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date: 16 June 2019

Abstract and Keywords

Chapter 38 examines the itineraries of opera in the early modern period, focusing on the motivations, politics, and objectives of the producers and sponsors who paid for the travels of opera and the recruitment of opera singers. Travel was not only essential to the spread of opera within Italy and beyond, but also integral to the survival of the genre. Opera proved itself adaptable, but the model that was developed especially for the business of public opera in Venice was the genre most frequently heard elsewhere. In Madrid and the Spanish dominions, however, opera was only rarely performed before the mid-eighteenth century because partly sung genres were preferred and more easily produced within the well-honed mechanisms of Hispanic theatrical production. Nevertheless, in 1701 opera reached the Americas, and shortly thereafter audiences in London heard the first public performances by virtuoso Italian singers, including castrati.

Keywords: itineraries, producers, sponsors, Madrid, Spain, Hispanic, Americas, Venice, singers

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