Manners Opera Company in London, 1920. The British Library, Northcott 155. 83

  5. 4.4 Photograph of Urban’s set drawing for the prologue of Liszt’s Saint Elizabeth at the Metropolitan Opera, 1918. Joseph Urban Archive, Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Columbia University. 86

  6. 4.5 Program for the production of Liszt’s Saint Elizabeth at the Metropolitan Opera, 1918. Joseph Urban Archive, Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Columbia University. 87

  7. 10.1 Friedrich Kind, Freischütz-Buch (1843), title page. Collection of John Warrack. 231

  8. 17.1 Isaac Robert Cruikshank, hand-colored etching, “The Cambridge Musical Squeeze!! -or- Double-Bass Entré to the Ochestra [sic].” © Victoria and Albert Museum, London. 389

  9. 18.1 Extract from Farinelli’s presentation manuscript. Reproduced by permission of the Musiksammlung der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek, Vienna, Mus.Hs.19111, fols. 51r–52v. 400

  10. 18.2 Senesino, depicted with soprano Faustina Bordoni, in a caricature drawn by Venetian artist and librarian Anton Maria Zanetti il Vecchio (entited Francesco Bernardio detto il Senesino e Faustina Bordoni). Reproduced from Zanetti’s album by permission of the Istituto di Storia dell’Arte della Fondazione Giorgio Cini, Venice. 403

  11. 18.3 For physiological and hormonal reasons, castrati also often had long limbs, which are evident in this depiction of Farinelli in a painting by Bartolomeo Nazari in the first year of Farinelli’s London sojourn, 1734, when the singer was twenty-nine years old. Image courtesy of the Royal College of Music, London. 409

  12. (p. xii) 19.1 Halévy, Charles VI, duo for Isabelle de Bavière and Odette, “Respect à ce Roi,” morceau détaché in GB-SO, fol. 24v. Collection of Mark Everist. 430

  13. 19.2 Charles VI, Opéra en 5 actes, Paroles de Mrs Germain et Casimir Delavigne. Musique de F. Halévy. Partition avec Acct de Piano, arrangée par Ch. Schwenke. Prix 40f net / a Paris, chez MCE SCHLESINGER, Rue Richelieu, 97, 45. 431

  14. 19.3 Halévy, Charles VI, duo for Isabelle de Bavière and Odette, “Respect à ce Roi,” manuscript vocal line of recitative in GB-SO, fol. 23v. Collection of Mark Everist. 432

  15. 19.4 Flotow, L’âme en peine, duo for Léopold and Paola, “Ô doux transport,” morceau détaché in GB-SO, fol. 55r. Collection of Mark Everist. 434

  16. 19.5 L’AME en PEINE / Opéra / En Deux Actes / Paroles de Mr de St Georges / Musique / DE / F. DE FLOTOW. / Prix net 12f / PARIS, chez F. BONOLDI, 13 Rue Taitbout, 29. 435

  17. 19.6 Flotow, L’âme en peine, duo for Léopold and Paola, “Ô doux transport,” MS addition in GB-SO, fol. 47v. Collection of Mark Everist. 436

  18. 19.7 Flotow, L’âme en peine, duo for Léopold and Paola, “Ô doux transport,” Dolorès Nau’s rôle, F-Po Mat.19. 357 (7). 437

  19. 21.1 Mark Morris’s production of Orfeo ed Euridice. Photo: Ken Howard/Metropolitan Opera. 461

  20. 22.1 Orchestra seating plans in Dresden, Paris, and Vienna with a proposed arrangement by Alexandre Choron. Alexandre Choron and Adrien de Lafage, Manuel complet de musique vocale et instrumentale, libro VI, Paris: Roret, 1836–1838. With appreciation for the assistance of the Institut de recherche sur le patrimoine musical en France (IRPMF, Paris). 490

  21. 22.2 “Théâtre de l’Opéra. Opéra de Charles VI, paroles de MM. Casimir et Germain Delavigne, musique de M. F. Halévy. Cinquième acte, dernière décoration.” In L’illustration, March 18, 1843, 41. Collection of Alessandro Di Profio. 491

  22. 22.3 “Théâtre de l’Opéra-Comique. Une scène d’Angélique et Médor (d’Ambroise Thomas).” In L’illustration, June 10, 1843, 237. Collection of Alessandro Di Profio. 492

  23. 22.4 “Théâtre-Italien. Une scène de Don Pasquale, deuxième acte.” In L’illustration, April 1, 1843, 72. With appreciation for the assistance of the Institut de recherche sur le patrimoine musical en France (IRPMF, Paris). 492

  24. 22.5 Verdi conducting the orchestra in a performance of Aida. In Le monde illustré, April 3, 1880. Collection of Alessandro Di Profio. 493

  25. 24.1 Pages of a Radamisto promptbook used in London, in 1720, featuring annotations that clarify details about entrances and exits, the placement of singers, and even sound effects. © Victoria and Albert Museum. 536

  26. (p. xiii) 24.2 Model for Angelo Quaglio II’s set designs for Act I of Tristan und Isolde. Photo by Rudolf Betz, reproduced courtesy of the Deutsches Theatermuseum. The model is housed at the Ludwig II Museum at Herrenchiemsee. 545

  27. 25.1 Red velvet tonnelet, 1741. © Victoria and Albert Museum, S.92-1978. 558

  28. 25.2 Hand-colored lithograph of André Deshayes as Achilles and James Harvey D’Egville as Ulysses in D’Egville’s ballet Achille et Déidamie at King’s Theatre 1804. © Victoria and Albert Museum, E.4973-1968. 559

  29. 25.3 William Richmond Blake, Portrait of Mrs. Luke Ionides, 1882. © Victoria and Albert Museum, E.1062:1, 2-2003. 565

  30. 25.4 Black and white photograph showing Julia Gwynne as “Saphir,” 1881. © Victoria and Albert Museum, S.146:144-2007. 569

  31. 25.5 “Daisy Wallpaper,” block printed in distemper colors, William Morris, 1864. © Victoria and Albert Museum, E.2222-1913. 570

  32. 25.6 Black and white photograph showing Alice Barnett as “Lady Jane,”1881. © Victoria and Albert Museum, S.146:143-2007. 570

  33. 25.7 Photograph of George Grossmith as Reginald Bunthorne in Patience at the Opera Comique, 1881. © Victoria and Albert Museum, S.146:183-2007. 571

  34. 25.8 Photograph of Rutland Barrington as Archibald Grosvenor in Patience at the Opera Comique. © Victoria and Albert Museum, S.146:181-2007. 572

  35. 25.9 Photograph of Oscar Wilde taken by the American photographer Napoleon Sarony. Wilde is dressed in knee breeches, quilted jacket and loose neck tie, 1882. National Portrait Gallery, NPG P24. 573

  36. 25.10 Richard Temple as Colonel Calverley, Durward Lely as Lieutenant the Duke of Dunstable, and Frank Thornton as Major Murgatroyd in Patience, at the Opera Comique. © Victoria and Albert Museum, S.146:163-2007. 574

  37. 26.1 Joachim Herz, Leipzig, 1976, Götterdämmerung, Act III, funeral march for Siegfried. From the Herz Nachlass with the kind permission of Dr. Kristel Pappel-Herz. 597

  38. 26.2 Joachim Herz, Leipzig, 1973, Rheingold, finale. From the Herz Nachlass with the kind permission of Dr. Kristel Pappel-Herz. 598

  39. 28.1 George Whitefield Chadwick, The Padrone: Opening page of autograph score. From the archives at New England Conservatory, Boston. 642

  40. 30.1 Jean-Antoine Watteau, The Pilgrimage to Cythera (Berlin: Charlottenburg Palace), oil on canvas, ca. 1718–1719. Art Resource. 679

  41. 32.1 During a journey to Cornwall, the Irish princess Isolde (Birgit Nilsson) broods on her betrayal by the Cornish knight Tristan, while the sailors mock her. Tristan und Isolde, Metropolitan Opera, 1971, set design by Günther Schneider-Siemssen. Photo: Frank Dunand / © the Metropolitan Opera Guild. 715

  42. (p. xiv) 35.1 Imperial League of Opera advertisement. MILO 1, no. 2 (November 1929), British Library shelfmark P.433/36. © The British Library Board. 789

  43. 35.2 Nineteenth-century bronze of Milo of Croton, sculptor unknown, Holland Park, London. Photograph © Alexandra Wilson. 791

  44. 36.1 Cindy Sadler as Baba the Turk in the Princeton Festival 2011 production of Igor Stravinsky’s The Rake’s Progress. Reproduced with the permission of the Princeton Festival. 808

  45. 36.2 Marilyn Horne as Samira in the Metropolitan Opera premiere production of John Corigliano’s The Ghosts of Versailles. Reproduced with the permission of the Metropolitan Opera Archives. 809

  46. 41.1 Title page to Henry Playford’s The Banquet of Music (1687). Reproduction courtesy of the Newberry Library. 902

  47. 41.2 Song from Bononcini’s Camilla (1707). Reproduction courtesy of the Newberry Library. 903

  48. 41.3 Title page to Cluer’s “Pocket” edition of Handel’s Julius Caesar (1724). Reproduction courtesy of the Newberry Library. 904

  49. 41.4 Transcription for harpsichord of the Chaconne de Phaeton de Mr. de Lully, in d’Anglebert, Pièces de clavecin (1689). Collection of Thomas Christensen. 906

  50. 41.5 Excerpt of Johann Adam Hiller’s “Ha, deiner Liebe droht” from Die Liebe auf dem Lande (1768). Reproduction courtesy of the Newberry Library. 909

  51. 41.6 Title page of an opera potpourri for four hands by “G. W. Marks” (ca. 1860). Collection of Thomas Christensen. 911

  52. 42.1 Griffi’s Tosca, Act I in Sant’Andrea Della Valle, with Plácido Domingo. © Rada Films. 930

  53. 42.2 Griffi’s Tosca, Act II in Palazzo Farnese, with Ruggero Raimondi and Catherine Malfitano. © Rada Films. 930

  54. 42.3 Griffi’s Tosca, Act III atop Castel Sant’Angelo, with Domingo. © Rada Films. 931

  55. 42.4 Jacquot’s Tosca, black-and-white cutaway to recording studio in Act I, with Antonio Pappano, conductor, and Orchestra & Chorus of the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden. © Avatar Films. 933

  56. 42.5 Jacquot’s Tosca, entrance of Tosca in Act I, with Angela Gheorghiu. © Avatar Films. 934

  57. 42.6 Jacquot’s Tosca, “Trionfal di nova speme” in Act III, with Roberto Alagna and Gheorghiu. © Avatar Films. 934

  58. 42.7 Jacquot’s Tosca, grainy shot of “casetta” in Act I. © Avatar Films. 935

  59. 42.8 Jacquot’s Tosca, black-and-white cutaway to Ruggero Raimondi in Act I. © Avatar Films. 937

  60. 43.1 Thomas Rowlandson, John Bull at the Italian Opera, Print (London, October 2, 1811). Hand-colored etching, ink and wash on paper. Harry Beard Collection, Victoria and Albert Museum, S.4652-2009. © Victoria and Albert Museum, London. 945

  61. (p. xv) 43.2 Al Hirschfeld, Pavarotti, drawing. © AL HIRSCHFELD. Reproduced by arrangement with Hirschfeld’s exclusive representative, The MARGOT FEIDEN GALLERIES LTD., NEW YORK. WWW.ALHIRSCHFELD.COM. 946

  62. 43.3 Raphael, The Meeting of Leo the Great and Attila (1514). Photo: Vatican Museums. 955

  63. 49.1 Jonathan Swift, A Cantata. The Works of Jonathan Swift, Dean of St. Patrick’s, Dublin, edited by John Hawkesworth (London: 1754), VII: 435. 1079

  64. 50.1 Jake Heggie, Moby-Dick, first page of Prelude. The composer’s autograph score. 1104

  65. 50.2 Jake Heggie, Moby-Dick, Ahab’s Walk (Act I, scene 1, mm. 1–10). The composer’s autograph score. 1105

  66. 50.3 Whaleboats against a starry sky. © Karen Almond, Dallas Opera. 1108

  67. 50.4 The Pequod with sailors in the rigging. © Karen Almond, Dallas Opera. 1108