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date: 21 February 2020

(p. 335) Index

(p. 335) Index

Note: The locators with “f” and “t” denotes a figure or table in that page.

A
A Return to Love: Reflections on the Principles of a Course in Miracles, 254
Abundance approach, 4–5
challenges of, 5–6
described, 4, 5
in POS system, 256
Academy of Management Review, 314
Acquiescence, area of, in goal striving and mental health, 181–82, 181f
Adaptive self-reflection, 42
Adhocracy quadrant, in CVF, 57f, 59–60
Advancement, as factor in employee engagement, 127
Altruism, in moral courage, 271
American Psychological Association, 7, 31
American Psychologist, 7
“Anonymous” leadership, 96
Anxiety, of Generation Me-ers, 30–31
Appreciative Inquiry, 6
described, 86
in positive psychology, 74–75
Authentic followership, 44
Authentic Happiness Coaching, 293
Authentic leadership development (ALD), 39–51
core positive psychological resources for, 42–44
described, 41–42
developmental readiness in, 42
foundational measure of, 46
generalizing across cultures, 48
reciprocal and reinforcing effects of, 44–46
self-awareness in, 41
self-reflection in, 41–42
trigger events in, 41
Authentic leadership development (ALD), in PsyCap, 279
Authentic Leadership Questionnaire (ALQ), 46–47
components of, 46–47
construct validity of, empirical evidence for, 47
B
Baby boomers
defined, 25
impending retirements of, 16–17
retirements in Europe (Finland), 18
Balance
change and, 75
work-life, 201–12. See also Work-life balance
Balanced Experiential Inquiry, 87
Balanced processing, in ALD, 46
Behavior(s)
change-related, 70–71
leadership, 75–76
organizational citizenship, 156
Bem Sex-Role Inventory, 32
Benefit(s)
individual, 136–37
job-related, as factor in employee engagement, 126–27
organizational, 137
Best Self Introduction, 293–94
Border theory, 202–4, 203f
Boundary(ies)
adjusting across, in POS system, 259f, 262–63
sharing across, in POS system, 259f, 262
Boundary integration, 202
Boundary management research, for organizations, implications of, 204–5
Boundary management strategies, integration or segmentation, 202–4, 203f
Boundary separation/segmentation, 202
Boundary theory, 202
Bravery, in moral courage, 270
Broaden-and-build positive psychological perspective, of Fredrickson, 145–47
“Building a Values-Driven Organization: A Whole-System Approach to Cultural Transformation”, 256–57
Bullying. See also Workplace bullying
defined, 266
organizational, moral courage in response to, 265–76. See also Workplace bullying, moral courage in response to
organizational context of, 266
workplace, moral courage in response to, 265–76. See also Workplace bullying, moral courage in response to
Bureau of Labor Statistics, 19, 121
Business Process Re-engineering, 73
Business Week, 27
Business Week Customer Service Champs awards, 59
C
“Calling,” 161
Capital
human, emerging challenges, 17–18
Cardiovascular health, PWB and, 147–50
Career-management strategies, 21–22
Carondelet Health Network, 18
Case Western Reserve University, Weatherhead School of Management at, 331
Census Bureau, 15
Center for Business, as Agent of World Benefit, 331
Center for Creative Leadership, 20, 327
Center for Positive Organizational Scholarship (CPOS), at University of Michigan's Ross School of Business, 251
Centre of Applied Positive Psychology (CAPP), 7, 324
CH2M Hill, 61
Challenge, in positive engagement model, 161
“Challenging the Process,” 253
Change
approaches to, 69f, 75
balance and, 75
behaviors associated with, 70–71
complexity and, 68
directive, 69f, 70
emergent, 69f, 70
failure in effective management of, studies of, 68
leadership and, 67–80. See also Positive emotions, change and
described, 67–68
(p. 336) master, 69f, 70
positive emotions and, 75
research insights in, applications of, 76–79
self-assembly, 69f, 70
understanding of, positive psychology in, 73–75
Character
focus on, as leadership strength, 96
strengths of, work satisfaction related to, 221–31
preliminary study, 223–28, 225t227t
conclusion from, 228–29
described, 223–24
method of, 224, 225t
results of, 225–28, 226t227t
Character strengths, mindfulness and, 193
“Characteristics of Admired Leaders,” 97
Chartered Management Institute (CMI), 95–97
Childcare, on-site, in facilitation of work-life balance, 206
CIPD study, 161
City Year Youth Service Corps, 59
Clan quadrant, in CVF, 57f, 58–59
Clifton StrengthsFinder, 214–16
administration of, 215
applications of, 215–16
feedback from, 215
Clifton StrengthsFinder profile, 100
Climate, family-friendly, in facilitation of work-life balance, 206–7
Coaching
described, 176, 176f
developmental, 177
executive, general effectiveness of, evidence for, 178–79
external, defined, 176–77
goal striving in, 180
mindfulness and, 194–95
performance, 177
to promote flourishing workforce, 175–88
self-concordance and, 180
skills, 177
using applied positive psychology, 177–78
outcomes related to, evidence for, 178
well-being in, 180
in workplace
case study, 184–85
general effectiveness of, evidence for, 178–79
implementation of, 183–85
internal and external, 176–77
languishing-flourishing model of, toward, 179–80
Cognitive broadening, 87–88
Cognitive restructuring, examples of, 150–51
Collaborate quadrant, in CVF, 57f, 58–59
Collective resourcefulness, described, 54
Commitment, organizational, 156
defined, 122
Common understanding, creation of, in POS system, 259–60, 259f
Community, strong building of, transformative cooperation and, 90
Compassion, in moral courage, 271
Compensation, described, 207
Compete quadrant, in CVF, 57f, 60–61
Competing Values Framework (CVF), 56–62, 57f, 257–58
adhocracy or create quadrant in, 57f, 59–60
clan or collaborate quadrant in, 57f, 58–59
hierarchy or control quadrant in, 57f, 61–62
market or compete quadrant in, 57f, 60–61
quadrants in, comparison of, 57f
Complexity, change and, 68
Composition, defined, 150
Comprehension, 133
Compressed workweek, in facilitation of work-life balance, 205–6
Conference Board, 158
Confidence, defined, 43
Conflict, work-family, 201–12. See also Work-family conflict
Connection(s)
organizational, comprehension, purpose and, 135–36, 135f
positive, 251
Control, locus of, change in, of Generation Me, 30–31
Control quadrant, in CVF, 57f, 61–62
Cooperation, transformative, working positively toward, 81–94. See also Transformative cooperation
Core positive psychological resources, for ALD, 42–44
Core Q, 217
Corporate Leadership Council, 164–65
Corporate responsibility, 90
Courage, moral. See Moral courage
Create quadrant, in CVF, 57f, 59–60
Culture(s), as factor in ALD, 48
Customer(s), focusing on, as leadership strength, 96
Cynicism, of young worker in global age, 308
D
Decision-making, ethical, in HRM, 267–68
Deficit approach, 4–5
Demographic changes
emerging challenges, 17–18
organizational impacts of, 15–17
Department for Work and Pensions, 189
Department of Health, 189
Department of Trade and Industry (DTI), of Britain, 95–97
De-polarizing, of leader's way of operating, 114
Depression, of Generation Me-ers, 30–31
Design, 157
Desire and decision to act, factors influencing movement to and from, 272–74, 272f
Development, learning and, positive psychology, HR, and, 326–27
Developmental coaching, 177
Developmental readiness, in ALD, 42
Deviance
continuum of, 54–55, 55f
negative, described, 54
positive. See Positive deviance
Directive change, 69f, 70
Disciplined approach, as leadership strength, 102
Distressed but functional area, in goal striving and mental health, 181f, 182
E
E-commerce, technology and, 14–15
Efficacy, ethical, in moral courage, 270
Elder(s), disrespect toward, by Generations X and Me, 20–21
Elderly, per cent of population, 16
Electroencephalogram (EEG), in PWB determination, 144
Emergent change, 69f, 70
Emotion(s), positive. See Positive emotion(s)
Employee(s)
individual, positive psychology and, 330–31
well-being of, in organizational research, 143–54. See also Psychological well-being (PWB), of employees
Employee engagement, 122
definitions of, 158–159, 158t
driving organizational performance through, 163t164t
problems associated with, 128–29
psychology of joining, staying in, and leaving organizations and, 121–30. See also Organization(s)
(p. 337) reasons for, 125–27
advancement, 127
benefits, 126–27
interest/job fit, 126
research related to, 129
strategies for, in POS system, 257
in strengths development, 217–18
Employee turnover
moderating of, 124–25
strengths development and, 218
Employee well-being, in organizational research, 143–54. See also Psychological well-being (PWB), of employees
Empowering others, as leadership strength, 96
Enabler(s), of positive strategies, 56–62, 57f. See also Competing Values Framework (CVF); Positive strategies, enablers of
Engagement. See also Positive engagement
concept of, 156
defined, 156, 158–159, 158t
described, 156
driving, 165–66
employee
definitions of, 158–159, 158t
workplace happiness related to, 155–72
external drivers of, 166–69
to happiness, 160, 160f
impact of, 163–65, 163t164t
internal drivers of, 167–69
measuring of, 162–63
in organizations, moderating of, 124–25
positive, 155–72. See also Positive engagement
roots of, 156–58
Engagement chain, 159f
“Engagement Equation,” 165–66
Engineering, situational, 150–51
defined, 150
Enjoyment, in positive engagement model, 160–61
Environment(s), positive work, for individuals and organizations, 119–72
Essay Concerning Human Understanding, 144
Ethic(s)
in HRM, 267
work, among Generations X and Me, 20
Ethical decision-making, in HRM, 267–68
Ethical efficacy, in moral courage, 270
Eudaimonia, 144
Europe, baby-boomer retirements in, 18
Executive coaching, general effectiveness of, evidence for, 178–79
Expectation(s), high, of Generation Me, 27–29
Experience, as leadership strength, 100–1
Exposed weaknesses, 325
External coaching, defined, 176–77
External drivers of engagement, 166–69
F
Facilitated Learning Opportunity (FLO), 289
Facilitation, work-family, 201–12. See also Work-family facilitation
Family-friendly climate, in work-life balance, 206–7
“Fatal” flaws, 98
taming of, 101–2
Federation of European Employers, 121
Feedback, positive
for leaders, needs for, 107–9
resistance to, by leaders, 109–10
Female(s), in work force, 16
Financial Times, 28
Finland, baby-boomer retirements in, 18
“Flaws,” fatal, 98
taming of, 101–2
Flextime, in facilitation of work-life balance, 205
FLO: Mirroring the Positive Workplace, 298
Flourishing
in goal striving and mental health, 181, 181f
promoting of, positive psychology in, 183–84
Flow, 157
mindfulness and, 192–93
Followership, authentic, 44
Frankfurt School of Critical Theory, 316
Freedom, moral, of young worker in global age, 305
G
Gallup meta-analysis studies, engagement and turnover in, 122–25
Gallup Organization, 6, 8, 89–90, 121–25, 162, 228, 324
Gallup poll, on Who took better advantage of change in your industry over the past 10 years—newcomers, traditional competitors, or your own company?”, 14
Gallup researchers, 122
in strengths assessment, 214–16
Gallup Workplace Audit, 327
Generation(s), global distribution of, 18–19
Generation Me (Generation Y), 7, 19
anxiety in, 30–31
change in locus of control of, impact on beliefs about work, 30–31
changing world of work and, 25–35
defined, 25
depression of, 30–31
disrespect of elders by, 20–21
high expectations of, 27–29
lack of strong work ethic of, 20
narcissism of, 27
as narcissists, 27
need for social approval by, changes in, 29–30
personalities of, changes in, 31–32
prefer to go it alone by, 21
self-esteem among, 27
self-focused traits of, 27–29
women's roles of, changes in, 31–32
work ethic of, 20
work values of, 32–33
Generation X, 16, 19, 25
disrespect of elders by, 20–21
lack of strong work ethic of, 20
prefer to go it alone by, 21
work ethic of, 20
Generation Y. See Generation Me
Generational differences, 26
workplace effects of, 26
Generations at Work, 26
Global age, young worker in, 301–11. See also Young worker, in global age
Global Assessment of Functioning Scale, 182–83
Global competition for jobs, 19–20, 19f
Global distribution of generations, 18–19
Global Leadership Institute, 39
Goal striving
model of, 175–88
Going it alone, by Generations X and Me, 21
Good, positive leadership, defined, 39
GoodWork Project, 302–8
changing contexts, 308–9
cynicism, 308
described, 302–3
future directions, 309
idealism, 308
lack of mentorship, 305–6
misdirected goals, 305
moral freedom, 305
pragmatism, 308
pressures and current issues for young adults, 304
responsibility of, 304–5
youth development in, 303–4
GoodWork Toolkit, described, 306–8
Google Lab Aptitude Test (GLAT), 58
Grand Mean, 217–18
Great Depression, 31
Group(s), humans in, 236
(p. 338) H
Handbook of Positive Psychology, 314
Happiness, from engagement to, 160, 160f
“Happiness” formula, 165–66
Happy-Productive Worker Thesis, 151
HayGroup, 162
Health
cardiovascular, PWB and, 147–50
mental, 175–88. See also Mental health
organizational, strategies to enhance, 150–51
“Health, Work and Well-Being” strategy, 189–90
Health and Safety Executive, 189
Heritability, leadership and, 40
Hierarchy quadrant, in CVF, 57f, 61–62
High expectations, of Generation Me, 27–29
High quality connections (HQCs), in POS system, 258
“Highly offshorable” jobs, 19–20, 19f
Hispanics, in work force, 16
“Homo sentimentalis,” at work, positivity and, 315–17
Hope
defined, 43, 278
in moral courage, 271
Human(s), in groups, 236
Human capital, emerging challenges, 17–18
Human resource(s) (HR), positive psychology and, 326–27
Human Resource Management (HRM), 265
contemporary, context of, 266–68
ethics within, 267
Human Resource Practitioners (HRPs), 265
I
Ideal Workplace individual assignment, 295–96
Idealism, of young worker in global age, 308
Imposter phenomenon, 113
“In Praise of the Incomplete Leader,” 97
Individual(s)
benefits for, 136–37
benefits of engaging in meaningful work by, 131–42
leave companies vs. leave managers, 127–28
positive work environments for, 119–72
Individual betterment, strategies to enhance, 150–51
Individual employees, positive psychology and, 330–31
Information Age, 28
“Informed opportunist,” 21
Input-Process-Output (IPO) model, positive, 235–49. See also Positive Input-Process-Output (IPO) model
Inspirational leadership framework, 96, 97f
Inspirational Leadership Tool (ILT), 95, 97–98
Integration, boundary, 202
Integrity, in moral courage, 271
Intentional non-striving, 181
Interest, in job, as factor in employee engagement, 126
Internal drivers of engagement, 167–69
Internal workplace coaching, defined, 176
Internalized moral perspective, in ALD, 46–47
Ipsos MORI survey, 103
I/Q psychology, 5
J
Job(s)
global competition for, 19–20, 19f
“highly offshorable,” 19–20, 19f
new, types of, 21
transactional, 21
transformational, 21
Job fit, as factor in employee engagement, 126
Job involvement, defined, 156–57
Job satisfaction, 157
Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 277
Jungian theory, 114
K
Kindness, in moral courage, 271
Knowledge
as leadership strength, 100–1
tacit, 21
Knowledge management
defined, 17
emerging challenges, 17–18
Knowledge-transfer programs, 18
L
Languishing
area of, in goal striving and mental health, 181f, 182
defined, 179
Languishing-flourishing model
of goal striving and mental health, 180–83
area of acquiescence in, 181–82, 181f
area of distressed but functional in, 181f, 182
area of flourishing in, 181, 181f
area of languishing in, 181f, 182
area of psychopathology in, 181f, 182–83
of workplace coaching, toward, 179–80
Leader(s)
lacking knowledge of strengths by, 108
need for mirror held up to their strengths by, 108–9
positive feedback needs of, 107–9
positive psychology of, 107–17, 327–28
assess for lopsided leadership, 113–14
assess strengths and their overuse, 111–12, 111f, 112f
challenges faced by, 109–10
how strengths become weaknesses, 110
resistance to positive feedback, 109–10
de-polarize leader's way of operating, 114
practical applications of, 110–14, 111f, 112f
research and practice suggestions, 114
temper leader's strengths when overused, 112
temper overplayed strengths by internalizing strengths, 112–13
positively deviant, as strategic guides, 54–56, 55f
Leadership
“anonymous,” 96
behaviors and practices related to, 75–76
change-related, 67–80. See also Positive emotion(s), change and
dimensions of, 96–97, 97f
good, positive, defined, 39
heritability and, 40
interventions related to, 40–41
lopsided, assess for, 113–14
meaning and, 137–38
organizational, positive, 37–117
positive
defined, 39
in POS system, 258
positively defiant, 53–65. See also Positively deviant leadership
supportive, in positive IPO model, 237f, 244
Leadership strengths, 95–105
disciplined approach as, 102
empowering others, 96
focus on character, 96
focusing on customers, 96
future research related to, questions related to, 102
identification of, 100
lack of knowledge by leaders, 108
overplayed, tempering of, 112–13
passion as, 101
positive psychological perspective for understanding, 98–99
(p. 339) skills, experience, and knowledge as, 100–1
taming “fatal” flaws in, 101–2
tempering when overused, 112
Leadership Versatility Index, 111–14
Leadership Versatility Index 360-degree feedback survey, 107
Learned optimism, 150–51
mindfulness and, 193
Learning, in positive IPO model, 237f, 242–43
Learning and development, positive psychology, HR, and, 326–27
Locus of control, change in, of Generation Me, 30–31
M
Making the Impossible Possible, 256
Maladaptive self-reflection, 42
Malcolm Baldridge National Quality Award in Health Care, 62
Management and the Worker, 148
Manager(s)
as factor in employee engagement, 127–28
positive psychology and, 328–30
Managing Generation X, 26
Market quadrant, in CVF, 57f, 60–61
Master change, 69f, 70
Mature personality, 134–35
McKinsey Global Institute, 17, 21
Meaning
leadership and, 137–38
in positive engagement model, 161–62
work as, 131–42. See also Work, as meaning
Meaningful work, individual and organizational benefits of engaging in, 131–42. See also Work, as meaning
Meaningfulness
at work, 133
in work, 133
Meaning-making, positive, 251, 255
Measuring, in positive engagement model, 162–63
Mental health
described, 179
model of, 175–88
Mental illness, described, 179
Mentorship, lack of, of young worker in global age, 305–6
Mindful Attention Awareness Scale, 193
Mindfulness
applied positive psychology, 192–95
character strengths and, 193
coaching and, 194–95
described, 192
developing, 195–96, 196t
flow and, 192–93
four-step approach in, 196, 196t
learned optimism and, 193
stress reduction and, 194
time perspective and, 193–94
in transformative cooperation, 82
in workplace, 189–200
benefits of, 190
business case, 191–92
described, 190, 196–98, 197f
individual case, 190–91
Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR), 194
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, 31
Moral courage
components of, 270–71
process of, 271–74, 272f
in response to workplace bullying, 265–76. See also Workplace bullying, moral courage in response to
Moral freedom, of young worker in global age, 305
Moral perspective, internalized, in ALD, 46–47
Motivation, workplace, 157
Myers Briggs Type Indicator Form M, in positive workplace, 292
N
Narcissism, among Generation Me, 27
Narcissist(s), described, 27
Narcissistic Personality Inventory, 26
Narrative Report for Organizations, in positive workplace, 292
Negative deviance, described, 54
Negativity, necessity of, 317–18
Nicomachean Ethics, 144
Non-striving, intentional, 181
O
Occupational psychology, 5
“Offshorable” jobs, 19–20, 19f
Older workers, finding and keeping, challenges related to, 18
On-site childcare, in facilitation of work-life balance, 206
Operari, defined, 82
Optimism
defined, 43, 278
learned, 150–51
mindfulness and, 193
in moral courage, 271
in positive IPO model, 237f, 241–42
Optimization, described, 207
Organization(s). See also Employee engagement
benefits of, 126–27
boundary management research for, implications of, 204–5
demographic changes and impacts on, 15–17
engaging in meaningful work by, benefits of, 131–42
to facilitate work-life balance, 205–7
interest/job fit in, 126
joining, 122
moderating engagement and turnover in, 124–25
pay of, 126–27
people leaving, 127–28
positive psychology in, described, 324
positive work environments for, 119–72
problems associated with, 128–29
psychology of joining, staying in, and learning in, 121–30
research related to, 129
staying in or leaving, 122, 125–27
success in, creation of, in POS system, 259f, 260–62
therapeutic, tyranny of wellness in, 318–19
values-driven, in POS system, 256–57
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), 18
Organizational benefits, 137
Organizational bullying, moral courage in response to, 265–76. See also Workplace bullying, moral courage in response to
Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB), 156
Organizational commitment, 156
defined, 122
Organizational connection, comprehension, purpose, and, 135–36, 135f
Organizational development and change (ODC), strengths-based, 81–82
Organizational engagement strategy, development of, 169
Organizational health, strategies to enhance, 150–51
Organizational leadership, positive, 37–117
Organizational performance, through employee engagement, 163t164t
Organizational support, perceived, 30
Organizational virtuousness, in POS system, 257
(p. 340) P
Passion, as leadership strength, 101
Pay, as factor in employee engagement, 126–27
Perceived organizational support, 30
Performance, enhancement of, paying attention to, 189–200. See also Mindfulness, in workplace
Performance coaching, 177
“Personal Mastery,” 253
Personality(ies)
mature, 134–35
of women Generation Me-ers, changes in, 31–32
Positive approaches, in world of work, emergence of, 6–7
Positive connections, 251
Positive deviance, 251
defined, 252
described, 54, 253–54
Positive emotion(s), 251, 255
benefits of, 83–84
broaden-and-build theory of, 83–84
change and, 67–80. See also Change
described, 75
research insights into, applications of, 76–79
research studies, 69–73, 69f
favorable outcomes associated with, 83
Positive emotional climates, transformative cooperation due to, 88f
Positive engagement. See also Engagement
driving, 165–66
from employee engagement to workplace happiness, 155–72
external drivers of, 166–69
impact of, 163–65, 163t164t
internal drivers of, 167–69
measuring of, 162–63
model of, 159–60, 159f, 160f
challenge in, 161
enjoyment in, 160–61
meaning in, 161–62
Positive feedback
for leaders, needs for, 107–9
resistance to, by leaders, 109–10
Positive Input-Process-Output (IPO) model, 235–49
described, 236–37, 237f
develop team attachment in, 237f, 240–41
encourage positive team relationships in, 237f, 239–40
ensure clear and evolving roles in, 237f, 239
inputs in, 237–41, 237f
learning in, 237f, 242–3
optimism in, 237f, 241–42
outputs in, 237f, 245–6
positively value team diversity in, 237f, 238–39
potency in, 237f, 241
processes in, 237f, 241–45
provide inspiring team task in, 237–38, 237f
reflexivity in, 237f, 243
social support in, 237f, 244–45
supportive leadership in, 237f, 244
trust in, 237f, 243–44
Positive leadership
defined, 39
in POS system, 258
Positive meaning-making, 251, 255
Positive organization(s)
building of, 323–33
models for, 233–98
positive psychology and, 331
toward, 102–3
Positive organizational leadership, 37–117
Positive Organizational Scholarship (POS), 53–65, 328
described, 53–56, 252–54
in world of work, 251–64
abundance approach, 256
adjust across boundaries, 259f, 262–63
create common understanding, 259–60, 259f
create pockets of success in organization, 259f, 260–62
described, 254–63
employee engagement strategies, 257
HQCs, 258
implementation of, 259, 259f
organizational virtuousness, 257
positive leadership, 258
select early adopters, 259f, 260
sharing across boundaries, 259f, 262
strengths-based approach, 256
values-driven organization, 256–57
Positive outcomes, work-family facilitation and, 209
Positive Practices Assessment, 257
Positive psychological capital (PsyCap), 278–79
Positive psychological perspective, broaden-and-build, of Fredrickson, 145–47
Positive psychological resources, for ALD, 42–44
Positive psychology. See also Character, strengths of
applied, mindfulness as, 192–95
applied to work, 99–100
Appreciative Inquiry in, 74–75
change and, 67–80
in changing world of work, 11–35
coaching using, 177–78
outcomes related to, evidence for, 178
critiques of, 313–22
HR and, 326–27
individual employees and, 330–31
language of, in workplace, 290
of managers, 328–30
in organizations, described, 324
positive organizations and, 331
to promote flourishing, 183–84
to promote flourishing workforce, 175–88
in understanding change success, 73–75
in understanding leadership strengths, 98–99
work psychologists and consultants in, 324–36, 325f
work-family facilitation and, 208
in workplace, making case for, 290
Positive Psychology in Practice, 7
Positive relations, 255
Positive strategies, enablers of, 53–65. See also Positively deviant leadership
Competing Values Framework in, 56–62, 57f. See also Competing Values Framework
described, 56–62, 57f
Positive tensions, in POS system, 257–58
Positive work environments, for individuals and organizations, 119–72
Positive working life, enabling of, 173–231
Positive workplace
audiences for, 291
building of, 85–87, 88f, 289–98
business case for, 291
corporate structure, 295
development of, 290
fieldwork for, experiences and learning from, 296–97
future directions in, 297
ideal workplace, individual and team assignments at University of Maryland, 295–96
mirroring of, 291–92
self-assessment in, 292–93
Positively deviant leaders, as strategic guides, 54–56, 55f
Positively deviant leadership, 53–65
as enabler of strategy, 54
enablers of positive strategies in, 56–62, 57f. See also Positive strategies, enablers of
focus of, 55
Positivity, “homo sentimentalis” at work and, 315–17
Postemotionality, 317–18
Potency, in positive IPO model, 237f, 241
Practice(s), leadership, 75–76
Pragmatism, of young worker in global age, 308
Problem-solving approach, described, 4–5
(p. 341) Processing, balanced, in ALD, 46
Productivity, strengths development in workplace and, 218
Profitability, strengths development in workplace and, 218
Psychological capital (PsyCap)
application of, challenges facing, 279–81
defined, 278
positive, background of, 278–79
recent developments in, 279
research related to, challenges facing, 279–81
theory of, challenges facing, 279–81
in workplace, integrated model of, 277–88
described, 281–85, 282f
Psychological Capital Assessment, 293
Psychological Capital Questionnaire (PCQ), 279
Psychological well-being (PWB)
cardiovascular health and, 147–50
characteristics of, 144
defined, 143–45
of employees
EEG measurement in, 144
future research directions related to, 151
in organizational research, 143–54
strategies to enhance individual betterment and organizational health, 150–51
in workplace, 145
Psychology
I/Q, 5
occupational, 5
positive. See Positive psychology
work-family facilitation and, 208
Psychopathology, area of, in goal striving and mental health, 181f, 182–83
Purpose, 133–34
Pygmalion research, 40
Q
Q12, 123
Question of Character, 257
R
Rainmaker Thinking, 20
Rasmussen survey, 103
Readiness, developmental, in ALD, 42
Realized strengths, 325
Reflected Best Self Exercise, 293
Refexivity, in positive IPO model, 237f, 243
Relation(s), positive, 255
Relational transparency, in ALD, 47
Relationship building, 88–90
Research
boundary management, for organizations, implications of, 204–5
change-related, applications of, 76–79
Pygmalion, 40
Research and development, changes in, 14
Resilience
defined, 43
in moral courage, 270
Resiliency, defined, 278
Resourcefulness, collective, described, 54
Responsibility(ies)
corporate, 90
of young worker in global age, 304–5
Restructuring, cognitive, examples of, 150–51
Retail, changes in, 15
Rocky Flats Nuclear Arsenal, 3–5, 61–62
Ross School of Business, of University of Michigan, CPOS of, 251
S
Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, 96
Selection
described, 207
Optimization, and Comprehension (SOC), 207
Self-assembly change, 69f, 70
Self-assessments, in positive workplace, 292–93
Self-awareness
in ALD, 41, 47
as leadership strength, 99–100
Self-concordance, coaching and, 180
Self-efficacy
defined, 278
in moral courage, 270
Self-esteem, among Generation Me, 27
Self-focused traits, of Generation Me, 27–29
Self-reflection
adaptive, 42
in ALD, 41–42
maladaptive, 42
Self-regulation, generic cycle of, 176, 176f
Separation/segmentation, boundary, 202
Situational engineering, 150–51
defined, 150
Skill(s)
described, 213–14
as leadership strength, 100–1
Skills coaching, 177
Social approval, need for, by Generation Me, 29–30
Social support
defined, 244
in positive IPO model, 237f, 244–45
Software development, changes in, 14–15
SSM Healthcare System, 62
State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, 26
Strategy(ies)
boundary management, integration or segmentation, 202–4, 203f
career-management, 21–22
core of, 54
Strength(s). See also Leadership strengths
assessment of, Clifton StrengthsFinder in, 214–16
character
mindfulness and, 193
work satisfaction related to, 221–31. See also Character, strengths of, work satisfaction related to
described, 213–14
development of, in workplace, 213–20. See also Strengths development, in workplace
leadership, 95–105. See also Leadership strengths
realized, 325
unrealized, 325
Strengthening the World, 331
Strengths development
Clifton StrengthsFinder in, 215–16
in workplace, 213–20
applications of, 216–17
employee engagement in, 217–18
employee turnover and, 218
productivity and, 218
profitability and, 218
Strengths-based approach, in POS system, 256
Strengths-based ODC, 81–82
Stress reduction, mindfulness and, 194
“Succession planning,” 16–17
Supportive leadership, in positive IPO model, 237f, 244
T
Tacit knowledge, 21
Team Ideal Workplace assignment, 295–96
Team working, positive psychology of, 235–49. See also Positive Input-Process-Output (IPO) model
Technology, e-commerce and, 14–15
Telecommunications, changes in, 15
Telecommuting, in facilitation of work-life balance, 206
Tension(s), positive, in POS system, 257–58
The Effective Executive, 6
The Human Side of Enterprise, 6
The Reflected Best-Self Instrument, 256
The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, 6
The Xers and the Boomers, 27
Theory(ies)
border, 202–4, 203f
boundary, 202
Jungian, 114
Theory X, 6
(p. 342) Therapeutic organization, tyranny of wellness in, 318–19
Three Approaches to Happiness assessment, in positive workplace, 292
Time perspective, mindfulness and, 193–94
Traditionalists, defined, 25
Training, defined, 150
Transactional jobs, 21
Transformation, cooperation and, 82–83
Transformational jobs, 21
Transformative cooperation
building strong community and, 90
cognitive broadening and, 87–88
defined, 83
described, 82–83
future research for, 90–91
implications of, 90–91
mindfulness in, 82
positive emotion(s) and, 83–84
positive emotional climates and, 88f
relationship building and, 88–90
working positively toward, 81–94
in workplace, 85–87, 88f
Trigger events, in ALD, 41
“Triple bottom line,” 4
Trust
defined, 243
in positive IPO model, 237f, 243–44
Turnover, employee
moderating of, 124–25
strengths development and, 218
20% work rule, basis of, 60
21st century, work changes in, 13–14
U
Understanding, common, creation of, in POS system, 259–60, 259f
Unexposed weaknesses, 325
University of Maryland, individual and team assignments at, 295–96
University of Michigan, Ross School of Business of, CPOS of, 251
Unrealized strengths, 325
U.S. Department of Energy, 3
U.S. Department of Labor, 17
projections of work force changes by, 15–16
Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES), 162
V
Value(s)
across generations, similarities, 20–21
work-related, of Generation Me-ers, 32–33
Values in Action (VIA) Classification of Strengths, 8
Values in Action (VIA) Initiative, 222
Values in Action (VIA) Inventory of Strengths, in positive workplace, 292–94
Values in Action (VIA) Project, 222–23
Values in Action (VIA) Signature Strengths Questionnaire, 183, 193
Values in Action (VIA) Strengths (VIA-IS), 224
Values in Action (VIA) Strengths (VIA-IS) Inventory for Business, 298
Values in Action (VIA) strengths of character, 221–23
Values-driven organization, in POS system, 256–57
Virtuousness, organizational, in POS system, 257
Vocation, defined, 132
Voydanoff model, 203–4, 203f
W
Watergate, 25
Weakness(es)
exposed, 325
irrelevance of, 325–26, 326f
unexposed, 325
Weatherhead School of Management, at Case Western Reserve University, 331
Welfare-to-Career (W2C), 56
Well-being
coaching and, 180
employee, in organizational research, 143–54. See also Psychological well-being (PWB), of employees
enhancement of, paying attention to, 189–200. See also Mindfulness, in workplace
When Generations Collide, 26, 29
“Whither Industrial and Organizational Psychology in a Changing World of Work?”, 7
Who took better advantage of change in your industry over the past 10 years—newcomers, traditional competitors, or your own company?”, Gallup poll on, 14
Women's role, of Generation Me-ers, changes in, 31–32
Work
change in locus of control effects on, 30–31
changing world of, 13–23
baby-boomer retirements in Europe (Finland), 18
career-management strategies, 21–22
demographics changes, 15–17
emerging human capital challenges, demographic changes, and knowledge management, 17–18
finding and keeping older workers, 18
Generation Me and, 25–35. See also Generation Me (Generation Y)
global competition for jobs, 19–20, 19f
global demand exceeds supply of people with needed skills, 17
global distribution of generations, 18–19
positive psychology in, 11–35
similarities in values across generations, 20–21
technology and e-commerce, 14–15
in 21st century, 13–14
types of new jobs being created, 21
concept of, negative connotations related to, 155
generational differences impact on, 26
“homo sentimentalis” at, positivity and, 315–17
as meaning, 131–42
comprehension, 133
fostering of, 138
historical and conceptual context of, 132–34
purpose, 133–34
meaningful, individual and organizational benefits of engaging in, 131–42. See also Work, as meaning
meaningfulness at, 133
meaningfulness in, 133
positive approaches in world of, emergence of, 6–7
positive environments for, for individuals and organizations, 119–72
positive psychology applied to, 99–100
strengths of character effects on, 221–31. See also Character, strengths of, work satisfaction related to
tangible products of, 132
team, positive psychology of, 235–49. See also Positive Input-Process-Output (IPO) model
Work ethic, of Generations X and Me, 20
Work force, members of, 16
Work life, positive, enabling of, 173–231
Work psychologists and consultants, in positive psychology, 324–36, 325f
Work values, of Generation Me-ers, 32–33
(p. 343) Worker(s)
older, finding and keeping, challenges related to, 18
young, in global age, 301–11. See also Young worker, in global age
Work-family conflict, 201–12. See also Work-family facilitation; Work-life balance
described, 201–2
Work-family facilitation, 201–12. See also Work-family conflict; Work-life balance
models of, 208–9
positive outcomes and, 209
positive psychology and, 208
Workforce, flourishing, promoting of, coaching in, 175–88. See also Coaching
Working, for greater good, 134–37, 135f
Working positively, toward, 102–3
“Working self-concept,” 41
Work-life balance, 201–12. See also Work-family conflict; Work-family facilitation
facilitation of, organizational initiatives in, 205–7
compressed workweek, 205–6
family-friendly climate, 206–7
flextime, 205
on-site childcare, 206
telecommuting, 206
individual coping strategies for achieving, 207–8
Workplace
coaching in. See Workplace coaching
energizing, 258
formality of, need for changes in, by Generation Me, 29–30
happiness at, employee engagement and, 155–72. See also Positive engagement
internal and external coaching in, 176–77. See also Coaching
mindfulness in, 189–200. See also Mindfulness, in workplace
positive. See Positive workplace
positive psychology in
language of, 290
making case for, 290
PsyCap in, integrated model of, 277–88. See also Psychological capital (PsyCap)
PWB in, 145
strengths development in, 213–20. See also Strengths development, in workplace
Workplace bullying
described, 265–66
ethical decision-making in, 267–68
moral courage in response to, 265–76
described, 270–74, 272f
desire and decision to act related to, 272–74, 272f
seeking positive from negative, 269–70
organizational context of, 266
Workplace coaching. See Coaching, in workplace
Workplace motivation, 157
Workweek, compressed, in facilitation of work-life balance, 205–6
Y
Young worker, in global age, 301–11. See also GoodWork Project
changing contexts of, 308–9
cynicism of, 308
future directions for, 309
idealism of, 308
lack of mentorship of, 305–6
misdirected goals of, 305
moral freedom of, 305
pragmatism of, 308
pressures and current issues for, 304
responsibility of, 304–5
Youth development, in GoodWork Project, 303–4 (p. 344)