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date: 20 February 2020

(p. 529) Index

(p. 529) Index

Page numbers in bold indicate figures or tables.

Abbotsford,140
Abella, Rosalie Silberman,44
Aberhart, William,84
Aboriginal peoples.See also First Nations; Indians; land claims; Nunavut
Aboriginal Institutes' Consortium,353
Aboriginal Peoples Television Network,352
Arrowfax directory,353
and the arts,352
assimilation,306, 339, 354
autonomy of,306
BNA Act,345
Calder decision,306, 346–47
Canadian Constitution,94
Charlottetown Accord,35, 307, 350
communication technology,16
economic development,345, 353–54
education,85, 306
electoral reform,516, 523
emergence of,4
Employment Equity Act,334
environmental policy,469, 471
equal citizenship,317 n8
equalization payments,122–23
federal policy,302–3
Federal Statement on the Inherent Right to Aboriginal Self-Government,350
federalism,78, 85
First Ministers' Conference on Aboriginal Constitutional Matters,348–49
gender relations,343
Harper government,124
health care systems,353
House of Commons,515, 523
incarceration rates,342
Inherent Rights Policy,350
James Bay Agreement,306
Kelowna Accord,354
Mackenzie Valley pipeline,306
migration of,5
National Aboriginal Achievement Foundation,352
paternalism,307
patriation,29–31, 34
Penner Report,307
policies for,305–7
politics,341–42
population,78, 340
postcolonialsim,352–55
racism,342
RCAP report,307, 341–42
Red Paper,345–47
Red Power,312
Red River,86
Royal Commission of Inquiry,12
self-government,306–7, 311, 339, 342, 347–52, 355
sovereignty,347–48
Sparrow ruling,32
Statement of Reconciliation,354–55
Supreme Court decisions,346
treaties,303, 351
treaty power,306–7
Wahbung: Our Tomorrows,350
women and discrimination,321
women and the feminist movement,326, 343
abortion laws,32, 48, 234, 311, 322–23, 327, 332–33, 336
accommodations,193
accounting officer,164, 185 n1
Act of Parliament at Westminster,75
Act of Union of 1841,308
Action démocratique du Québec (ADQ),104–5, 315
Action Plan for Official Languages,309
Acts of the Canadian Parliament,24
ad hoc appointments,45
administrative fees for,434
ADQ (Action démocratique du Québec),104–5, 315
advanced voting,226
adversarial perspective,245–52, 254, 255, 256, 257, 258, 259–61
adversarial system,40–41
adverse selection,268
advertising in campaigns,230–32
advocacy organizations,252–53, 254, 255, 258, 259–60, 519. See also interest groups
affirmative action,330
Afghanistan,4, 368–69, 371, 373, 389, 491, 496–97, 501–3
African Americans,312
(p. 530) agenda setting,292, 294
agora,286–87
agriculture,8–9, 77, 85, 98, 397–98, 401, 454, 459–62, 465
Ahlers, Douglas,295
Aird Report,289
Al Qaeda,368
Alaska,375 n2
Alberta
Alberta Act 1905,86
Alberta Municipal Government Board,137
amalgamations,140
Calgary,5, 137, 447
Canadian federation,24
Charlottetown Accord,34
Edmonton,5, 134, 140
equalization payments,120, 125
Family and Community Support Services Act,133
Health Care Protection Act (2000),447
health care systems,116
Health Council of Canada,440
ICA (Indian Chiefs of Alberta),344–45, 353
judicial appointments,44, 45
Mazankowski Task Force,441, 445
National Energy Policy (1980),79
natural gas industry,84
notwithstanding clause,63
oil industry,9, 84
Oldman Dam,478
per capital income,127
Senatorial Selection Act,512
terms of union,25
Triple E (elected, equal, and effective),511–12
Vriend v. Alberta,50
Alford, Robert R.,212, 233–34
Alliance Party,201–2, 219, 240 n2
alternative vote (AV),525 n2
Alvarez, Michael,237
amalgamations,139–40
ambiguity,112–13, 119
ambivalence,389–92
ambulance services,134
amending provisions,23–24, 26, 29, 31–34, 36
Amendments to Fisheries Act,476
American Revolution,379–80, 383
Anglo-conformity model,311, 317 n4
anglophones,217
Angus Reid Poll,354
annexations,137–38
anti-Americans,390–92
Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty,497–98
anti-hate propaganda,32
apartheid,370
appeasement,362
appointments,7, 39–45, 52 n1, 81–82, 175, 181–83
Arctic Ocean,89 n2
Arctic waters,89 n2, 385, 387, 476, 498
arranged marriages,315
Arrowfax directory,353
ART (assisted reproductive technologies),454, 462–65
Articles of Confederation,379
Asia Pacific Economic Council,364
Aspers,288
Assembly of First Nations,353
assimilation,304, 306, 308, 339, 341, 343–44, 351–52, 354–55
Assisted Human Reproduction Agency of Canada,463–65
assisted reproductive technologies (ART),454, 462–65
asterisk federalism,427, 431 n6
asymmetry,25, 113, 119–20, 379, 385–89, 392, 435, 489
Athabaska Oil Sands,470
atheoretical,81
Atkin, Lord,27
at-large council members,141–42
attentiveness,266–68
attorneys general,42
Atwood, Margaret,4
Aucoin, Peter,524
audiences,282, 284–85, 287, 295
auditors general (OAG),163–64
Australia,3, 25, 75–76, 313, 318 n10, 384, 439
Austria,465
authoritative decisions,255
autochthony,30–31
automobile industry,9, 386, 400
Automotive Products Agreement,400
AV (alternative vote),525 n2
Axworthy, Lloyd,365, 370, 375 n5
Axworthy, Tom,173
backbenchers,157, 159, 160, 165–66, 169
backlash,314–16, 318 n14
Bagehot, Walter,80
balance of powers,56–57
balancing,215
Balfour Declaration,25
ballistic missiles,488, 494, 497–98
Baltazar, Louis,371
Barker, Anthony,181
Barrados, Maria,184
Bastarache, Michel,45
Becoming a Citizen,316
Beer, Samuel,76
Beetham, David,507–8
Bégin, Monique,436
Bell Canada,286
Bennett, Richard Bedford,27
Berlusconi, Silvio,288
(p. 531) The Bias of Communication,283
bilateral trade,407–8
bilingualism,4, 12, 15–16, 33, 68, 76–78, 80, 89, 94, 96, 98–99, 101, 308–10, 318 n12. See also language laws
Bill 101,101, 309
Bill C-2,521–22
Bill C-24,520
Bill C-60,511
biodiversity,478
biotechnology.See science and technology
birth control,323
Black, Conrad,288
Black, Edwin,295
Blair, Tony,288
Blakeney, Allan,92
Bland, Douglas,494
Blank, Stephen,405
Blinder, Alan,413
Bloc Populaire Party,196
Bloc québécois,214, 236–37, 330
Bloemraad, Irene,316
blogs,294–95
BNA Act (British North America Act),3, 11–12, 21–25, 48–49, 55, 75, 89 n1, 92, 94, 303, 308, 345
border administration,408–9
boroughs,140
Bosnia,496
Botero, Giovanni,375 n4
Bouchard, Lucien,93, 103–5
Bouchard-Taylor Commission,318 n14
Bourassa, Henri,94
Bourassa, Robert,29, 33–34, 96–97
Bourgault, Jacques,183
bowling alone,14
Bretton Woods,375 n3
bribes,510
British Columbia
Aboriginal peoples,352
agriculture,8
amalgamations,140
British Columbia Treaty Commission,351
Canadian federation,24
Charlottetown Accord,34
citizens' assemblies,13
Citizens' Assembly on Electoral Reform,515, 516
Delgamuukw v. British Columbia,346
economic activity,84
electoral reform,523
equalization payments,125–26
Fair Voting BC,517
federalism,77
First Nations,13, 351
fishing,84
geography,76
health care systems,116, 443
judicial appointments,44
Local Government Act,132
Nisga'a Treaty,32
regional districts,138
regionalism,88
same-sex marriage,66
school rights,24–25
Social Credit Party,509
social services,133–34
timber industry,9, 84
Vancouver,5, 8, 134, 138, 141
British Commonwealth,25
British North America Act (BNA Act),3, 11–12, 21–25, 48–49, 55, 75, 89 n1, 92, 94, 303, 308, 345
brokerage politics model,192–96, 200, 204–5
Brown, Bert,511, 513
Brown, George,82
Brundtland Commission,478
Bryce, James,9
Buffalo Pound Water Administration Board,137
Bundesrat,511
bureaucracies,158, 161, 167, 170, 180, 182, 184
Burke, Edmund,291
Bush, George H. W.,497
Bush, George W.,375 n7, 379, 389, 483
business interests,391, 393, 395, 480, 520–21. See also industry advocacy organizations; trade policy
cabinet-parliamentary government,14
cabinets,42, 81, 154, 156–59, 172, 175, 178–79, 182, 185, 267–68, 277 n8, 330
cadre-style political machines,196
Cairns, Alan C.,270
Calder decision,306, 346–47
Calgary.See Alberta
Callbeck, Catherine,331
cameras,295
campaign financing.See elections
campaign platform,178
Campbell, Kim,232, 331, 517
Campbell, Tom,64
Canada
Aboriginal Arts Festival,352
advocacy organizations,254, 255
asymmetry of government,25
British Commonwealth,25
Canada in the World,370
Canada problem,339, 341–42, 345–47, 350, 352–55
creation of,21–22
Department of External Affairs,25
as federation,24–25, 75–79, 93–94, 111
GDP (gross domestic product),374, 386, 398
Great Depression,95, 115
homeland security,489–93
Judicial Committee of the Privy Council (JCPC),26
local government revenue,145, 147 n5
(p. 532)
and the monarchy,75
as multicultural society,78
municipalities,132
Pax Americana,362
Public Policy Forum,184
Smart Border Accord,492–93
sovereignty in the Arctic,385
special relationship (with U.S.),378
and Switzerland,76
as technological society,457, 464–65
as a trading nation,406
and the U.S.,289, 361
World Values Survey,384
Canada Act,30, 44
Canada Assistance Plan (CAP),117, 120–21, 421–24, 431 n4
Canada Border Services Agency (CBSA),491–92
Canada Child Tax Benefit (CCTB),428–30
Canada Command,496, 501–2
Canada Council,12
Canada Elections Act,60, 227, 229, 521
Canada First Defense Strategy (CFDS),498–500
Canada First Group,94
Canada Health Act,121, 436, 438–41, 445
Canada Health and Social Transfer (CHST),121–23, 271, 423, 431 n4
Canada Health Infoway,440
Canada Health Transfer (CHT),121
Canada Pension Plan (CPP).See pensions
Canada Revenue Agency,492
Canada Social Transfer (CST),122, 124, 271
Canada Water Act,476
Canada-United States Partnership Forum,408
Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement (CUFTA).See trade policy
Canada-Wide Accord on Environmental Harmonization,478–79
Canadian Aboriginal Music Awards,352
Canadian Alliance Party,326, 330, 509, 520
Canadian Army,494
Canadian Bar Association,42–44, 462
Canadian Biotechnology Advisory Committee (CBAC),461–62, 466 n3
Canadian Blood Services,440
Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC),12, 15–16, 240 n2, 289–90, 352
Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.See also federalism
Aboriginal peoples and,78
abortion laws,333
adopted,54
balance of powers,56–57
bilingualism,310
as bill of rights,60
centralization concerns,51
civil liberties,31
Constitution Act (1982),4, 31
diversity,303
elections,226
enacted,4, 46, 55–58
equality rights,55, 67–68
federalism,54–55, 85, 88–89
health care,62, 446
Human Rights Center,69 n1
impact of,68–69, 158
importance of,5
interest groups,81
and the judiciary,11, 31, 39, 41, 51, 55, 58–60, 68–69
legislative powers,31, 54, 60, 62, 68–69, 161
limitation clause,55–57
media regulation,290–91
minority rights,11
multiculturalism as policy,305
notwithstanding clause,30, 55, 58, 69
and Parliament,10, 54, 60–61
patriation,29–30
proportionality criteria,60–61, 68
provinces,11, 50, 54–55
public policy,61–62
and Quebec,15, 58, 96
rule of law,54, 364
same-sex marriage,65–68
and the Supreme Court of Canada,48–49, 57–58
U.K. Parliament,30
veto power,61
voting rights,227
women's equality,322, 325–26
Canadian Coast Guard,499
Canadian Constitution.See Constitution
Canadian Council of Chief Executives,393
Canadian election studies (CES),231, 234–35
Canadian Election Study,525 n6
Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA),477, 479
Canadian Expeditionary Forces Command (CEFCOM),501–2
Canadian Food Inspection Agency,452, 460
Canadian forces (CF),491, 494, 496–97, 499–500
Canadian Heritage,303
Canadian Human Rights Act,334
Canadian Incident Response Unit,491
Canadian Institute for Health Information,440
Canadian Institutes of Health Research,437
Canadian International Development Agency,370
Canadian Judicial Council,44
Canadian Labor Congress (CLC),212, 218
Canadian Medical Association (CMA),446, 462
Canadian Native Arts Foundation,352
Canadian Nature Federation,480
Canadian Patient Safety Institute,440
Canadian Radio-television Telecommunications Commission (CRTC),229, 290
Canadian Security Intelligence Service (CSIS),490–91
Canadian Wildlife Federation,480
(p. 533) CanWest Global Communications Corporation,286, 391
CAP (Canada Assistance Plan),117, 120–21, 421–24, 431 n4
Capital Regional District,138
capitalism,284, 287, 390–91
carbon tax,126, 480
Carson, Rachel,476
Castonguay Task Force,445
catch-all parties,194–95, 198
Catholic Church,193, 211–12, 216, 219, 233–34, 323, 422
caucus,157, 159, 177, 194, 196
CBAC (Canadian Biotechnology Advisory Committee),461–62, 466 n3
CBC (Canadian Broadcasting Corporation),12, 15–16, 240 n2, 289–90, 352
CBSA (Canada Border Services Agency),491–92
CCF (Cooperative Commonwealther Federation),84, 87–88, 196, 212, 435. See also NDP (New Democratic Party)
CCTB (Canada Child Tax Benefit),428–30
C.D. Howe Institute,391
CEFCOM (Canadian Expeditionary Forces Command),501–2
Cellucci, Paul,392
censorship,290–91
censuses,87
Center for Foreign Policy Development,372
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA),491
Central Mortgage and Housing Corporation,147
centralization,51, 75, 82–83, 113
CEO (chief electoral officer),227
CEPA (Canadian Environmental Protection Act),477, 479
CES (Canadian election studies),231, 234–35
CF (Canadian forces),491, 494, 496–97, 499–500
CFDS (Canada First Defense Strategy),498–500
Challenge and Commitment: A Defense Policy for Canada,494
Chalmers, Damian,452
Chandler, Alfred,401
Chaoulli v. Quebec,62, 445–47
Charest, Jean,104–5, 140, 523
Charlottetown Accord,13, 22, 34–35, 97, 307, 310, 325, 350, 509, 512, 522
Charron, Louise,44
Charter of the French Language,101
Charter proofing,167
charters,134
checkbook groups,250
chiasmus,282–83
chief electoral officer (CEO),227
child care programs,124, 323, 325, 332, 417, 419, 421–22, 426–27, 429
child protection,422
Children's Aid Society,422
China,367, 386
Chrétien, Jean
amending provisions,36
and the cabinet,178
Canada Health and Social Transfer (CHST),121
Canada in the World,370
defense policy,495, 499
election reform,523
foreign policy,372
Gomery Commission,182
health care transfers,440–41
Mills critique of,288
and Pelletier,183
as PMO,174
public policy,267
Quebec sovereignty,97
Royal Commission of Inquiry,13
same-sex marriage,66
sponsorship scandal,520–21
and Trudeau,173
CHST (Canada Health and Social Transfer),121–23, 271, 423, 431 n4
CHT (Canada Health Transfer),121
CIA (Central Intelligence Agency),491
cities,146–47
citizens' assemblies,13, 34, 264, 515–16, 518
citizens plus,343–44
Citizens Plus,345
citizenship,303, 306, 312–13, 316–17, 318 n10, 341, 343–44, 348, 492, 509
Civic Action League,141
civic journalism,293–94
civil liberties,31
civil rights,25, 48, 82, 312
civil servants,144–45, 254
civil service,100
Clarity Act,35–36, 97
Clarke, Harold,235
class,193, 209, 211–12, 220, 233–34
class action lawsuits,475
clawback,428–29, 431 n7
CLC (Canadian Labor Congress),212, 218
Clean Air Act.See environmental policy
climate change
Canadian foreign policy,366–67
Climate Change Action Plan,480
Department of the Environment,371
differences with U.S.,387
emissions,481, 483
Environment Canada,471
greenhouse gas emissions,126, 388, 471, 481
Kyoto Protocol,367, 371, 388, 479–81, 483
National Round Table on the Economy and the Environment (NRTEE),481, 484 n3
national security,496, 504
polar ice cap,503
provinces and,366
United Nations Framework Conference on Climate Change,480
Clinton, Bill,490, 497, 504 n1
CMA (Canadian Medical Association),446, 462
coalition government,6, 81, 169, 516–19
Coalition of Progressive Electors,141
coalitions,194
code of ethics,43
Coderre, Denis,183
Cold War,365–67, 378, 489, 495–96, 501
collective bargaining,134
Collet, Roger,182
colonialism,311, 342–43
Colony to Nation,5
command structures,496, 501–2
Commission on Fiscal Imbalance,103–4
Commission on Legislative Democracy,519
Commissioner for Official Languages,303
committees,161–62, 165–66
committees on public accounts (PACs),163
common currency,393
common law provinces,25
common market,412
common-law torts,475
Commonwealth of Nations,25, 387
Commonwealth Summit,480
communication technology,4, 146
communications,281–82, 289, 396–97, 404, 453
Communications Security Establishment (CSE),490–91
Compas and Frontier Centre for Public Policy,519
compensation commissions,41
competitiveness,452
concurrent legislative powers,271, 277 n9
confirmation hearings,45
conflict-of-interest codes,510
conglomerations,288
conscription crisis,94, 372
consensus,266, 439
consensus-based legislatures,7, 156
Conservative Party of Canada
Alberta leadership selection,202
defense policy,498
direct democracy,509
equality rights,67
fund-raising,525 n7
health care systems,434
high-volatility elections,209
as major party,192
minority government,124
as minority party,195
multipartism,215–18
name evolution,205 n1
in Quebec,215–17
Senate of Canada,513–14
Senate reform,522
transfers,104
women's rights,330
Consolidated Revenue Fund,114
consolidated spending,277 n14
A Consolidation of the Constitution Act 1867 to 1982,89 n1
Constitution Act (1791),94
Constitution Act (1867),11–12, 78–79, 83, 111, 113–14, 127, 131, 277 n9, 340, 471
Constitution Act (1982),4, 24, 31–33, 40–42, 50, 75, 77, 302, 305, 307, 309, 314, 340, 349
Constitutional Accord,15
Constitutional Amendments Act,309
Constitutional Law of Canada,142
Constructivist,375 n1
consultants,182
Consultation Commission on Accommodation Practices Related to Cultural Differences,318 n14
consumers,284–85
Continental Congress,379
continentalism,361, 363–65, 366
contraception,311
Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution,478
Convergence Policy Statement,286
Cooper, Andrew,365
Cooperative Commonwealth Federation (CCF),84, 87–88, 196, 212, 435. See also NDP (New Democratic Party)
corporate media,282
corruption,99–100, 141
cost sharing,127
Cotler, Irwin,43–44
Council for Yukon Indians,347
Council of the Federation,104, 122, 511
councilors,143–44
counterterrorism,490
Court Challenges program,326
Courtney, John C.,147 n2
Coyne, Andrew,294
CPP (Canada Pension Plan).See pensions
creationism,240 n2
Cree-Naskapi Act,351
Criminal Code,290, 332–33
criminal justice,26, 40–41, 47, 77
Cromwell, Thomas,45, 52 n1
crop yields,460
Crosbie, John,176–77
Cross, Philip,405
cross-border migration,381–82
cross-border trade,401, 405–8, 411–12
Crossman, Richard,176
CRTC (Canadian Radio-television Telecommunications Commission),229, 290
CSE (Communications Security Establishment),490–91
(p. 535) CSIS (Canadian Security Intelligence Service),490–91
CST (Canada Social Transfer),122, 124, 271
CTV network,286
Cuban Missile Crisis,363
CUFTA (Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement).See trade policy
Cullen-Couture agreement,309
cultures,208, 219, 286, 292–94, 315–16, 383–84, 391
Curran, James,288
customs programs,492
customs union,412
Cutler, Fred,276, 277 n12
cyberactivism,293
Cyprus,4, 363, 370
Dahl, Robert,506–7
Dales, John,397
Day, Stockwell,240 n2
daycare,421
DDT,476
Dead Dog Café,352
deamalgamations,140
death penalty,311
decentralization
brokerage politics model,205
Canadian government,26, 83, 94–95, 309
federalism,26, 83, 113, 128
health care systems,438
intergovernmental affairs,127
JCPC rulings,75–76, 95
and party identification,235
political parties,191, 202
Quebec autonomy,120
in the U.S.,75
voting behavior,236
welfare state,126
defense policy,400, 493–502
Defense Policy Statement (DPS),496
deferential political culture,454–57, 460, 463, 465
deficits,120–21, 478
Delgamuukw v. British Columbia,346
deliberative perspective,245, 248–53, 254, 255, 256, 257, 258, 259–61
democracy
and the American empire,389
and capitalism,287
caucus,159
and the court system,48–51
decision making in,456
definition,506
democratic deficit,168
Democratic Manifesto,100
direct democracy,170, 509
Freedom House report,506
and interest groups,244–45, 260
journalism,291
legislatures and,153–54
and media,286, 291
online democracy,170
PSR (public service reform),164
public opinion and policy,263–64, 269
reform of,153, 507–10
representative democracy,264, 523
Senate of Canada reform,510–14
Denmark,465
Department of External Affairs,25, 370
Department of Finance,371, 423
Department of Foreign Affairs,371, 372
Department of Homeland Security (DHS),496
Department of National Defense,490, 493, 496
Department of the Environment,371
deputy ministers,180–85
deregulation,285
Des Rosiers, Nathalie,515
desegregation,312
DHS (Department of Homeland Security),496
diamond mining,496
Diamond v. Chakrabarty,458–59
Dickason, Olive,340
Diefenbaker, John,363, 378
diffusion of innovations,10
Dion, Stéphane,183
diplomacy,362, 365, 370
direct democracy,509–10
disabled,11, 334, 420, 421, 429
discourses,292–93
discrimination,66, 311, 321, 333, 334, 343
diversity,112, 239, 302–3, 307–8, 310–13, 316, 507, 523. See also multiculturalism
division of powers,79, 85, 92
divorce laws,311
Doha Round,366, 406–7
Dominions,12, 25, 27, 114–16
double burden,333–34
double federation,10, 76–79, 87
double pact,94
double-hatting,502
Douglas, Tommy,84
Downs, Anthony,472–73
DPS (Defense Policy Statement),496
Drapeau, Jean,141, 143
Drew, George,115
Drudge, Matt,294
drug coverage.See health care systems
drug-smuggling,367
dualism,77, 78, 80, 94, 96, 281–82, 295
Ducks Unlimited Canada,481
Dunkin, Christopher,86
Duplessis, Maurice,84, 95, 115–16, 118
durable partisans,235, 240 n3
Duverger's law,214–15, 218–19
dyadic structure,196
early childhood education and care (ECEC),332, 336
EARP (Environmental Assessment and Review Process),477–78
(p. 536) Earth Summit,478
ECEC (early childhood education and care),332, 336
economic development,12, 102–3, 345, 353–54, 364, 374, 383, 395–97, 452, 458, 516. See also globalization; trade policy
Edmonton.See Alberta
education,13, 85, 105, 117, 306, 309, 345, 353, 427–28, 431 n2, 437. See also schools
Edwards v. A.G. of Canada,323
egalitarianism,102, 106
EI (Employment Insurance),418, 424, 426
Eire,25
elected, effective, equal (Triple E),168, 511–12, 523
elections.See also political parties; referendums; voting
analysis of,220
campaign dynamics,231–32
campaign financing,100–101, 226, 229, 230, 519–22, 523
campaign platform,178
Canada Elections Act,60, 229, 521
Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms,226
Canadian election studies (CES),231, 234–35, 525 n6
Canadian political parties,192
candidate selection for,202–3
Charlottetown Accord,34–35
citizens' assemblies,13
dates for parliamentary elections,36
direct election,511
direct representation,277 n8
durable partisans,235, 240 n3
Election Expenses Act,230, 520
Elections Canada,226–27
electoral pragmatism,193–94
electoral quotient,228, 240 n1
Electoral Reform and Party Financing,12
electoral representation,80
Federal Accountability Act,227, 229
federal-provincial divergence,218–19
federal-provincial gaps,215
finance legislation,61
fixed dates for,169, 226, 518
flexible partisans,240 n3
grandfather clause,228
House of the Federation,511
incumbents,203
indirect representation,277 n8
judicial appointments,45
legitimacy,507–8
mayors,142–43
and media,229–33
minority parliaments and,6
municipalities,140–42
notwithstanding clause,65
one-party rule,209
party government,156–57
party leadership selection,201–2
plurality vote,80
proportional representation,80, 169, 214–15, 508, 516
public funding,229, 520, 525 n5
and public opinion,264
Quebec 2007,105
reform of,10, 169
regionalism,112
regulation of,13
senatorial floor clause,228
social cleavages,233–34
television, impact on,14
Triple E (elected, equal, and effective),511–12
volatility of,209, 210
youth vote,14, 200, 228, 327, 515
elective surgery,447
Electoral Reform and Party Financing,12
electoral system,208, 213–18, 329, 508, 514–19, 516, 522–24, 525 n2. See also elections
Elements of Precaution: Recommendations for the Regulation of Food Biotechnology,461
Emergencies Act,290
emergency preparedness,490
Emily's List,335
emissions.See climate change
employment equity,323–24, 334
Employment Insurance (EI),418, 424, 426
Employment Insurance Family Supplement,426
energy production,10, 78–79, 470, 508
ENGOs (environmental nongovernmental organizations),469
enumeration,14
enumerators,227–28
Environics Focus Canada,277 n15
Environics Research,373
Environmental Assessment and Review Process (EARP),477–78
environmental nongovernmental organizations (ENGOs),469
environmental policy
Aboriginal peoples,469, 471
Brundtland Commission,478
Canada-Wide Accord on Environmental Harmonization,478–79
CEPA enacted,477, 479
Clean Air Act,476, 480–81, 484 n2
collaborative networks,481–82
cyclical nature of,472–79, 482
EARP (Environmental Assessment and Review Process),477–78
ENGOs (environmental nongovernmental organizations),469
Environment Canada,471–72
Environmental Management Framework Agreement,478
(p. 537)
expenditures,146
First Nations,470
Green Plan,480, 483 n1
industry advocacy organizations,476, 478, 483
issue-attention cycle model,473, 480
making of,469–70
media and,480
National Areas Conservation Program,482
National Round Table on the Economy and the Environment (NRTEE),481, 484 n3
policy making,482
politics of,470–72
provinces,471, 474–76, 482
public trust,475
regulations,473, 475–77, 481, 483 n1
Renewable Fuels Act,481, 484 n2
Silent Spring,476
Species at Risk Working Group,479, 482
stakeholders,473, 479, 482
technology regulation,453
United States,472–73
voluntary regulation,473, 478–79
environmentalists,144
EPCOR,134
EPF (Established Programs Financing),120–21, 271, 436
equality or independence,96
equality rights,55, 66–68, 102, 249–50, 323, 329, 344
equalization payments,114, 116, 120–25, 127
error correction,268
Eskimo.See Inuit
Esquimalt,493
Established Programs Financing (EPF),120–21, 271, 436
ethics,459, 465, 522
ethnic diversity.See diversity
ethnic groups,303–4, 317 n2
ethnic penalty,316
ethnicity,98, 321
European Union,367, 386, 409, 411
Everitt, Joanna,248
exceptionalism,11
exchange rate,400–401
executive branch,112, 169, 177
executive committees,143
executive federalism.See federalism
executive powers,79, 81, 156–58, 170, 268, 270
expansionism,295
Expert Panel on Equalization and Territorial Formula Financing,125
exports,8, 396, 397, 399–400, 402, 405–6, 488
FAA (Financial Administration Act),177
Fair Voting BC,517
false consciousness,293
family,133, 323, 418, 420, 423, 425–26, 428, 430
Farrah, Jean-Simon,524
Fathers of Confederation,22–23, 82, 86
Favreau, Guy,28
FBI (Federal Bureau of Investigation),491
FDI (foreign direct investment),403, 406
Federal Accountability Act,164
Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI),491
Federal Emergency Management Agency,490
federal government.See also federalism; public service
Aboriginal peoples,306–7, 311, 349
Aird Report,289
bilingualism,15, 308–10
child care programs,332
CHST initiated,423
Citizenship and Immigration,303
Convergence Policy Statement,286
deficits,120–21
diversity laws,302–3
drug coverage,445
EI (Employment Insurance),418
environmental jurisdiction,471
environmental policy,473, 476–77, 482, 483 n1
Expert Panel on Equalization and Territorial Formula Financing,125
Family Income Supplement Plan,426
Federal Accountability Act,227, 229
Federal Statement on the Inherent Right to Aboriginal Self-Government,350–52
federal-provincial election gaps,215
Federation of Canadian Municipalities,135
feminist movement and,335
First Nations health care,437
foreign policy,370
grants,127
Guaranteed Income Supplement,117
health care administration,435
House of the Federation,511
Indian and Northern Affairs,302–3
intergovernmental affairs,303
land claims treaties,351
and media,290
multiculturalism as policy,305
and municipal revenue,146
NAC funding,324
national security,490–91
NCB (National Child Benefit),426–27, 429, 431 n6
pay equity,334
powers of,111
and the prime minister,176–77
provincial health care reimbursement,435–36
public policy making,180–81
Registered Retirement Savings Plans (RRSPs),419
Renewable Fuels Act,481
revenue-sharing,119
Romanow report,441
Royal Commission on Health Services,436
Royal Commission on the Status of Women (RCSW),323–24
(p. 538)
Senate reform,523
social architecture redesign,423
social programs,116
social union,430
special purpose bodies,137
spending power,114, 277 n9
sponsorship scandal,521
Statement of Indian Policy of the Government of Canada,344–45
Statement of Reconciliation,354–55
surpluses,121–23
Unemployment Assistance Act,420
unemployment insurance,116–17, 417–18
urban housing,146–47
welfare spending,271, 273, 276
white paper,343
Federal Statement on the Inherent Right to Aboriginal Self-Government,350
federalism.See also federal government
Aboriginal peoples,78, 85, 303
appointment power,82
asterisk federalism,427, 431 n6
bilingualism,89
Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms,54–55, 85, 88–89
Canadian Heritage,303
CCF election,84
centralization,83, 113
and civil rights,48
Constitution Act (1867),78–79
cooperative,120
decentralization,26, 83, 113, 128
definition,76
direct election,511
double federation,87
dualism,78
executive federalism,85, 111–12, 126, 129, 158, 263
executive powers,81
external pressures on,112
Fathers of Confederation,23
fiscal federalism,113
Harper government,106
impact on voting,226
intergovernmental affairs,111
judicial appointments,41–42
Judicial Committee of the Privy Council (JCPC),39
and the judiciary,79, 112
legislative experimentation,9
legislative powers,79, 89, 114
and media,290
minority rights,85
multiculturalism,314
National Energy Policy (1980),79
natural resources,85–87
notwithstanding clause,63–65
open federalism,124–26
“An Outsider's Observations of Intergovernmental Relations among Consenting Adults,”270
Parliamentary,79–83
political parties and,197
province building,84–85
public opinion and policy,272, 275, 277 n13
public responsiveness,269–70
in Quebec,77, 105, 128, 310
regionalism,87–89
responsiveness,274, 279 n11
Royal Commission on Dominion-Provincial Relations,88
and social policy,417–18
and the Supreme Court of Canada,49, 51
tariffs,87
Task Force on Canadian Unity,511
taxation,79, 82
tool kit,112–13
treaty power,82–83
tyranny of unanimity,92–93
urbanization,78
welfare spending,274
women's issues,322
world wide,76
Federalist Papers,22
federal-provincial-territorial (FPT),122–24, 127–28
federation,10, 24, 75–79, 87, 93–94, 111–12, 117, 122, 129, 135, 347–49
Federation of Saskatchewan Indian Nations (FSIN),347–49
feminist movement,15, 101–2, 322–27, 335, 464
ferryboat service,33
Fewer Municipal Politicians Act,139
fiduciary model of accountability,456–58, 461, 464
Financial Administration Act (FAA),177
Financial Management System,131
financial services,9, 84
first ministers.See ministers
First Nations,10, 13, 78, 339–40, 346, 349, 351, 353, 437, 445, 470. See also Aboriginal peoples
First Peoples House,350
first-past-the-post electoral system,194, 211–12, 213–14
fiscal equalization,31
fiscal federalism,113
fiscal imbalance,104
fiscal relations,121–23
fishing industry,9, 84, 371, 471, 476
fixed-ceiling,122
fixed-term elections,226
Flanagan, Tom,317 n8
flexibility,112–13
flexible partisans,240 n3
FLQ (Front de Liberation du Quebec),491, 494
focus groups,13, 185
food banks,430–31
(p. 539) food safety,134, 452, 460
“For a Clear-Eyed Vision of Quebec,”105
Ford v. Quebec,51
foreign direct investment (FDI),403, 406
foreign investment,386, 398, 401, 403, 405–6
foreign policy.See also national security; peacekeeping operations
Afghanistan war,368–69
appeasement before WW II,362
Canada as U.S. partner,361, 364–65
Canada Looks Abroad,364
Canadian autonomy,25
Canadian International Development Agency,370
Canadian values,369
Center for Foreign Policy Development,372
Chrétien administration,372
climate change,366–67
Cold War,365–66
continentalism,361
Cuban Missile Crisis,363
Department of the Environment,371
Department of External Affairs,25, 370
Department of Finance,371
Department of Foreign Affairs,371–72
Foreign Policy for Canadians,370
globalism,361, 368
good governance,374
governor general and,7
helpful fixer,363
immigration,371
International Control Commission,363
International Joint Commissions,375 n2
International Policy Statement: A Role of Pride and Influence in the World,370
Iraq War opt out,364
middle powermanship,363–66
Montevideo Convention on Rights and Duties of States,375 n6
multiculturalism,373
multilateralism,364, 387–88
National Forum on Canada's International Relations,372
and national identity,361–62
and national interest,366–69, 371
NATO membership,362
nuclear weapons in Canada,365
PCO (Privy Council Office),370
peripheral dependence perspective,365
policy taker,370
prime minister as policy maker,370
provinces and,362, 371
Quebec involvement in,371–72
Realist school of international relations,366, 369, 375 n1
responsibility to protect doctrine,365
rule of law,364
Somalia crisis,374
Suez Canal split with Britain,3
terrorism and,370–71
Treaty of Washington,375 n2
U.N. membership,362–63
forward defense,367
Fournier, Patrick,276
Fourth Estate,291
Fox, Michael J.,252
Fox News,288
FPT (federal-provincial-territorial),122–24, 127–28
fractionalization,217–19
fragmentation,404
fragmentation bombs,287–88
framing,292
France,391
franchise organization,197–98, 202, 204–5
francophobes,217
francophones,26, 112, 217, 307–10, 311
Franks, Ned,184
Fraser Institute,391
free ride,244–45
free trade.See trade policy
Freedom House,506, 508, 524–25 n1
freedom of expression,230, 291
freedom of the press,287, 290–91
French Canadians,308
Frieden, Jeffrey,395
Friedman, Milton,425
Front de Liberation du Quebec (FLQ),491, 494
frontier,85, 86
Frye, Northrup,4
FSIN (Federation of Saskatchewan Indian Nations),347–49
Fulford, Robert,391
Fulton, Davie,28
Fulton-Favreau formula,28
Fyke Commission,445
G77 (developing nations),374
gang of eight,30
garbage collection,133
Gardiner, James G.,8
gas industry,79
gatekeeping,292, 294
Gatineau,139
GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade),398, 400
gay rights,50, 65–68
GDP (gross domestic product),8, 102, 125, 145, 147 n5, 332, 374, 386, 398, 400–401, 405, 443, 444, 500
gender equality,101, 292, 311, 315, 316
gender gaps,326–28, 335, 509
gender relations,343
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT),398, 400
General Court of Appeal for Canada,46
general procedure,32–33
genetic engineering,252
(p. 540) genetically modified (GM) products,454, 459–62, 464
genital mutilation,315
geography,213, 228–29
Germany,195, 391, 494, 511
Gidengil, Elisabeth,213
GIS (guaranteed income supplement),117, 421–22, 425–26
Glassco Commission,177
global economy,395–96, 398, 400–401, 404, 412–13. See also trade policy
Global Protection Against Limited Strikes,497
global village,283
global warming.See climate change
globalism,361, 363–66, 368
globalization,9, 284–89, 295, 368, 386, 395–99, 404. See also trade policy
Globe and Mail,286, 302
GM (genetically modified) products,454, 459–62, 464
Gomery Commission,182–83, 521
good governance,374
Good Neighbor Policy,398
Gotlieb, Allan,392–93, 411
governance,509–10, 517
government proposes, Parliament disposes,156
governor general,7, 25–26, 41–42, 79
grain economy,85
Granatstein, J. L.,391–92
grand bargain,392–93
Grant, George,457–58
grants,113–16, 118, 120, 127, 134–35, 146
grassroots membership,204
gray power,425
Great Britain,3, 11, 21–22, 24–26, 30, 55, 195, 307–8, 427, 465, 491. See also United Kingdom
Great Depression,13, 27, 95, 115, 147, 381–82, 398, 420, 435
Green Party,518
Green Plan,480, 483 n1
greenhouse gas emissions.See climate change
Greenpeace,477
G77 (developing nations),374
guaranteed income supplement (GIS),117, 421–22, 425–26
Gulf War,489
Habermas, Jürgen,286
Hackett, Robert,291
Halifax,5, 493
Hall Commission,436
Halpern v. Canada,66
Halpin, Darren R.,250
Hamilton-Wentworth,139
Harper, Stephen
accounting officer,185 n1
Bill C-2,521–22
Canada Health Act,445
Canada-U.S. relations,388
child care programs,430
defense policy,498–500
deputy ministers,184
elected,6
electoral reform,522–24
emissions intensity,481
end of the social union,423
federalism,106
fiscal imbalance,104
judicial appointments,43, 52 n1
Kyoto Protocol,480, 483
minority government,124
national defense,175
notwithstanding clause,65
partisanship,524
public service development,181
Royal Commission of Inquiry,13
Senate reform,513–14
Triple E (elected, equal, and effective),168
Harrison, Kathryn,473
Harvard oncomouse,458–59
Harvard Project on American Indian Development,354
harvesting rights,32
Haudenosaunee Confederacy,341
Hawthorn Report,343–45
Headingley,139
Health Canada,437
health care systems
Aboriginal peoples,353
Canada Health Act,121, 440–41
Canadian Blood Services,440
Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms,62, 446
Canadian Institute for Health Information,440
Canadian Institutes of Health Research,437
Canadian Patient Safety Institute,440
Chaoulli v. Quebec,445–47
CHT (Canada Health Transfer),121
decentralization of,438
diversity of,434
drug coverage,437, 440, 443, 445
EPF (Established Programs Financing),436
First Nations,437
Fyke Commission,435
and GDP,443, 444
grants,116
Health Care Protection Act (2000),447
Health Council of Canada,440
health premiums,443
Health Services,12
home care services,422, 437, 441, 443, 445
hospital insurance,118–21, 435–36, 438
Hospital Insurance and Diagnostics Services Act,421
hospitals,116
industrialized democracies,439
(p. 541)
infrastructure,437
intergovernmental affairs,439–41
market solutions,417
Mazankowski Task Force,441, 445
Medical Care Act,4, 9, 421, 436, 438
medicare,84, 123, 435–39, 438, 442, 444, 447
municipalities,435
organization of,434–35
pandemics,492
patient fees,434
political organization of,436, 437, 438, 439
prisoners,437
private health insurance,439, 445–47
private sector involvement,434
provinces,82, 116, 443
public health,435, 437–38
public health boards,131
Red Paper,345
Romanow report,441, 445, 448
Royal Commission of Inquiry,12
Royal Commission on Health Services,436
SARS outbreak,442–43
Saskatchewan,82, 116
single-payer,435, 437, 438, 439, 443, 445–47
SUFA (Social Union Framework Agreement),441
sustainability,441–45, 448
task forces,445
Ten-Year Plan to Strengthen Health Care,441
territories,437
total expenditures by source of finance,442
transfers,103, 447–48
user fees,121, 436, 438–39, 441, 445
wait times,124
Hellyer, Paul,494
helpful fixer,363
Hepburn, Mitchell,84
High-Level Panel on Threats, Challenges and Change,368
Hillier, Rick,501
Hochelaga,8
Hodgson, Glen,405
Hogg, Peter,142
home care services.See health care systems
home rule,134
homeland security,489–93
Hood, Christopher,180
hospital insurance.See health care systems
hot button issues,174
House of Commons.See also legislatures
Aboriginal peoples,515, 523
Accountability Act,522
assimilation apology,354–55
backbenchers,159
bilingualism,80
CEO appointment,227
Charlottetown Accord,35
cloning moratorium,463
cultural dualism,80
drafting of legislation,161
Harper government,6
hospital insurance,116
House of the Federation,511
judicial appointments,45
minorities in,203, 523
Penner Report,307, 348–49
powers of,275, 508
and the prime minister,172
provincial representation,33
Quebec,78, 104, 512
regional representation,514–15
regionalism,112
representation in,24
sovereigntists,93
spending scrutiny,163
Standing Committee on Agriculture,465
Standing Committee on the Environment,478
House of the Federation,511
House of the Provinces,8
Howe, Joseph,26
Hudson's Bay Company,24, 77, 89 n2
Huffington, Ariana,294
human rights,50, 59–60, 64, 69 n1, 311–13, 373, 389
Hutchison, Bruce,3, 5
Hyde v. Hyde and Woodmansee,65
ICA (Indian Chiefs of Alberta),344–45, 353
ICTs (information and communications technologies),282, 294–95
idéologie de conservation,323
ideology,292–94
Ignatieff, Michael,388–89
IMF (International Monetary Fund),362, 371, 374, 388
immigration
American Revolution,380–81
Anglo-conformity model,311, 317 n4
Canada-U.S. relations,393
Canadian economic dependence on,318 n13
Citizenship and Immigration,492
Cullen-Couture agreement,309
ethnic penalty,316
and foreign policy,371
health care impact,434
immigrants,77
multiculturalism,77–78
points system,304
policies for,34
Quebec,303–5, 317 n4
race-neutral admission,313
urbanization,5
U.S. Immigration Act,381
Imperial Conference,25
imports,396, 400, 402, 405
incarceration rates,342
income security,422–23, 425–26, 431
income tax.See taxation
income testing,420, 425–26, 428
(p. 542) incorporations,137
incumbents,203
Independent Panel on Canada's Future Role in Afghanistan,368
Indian Chiefs of Alberta (ICA),344–45, 353
Indians.See also Aboriginal peoples
Angus Reid Poll,354
climate change,480
Constitution Act (1982),340
Council for Yukon Indians (CYI),347
Declaration of the Rights of Indigenous Peoples,353
definition of,355 n1
Federation of Saskatchewan Indian Nations (FSIN),347–49
Harvard Project on American Indian Development,354
ICA (Indian Chiefs of Alberta),345
Indian Act,302, 340, 343, 347, 351
Indian and Northern Affairs,302–3, 354
Indian Chiefs of Alberta (ICA),344
Indian Eskimo Studies Program,354
Indian Government,347
Indian problem,339, 341, 343–44
Manitoba Indian Brotherhood,346
National Indian Brotherhood,342, 353
Penner Report,348–49
population,340
individualism,384
Indochina,363
industry advocacy organizations,254, 255, 476, 478, 483
Industry Canada,184
inequality traps,98
inflation,426
information and communications technologies (ICTs),282, 294–95
infotainment,285
infrastructure,138–39, 143–44, 146, 289, 409, 437, 489–90, 504 n1
Inherent Rights Policy,350–52
initiatives,164
Innis, Harold,282–85
instant messaging,295
institutional completeness,84
integrative trade,405–6, 411, 413
intellectual property,452
intelligence-gathering,491–92
interculturalism,104
interest groups,81, 158–59, 181, 200, 244–61, 254, 256
intergovernmental affairs,111–13, 117, 119–28, 245–51, 270, 303, 439–41, 471, 482, 512
intergovernmental relations,417–18, 421, 423, 426–27, 429
International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty,375 n5
International Control Commission,363
International Criminal Court,365, 384, 387, 388
International Joint Commissions,375 n2
International Labor Organization,27
International Monetary Fund (IMF),362, 371, 374, 388
International Policy Statement (2005),366, 495
International Policy Statement: A Role of Pride and Influence in the World,370
International Security Assistance Force (ISAF),496–97
international trade.See trade policy
Internet,283, 287–88, 294–95
Inuit,78, 340, 348, 351, 437, 445. See also Aboriginal peoples
Iraq War,364, 374, 379, 384, 387
Ireland,312, 439
Iroquois Confederation,93
Isaacs, Isaac,75
ISAF (International Security Assistance Force),496–97
issue-attention cycle model,473, 480
James Bay Agreement,306
Japan,386, 399–400
Jasanoff, Sheila,453
JCPC (Judicial Committee of the Privy Council),10, 26–27, 39, 46, 48, 75–76, 82–83, 95, 112, 323
Johnson, Daniel,96
Johnston, Rita,331
Joint Task Force 2,491
journalism,285, 287, 291–95
Juba, Steven,143
Judicial Committee of the Privy Council (JCPC),10, 26–27, 39, 46, 48, 75–76, 82–83, 95, 112, 323
judiciary.See also Supreme Court of Canada
adversarial system,40–41
amending provisions,36
appointments,39–45, 51, 52 n1
Canadian Bar Association,42–43
Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms,11, 31, 39, 41, 51, 55, 58–60, 68–69
compensation for,41
Constitution Act (1982),50
and the constitutional system,39
Court Challenges program,326
and democracy,48–51
environmental policy,474–75
federalism,79, 112
fiduciary model of accountability,458–59
gay rights movement,67
human rights and,64
independence of,41
judicial activism,11, 51
judicial activism (U.S.),459
jurocracy,51
legislative oversight,63
(p. 543)
media regulation,290–91
notwithstanding clause,63
OMB (Ontario Municipal Board),137
override clause,50–51
provincial administrative tribunals,134
and public policy,41, 51
remedy clause,50
retirement age,23
structure and function,40–41
tenure,41
women's equality,322
Kashmir,363
Kelowna Accord,122–23, 354
Kennedy, John F.,378–79, 393
Kent, Tom,174
Kent Commission,287
King, Mackenzie,27, 95, 115
King, Thomas,352
Kinsella, Warren,294
Kirby, Michael,446
Kirton, John,361, 364
Kitchener,134
Klein, Ralph,447
Knight, Graham,293
knowledge-based economy,427–28
Krugman, Paul,404
Kyoto Protocol.See climate change
La Francophonie,364, 387
labeling,465
labor markets,417
labor standards,27
Labrador,13, 25, 33, 76, 79, 122, 124–25, 133, 140, 177
Laforest, Guy,106
land claims,24, 32, 86, 303, 306–7, 311, 344–45, 347, 351, 354
land mines,365, 370, 384, 387, 388
land-use,134, 143–44
language laws,24, 31, 76, 80, 101, 303–6, 309, 317 n5. See also bilingualism
language rights,33
Laurier, Wilfrid,23
Law Commission of Canada (LCC),515–16
Law Lords,26, 47
Law Society of Upper Canada,44
LCC (Law Commission of Canada),515–16
leadership,194, 197, 201–2
LEAF (Legal Education and Action Fund),326, 332
League of Nations,362
Legal Education and Action Fund (LEAF),326, 332
legislative councils,166
legislative powers
arena legislatures,155, 156, 157
in cabinet governments,268
Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms,31, 54, 60, 62, 68–69, 157, 161
concurrent legislative powers,271, 277 n9
environmental policy,475
and executive powers,156–57, 170
federalism,79, 89, 114
Loyal Opposition,157
media regulation,290
nature of,153–55
notwithstanding clause,63
opposition parties,159
override clause,50–51
and political parties,156–57
private legislation,134
provinces and,25
public opinion,159
public policy and,159, 270, 275
Quebec autonomy,120
risk assessments of legislation,62–63
7/50 rule,33
standing committees,165
and the Supreme Court of Canada,49–50
in the U.S.,155
legitimacy,514–15
legitimation,247–48, 507–8
Lesage, Jean,95–96, 100–101
Lévesque, René,29, 92, 96, 100–101
Lewis, Howard,404–5
Liberal Party of Canada
Catholic support for,193, 212, 216, 233
electoral reform,518
fund-raising,522, 525 n7
Gomery Commission,182
Green Plan,480, 483 n1
health care systems,434–35
health transfers,122
Ignatieff failure to lead,389
influence of the elections on policy,210–11
as major party,192
name evolution,205 n1
natural governing party,195
nominees for election,203
predominance of,208–9, 215–17
and Quebec,29, 193, 216–17
Quiet Revolution,100
referendums,35
same-sex marriage,68
Senate reform,512–13
social programs,96
Social Union Framework Agreement (SUFA),93
sponsorship scandal,521
support for,193
Tobin as leader,177
transfers,104
liberalism,324, 375 n3, 380, 454, 457–58
liberalization,311–13, 404
lieutenant governors,41–42
(p. 544) limitation clause,55–57, 59
Liquidators of the Maritime Bank,26
lobbying,180–81, 510
local government,131–37, 132. See also municipalities
localism,77
London,22
Lortie Commission,515
Lougheed, Peter,88
Louisianization,308
Lower Canada,21, 77
lower tier municipalities,132–33
low-trust societies,99–100
Loyal Opposition,157
Loyalists,380, 383
loyalty,179–80, 183, 194–95
lumber,385, 393
M. v. H.,50, 66, 68
Macdonald, John A.,23, 81, 99
Macdonald Commission,508
Mackenzie Valley pipeline,306
Mackintosh, John,176
Macmillan, Harold,3–4
MacNaughton,363
Macpherson, Laura G.,284–85
Major, John C.,45
making work pay,429
Mallory, J. R.,268
Manitoba,5, 24–26, 30, 44–45, 86–87, 94, 134, 139, 143, 346, 513
Manning, Preston,509
Mansbridge, Jane,245–51, 260
Manuel, George,353
manufacturing,9, 84, 87, 98, 125, 386, 397–98, 400, 411–12
Manzer, Ronald,458
Maritime colonies,77
Maritime provinces,87
Maritime Security Operation Centers,493
market solutions,417, 419, 422, 431
Martin, Lawrence,182
Martin, Paul, Jr.,370, 375 n8, 441, 493, 495, 497, 499–501, 521
Martin, Paul, Sr.,44, 52 n1, 65, 122, 165, 363
Massey, Vincent,4
maternity benefits,422
Matsqui,140
mayors,141–42, 143
Mazankowski Task Force,441, 445
McCain's,406
McCallion, Hazel,143
McIntosh, Tom,448
McLachlin, Beverly,43
McLuhan, Marshall,282–84, 294
McRoberts, Kenneth,318 n12
means testing,422, 431 n4
Medical Care Act.See health care systems
Medical Research Council.See Canadian Institutes of Health Research
medicare.See health care systems
medium is the message,282–83
Meech Lake Accord,6, 33–34, 64, 78, 96–97, 106, 263, 310, 325, 350, 511–12
Memorandum to Cabinet,62–63
Mendelsohn, Matthew,234, 266–67, 277 n12
Mercier, Honoré,26
Mercredi, Ovide,342
mergers,286
Métis,78, 340, 348, 351, 355 n1
Metro Toronto,138
Mexico,365, 400
MI5,491
mice (oncomouse),458–59
Middle East,4
middle powermanship,363–66, 375 n4
migration,5
Miller, David,141
Mills, David,86
Mills, Russell,288
Mining Association of Canada,480
ministers
accounting officer,164
civil servants,145
and deputy ministers,181–82
Dominion-Provincial Conference of First Ministers,114
first ministers,159, 172, 176, 331, 348–49, 441, 512
FPT (federal-provincial-territorial) accords,128
influence of,178–79
municipal affairs,139
and prime ministers,174
Ministry of State for Urban Affairs,147
minorities,203, 515, 523
minority government,6, 160, 169, 194
minority party,195
minority rights,11, 26–27, 35, 63, 85, 94, 106, 167, 301, 312–13, 334
mirror representation,508
Missile Defense Agency,497
Mississauga,143
mixed-member proportional (MMP),518
Modern Constitutions,172
modernization,15, 28–29, 84, 100, 175, 213, 309
monarchy,7, 22, 25, 75–80, 83
monetary policy,393
Monière, Denis,380
Montevideo Convention on Rights and Duties of States,375 n6
Montpetit, Éric,463–64
Montreal.See Quebec
Moose Jaw,137
moral hazard,268
(p. 545) moral suasion,473
Morgenthau, Hans,369
mothers' allowances,420
mouse (oncomouse),458–59
Mouvement Souveraineté Association.See Parti québécois (PQ)
Mowat, Oliver,26
Mulroney, Brian,13, 33, 64, 96, 174, 176, 179, 267, 370, 388, 494–95, 497–98, 501, 512
multiculturalism.See also diversity
Aboriginal peoples,341, 345
Australia,318 n10
backlash,314–16
bilingualism,68, 78, 318 n12
in Canada,4, 96
federalism,314
as feel-good policy,316
and foreign policy,373
francophones,307–10
gender equality,316
immigration and,77–78
language laws,317 n5
minority rights,301, 312
Multiculturalism Act,303, 305
national identity,314–15
New Zealand,318 n10
playing the race card,314
as policy,305, 314, 318 n10, 318 n12
provincialism and,103
United States,318 n10
multilateralism,364, 373–74, 387–88, 406–7, 488
multipartism,208, 213–15, 373
Municipal Institutions in the Provinces,131
municipalities,131, 132, 133–47, 147 n2, 198–99, 271, 417, 435, 490–91
Murdoch, Rupert,288
Myles, John F.,421, 425
NAC (National Action Committee on the Status of Women),323–24, 326, 332
Nadeau, Richard,234
NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement).See trade policy
nation building,289
National Aboriginal Achievement Foundation,352
National Action Committee on the Status of Women (NAC),323–24, 326, 332
National Advisory Committee on SARS,442–43
National Areas Conservation Program,482
National Assembly.See Quebec
National Association of Women and the Law,462
National Business Plan on Climate Change,480
National Child Benefit (NCB),426–27, 429, 431 n6. See also welfare state
National Child Benefit Supplement (NCBS),428–30. See also welfare state
National Council of Welfare,423
national defense,175
National Defense Act,491
National Development in the Arts, Letters and Sciences,12
National Energy Policy (1980),78–79
National Energy Program,508
National Film Board (NFB),289–90
National Forum on Canada's International Relations,372
national identity,314–15, 361–62, 373, 375 n11
National Indian Brotherhood.See Indians
national interest,362, 364, 366, 371
National Missile Defense,497
National Organization of Women (NOW),324, 335
National Policy,397
National Round Table on the Economy and the Environment (NRTEE),481, 484 n3
national security.See also defense policy; foreign policy
American preoccupation with,392
ballistic missiles,497
Canada-U.S. relations,384–85, 488
and the CBSA,492
climate change,496, 504
command structures,496
CSIS (Canadian Security Intelligence Service),490–91
definition,489
differences with U.S.,387
exports,488
and foreign policy,370
High-Level Panel on Threats, Challenges and Change,368
icebreakers,499
International Policy Statement (2005),366
Maritime Security Operation Centers,493
multilateralism,488
municipalities,490–91
National Defense Act,491
National Security and Intelligence,12
National Security Policy,493
NATO membership,367
North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD),364
peace dividend,367
Polar Sea,495, 503
provinces,490–91
safe haven for terrorists,490
Securing an Open Society: Canada's National Security Policy,492–93
Smart Border Accord,492–93
SPP (Security and Prosperity Partnership),492
and terrorism,367–68, 370–71, 389
and trade policy,488, 503–4
Transport Canada,493
nationalism,56, 76, 218, 385, 390–91
(p. 546) nation-to-nation relationship,339, 346
Native American rights (U.S.),313
NATO,362, 367, 372, 374, 387–89, 488, 494, 496
natural disasters,367, 491
natural gas industry,84, 87–88
natural resources,4, 24, 31, 49, 78–79, 82, 85–87, 398, 453–54, 458, 475
naturalization,313
Nature Conservancy of Canada,481
Naylor, David,447
NCB (National Child Benefit),426–27, 429, 431 n6. See also welfare state
NCBS (National Child Benefit Supplement),428–30. See also welfare state
NDP (New Democratic Party)
amalgamations,139
Catholic support for,219
and CCF,85, 212
electoral reform,516–18
federal-provincial divergence,219
health care systems,434
multipartism,215–16
rise of in Canada,211
support for,193, 330
trade unions,196, 216, 218, 234
weakness of,212, 218
WEOC (Western Economic Opportunities Conference),88
negative income tax/guaranteed income (NIT/GI),425–26, 428
Nelles, H. V.,382
neoliberalism,424–25
networking arrangements,180
New Brunswick,13, 21, 33, 35, 57, 76, 132, 140, 519
New Deal (Canada),27
New Democratic Party (NDP).See NDP (New Democratic Party)
New France,307–8
New Zealand,3, 25, 313, 318 n10, 384, 439, 519
Newfoundland and Labrador,13, 22, 24–25, 30, 33, 76, 79, 117–18, 122, 124–25, 133, 140, 177
newspapers,12, 287
NFB (National Film Board),289–90
NGOs (nongovernmental organizations),469, 473, 477, 482
Nicholson, Robert,45
Nisga'a Treaty,32, 351
NIT/GI (negative income tax/guaranteed income),425–26, 428
Nobel Peace Prize,363, 494
nongovernmental organizations (NGOs),469, 473, 477, 482
Non-Partisan Association,141
NORAD (North American Aerospace Defense Command),364, 494, 497–98, 502
Norris, Pippa,291
North of 60,352
Northern Command,496, 498, 502
Northern Inland Waters Act,476
Northern Sea,503
Northwest Passage,494–95, 503
Northwest Territories,5, 24, 77, 81, 86
North-Western Territory.See Northwest Territories
not-for-profit corporations,440
notwithstanding clause,30, 51, 55, 58, 63–66, 69
Nova Scotia,21, 26, 45, 79, 122, 124–25
NOW (National Organization of Women),324, 335
NRTEE (National Round Table on the Economy and the Environment),481, 484 n3
nuclear war,367
nuclear weapons,365
Nunavut,5, 7, 24, 78, 351, 498. See also Aboriginal peoples
OAG (auditors general),163–64
OAS (Old Age Security).See pensions
OECD (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development),332, 374, 387, 398, 424, 427, 431, 434, 506, 525 n4
Office of Commissioner for Federal Judicial Affairs,43
Office of the Minister of Justice,43
officers of Parliament,163
Official Languages Act.See language laws
Official Secrets Act,291
offshoring,413
oil industry,9, 79, 87–88, 503
oil spills,476
Oka standoff,491
Old Age Security (OAS).See pensions
Oldman Dam,478
oligopolies,286–87, 295
Olson, Mancur,244–47
OMB (Ontario Municipal Board).See Ontario
oncomouse,458–59
one person/one vote,228–29, 247, 249–51, 253
Oneida,26
O'Neil, Juliet,291
O'Neill, Brenda,200
one-party rule,209
online democracy,170
Ontario
Aboriginal peoples,342, 352
amalgamations,139
bilingualism,76
Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms,57
Charlottetown Accord,35
citizens' assemblies,13
Citizens' Assembly on Electoral Reform,515, 516, 518
creation of,22
drafting of legislation,161
economic activity,84
electoral reform,517–18, 523
environmental policy,480
(p. 547)
equalization payments,124–25
federalism,86
GDP (gross domestic product),125
judicial appointments,43–44
manufacturing,9, 84, 397
and the Northwest Territories,86
OMB (Ontario Municipal Board),134, 137, 142
Ontario Municipal Act,132–33
public health,134
Reform Party,234
same-sex marriage,66
social services,133
terms of union,24
terrorist plots,490
Toronto,78, 134, 138–39, 144
Ontario Municipal Board (OMB).See Ontario
open federalism,124–26
opinion change intensity,255, 256
opinion polls,230
opposition parties,159, 163
opting out agreements,118–19, 123
oral tradition,284
orders-in-council,24, 184
Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD),332, 374, 387, 398, 424, 427, 431, 434, 506, 525 n4
Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe,364
Organization of American States,364, 387
Osbaldeston, Gordon,184
Ottawa,5, 159, 288, 365
Ottawa Citizen,291
Ottawa-Carleton,139
Our Cultural Sovereignty,289
Outaouais,138–39
“An Outsider's Observations of Intergovernmental Relations among Consenting Adults,”270
override clause,50–51
oversight,154, 167, 203
ozone,478
pack journalism,285
PACs (committees on public accounts),163
Palmisano, Sam,413
paramountcy,32
Parizeau, Jacques,97
Parliament
accounting officer,185 n1
Act of Parliament at Westminster,75
Acts of the Canadian Parliament,24
adverse selection,268
amending provisions,24, 26
ART regulation,465
attentiveness in public policy,266
biotechnology policy,459
brokerage politics model,195–96
Canada Health Act,121
and the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms,10, 54, 60–61
CEPA enacted,477
civil rights,25
Clarity Act,97
Clean Air Act,480–81
criminal justice,77
descriptive representation,515
dissolution of,7
drafting of legislation,162
elections,6, 36, 226–27, 520
environmental policy,473
equality rights,67–68
Federal Accountability Act,164
federalism,79–83
female representation in,515–16
First Peoples House,350
foreign policy and,366, 370
government proposes, Parliament disposes,156
grain economy,77
intergovernmental affairs,128
and the judiciary,44, 59–60
legislative override clause,31
legislative turnover,160
Medical Care Act,436
minority parliaments,6
moral hazard,268
Multiculturalism Act,303, 305
officers of Parliament,163
override clause,50–51
PACs (committees on public accounts),163
parliamentary federation,10
pensions,23, 114
POGG (peace, order, and good government),82
political parties and elections,202
powers of,25
property rights,25
public policy and,268, 275
Quebec as distinct society,309–10
reform of,153, 168–69, 524
responsible government,22
Species at Risk Act,480
spending power,114
Supreme Court Act,26
terms of union,24
territoriality,80
turnover of members,209
unemployment insurance,23, 27, 114
women representatives in,515–16
Parti québécois (PQ),34, 96, 101, 103–5, 139, 372
participatory regulatory politics,457, 459, 462, 463–64, 465–66
partisanship,6, 42, 78, 99, 125, 166, 170, 191, 193, 195, 523–24
party discipline,268
party in central office,196
party on the ground,196–97
party politics,64–65, 157
(p. 548) party system,10, 13, 216–17
Patent Medicine Prices Review Board,437
patent protection,452, 459
paternalism,307
patient fees,434
patriation.See also Canadian Constitution
Aboriginal peoples,29–31, 34
amending provisions,29, 33–34
autochthony,30–31
BNA Act amendments,24
Canada Act,30–31
Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms,29–30
Canadian Constitution,21, 28–33
Charlottetown Accord,34
Meech Lake Accord,33–34
people's package,30
Quebec,28–31, 33–34
referendums,29–30, 34
Supreme Court of Canada,48–49
patronage,15, 39, 99–100, 106, 167, 197, 290
Pax Americana,362
pay equity,333–34, 336
PCO (Privy Council Office),26, 175, 177, 181–83, 185, 303, 324, 370, 492–93
PCs (Progressive Conservatives),85, 88, 96, 116, 139, 330–31, 509, 518
peace, order, and good government (POGG),49, 82, 471
peace dividend,367, 495
peacekeeping operations,4, 363, 370, 373, 375, 489, 494, 496. See also foreign policy
Peacemaker,341
Pearson, Lester B.,28, 96, 117, 119, 174, 177, 179, 363, 370, 373, 435, 494, 519–20
peer review,462
Pelletier, Jean,183
Penner Report,307, 348–49
penny press,295
pensions
CPP (Canada Pension Plan),117, 119, 123, 421, 422
funding for,419
market solutions,417
OAS (Old Age Security),116–17, 420–22
Old Age Security pension,116
opting out agreements,96
Parliamentary control over,23, 114
Quebec Pension Plan (QPP),117, 309
retirement age,23, 24, 81, 426
Rowell-Sirois commission,95
RRSPs (Registered Retirement Savings Plans),426
people's package,30
performance reports,164
permanent voters list,14, 227–28, 239
Perot, Ross,232
Persons Case,323
persuasion,250–51, 253, 259–60
pesticides,459–60
Peterson Air Force Base,502
petrochemical industry,86
Petry, Francois,266–67
Pew Global Attitudes Project,375 n11
Phillips, Anne,509
Phillips, Susan,251
physicians services,436, 445
Pierson, Paul,425
Pitkin, Hanna,509–10, 515
playing the race card,314
pluralism,246–47, 302
plurality vote.See voting
PMO (Prime Minister's Office),13, 23, 25–26, 42, 44, 81, 173–75, 178–79
POGG (peace, order, and good government),49, 82, 471
points system,304
polar ice cap,489, 496, 503
Polar Sea,495, 503
polarization,198
polarized pluralism,192, 217
policing,133, 146
policy makers,197
policy making,482, 507–8, 524
political parties.See also Conservative Party of Canada; elections; Liberal Party of Canada
allegiance to,194
atheoretical,81
brokerage politics model,192–96, 200, 204, 205
cadre-style political machines,196
campaign allowance,229
campaign financing,520–21
commitment to,220 n2, 220 n3
cultural foundations,208
decline of with young voters,200
discipline of,509
electoral reform,523
enumerators,228
fees for membership,205 n2
and female candidates,331, 335
financial honesty,510
fragmentation of,112
franchise organization,197–98, 202, 204–5
fund-raising machines,173
geography's influence,213
grassroots membership,204
identification with,235, 240 n3
influence of,191–92
and interest groups,246
leadership selection,201–2
legislative powers,156–57
loyalty,194–95
Meech Lake Accord,6
membership in,199–200
multilevel,197–99
municipal elections,140–42
nominees for election,203
(p. 549)
party discipline,268
party leaders as super stars,238
policy differences,210–11
politics of presence,509
and the prime minister,178
and public policy,204
recruitment of women candidates,329–30
reform objectives,515, 516
regionalism,173–74
reorganization of,205
representative democracy and,199
responsiveness,524
social foundations of,211
stratarchical organization,196–97, 205
territoriality,80
Westminster system,322
women's membership in,328
zipping of candidates,524
political process,58–68, 212
poll taxes,205 n2
pollsters,174
pollution,470, 474–76, 478
population,4–5, 87, 227–28, 380–81, 475
possessive individualism,284–85
postcolonialsim,352–55
poverty,98, 102, 105–6, 427–28, 430–31
Powley decision,340
PQ (Parti québécois),34, 96, 101, 103–5, 139, 372
prairies,77, 87
precautionary political culture,456, 462
President and Fellows of Harvard College v. Canada,459
presidentialization thesis,238
Preston, Richard,389–90
Prime Minister's Office (PMO),13, 23, 25–26, 42, 44, 81, 173–75, 178–79
Prince, Michael J.,95, 423
Prince Edward Island,5, 22, 24–25, 33, 35, 76, 133, 140, 331, 333, 519, 523
prisoners,10, 32, 60, 227, 437
private health insurance.See health care systems
private legislation,134
private practice, public payment,447
private property,284–85, 346, 474–75
private sector,434
privatization,164
Privy Council Office (PCO).See PCO (Privy Council Office)
productivity,404
Progressive Conservatives (PCs),85, 88, 96, 116, 139, 330–31, 509, 518
Progressive Party,196
propaganda,287–88, 291
property rights,25, 82, 290
property taxes.See taxation
proportional representation.See elections
proportionality criteria,60–61, 68
Protection of Canada,495
protectionism,385, 390–91, 398
Protestants,77
Province of United Canada,77
provinces. See also individual provinces
accountability,270
administrative tribunals,134
agriculture,77
allocation of seats,228–29, 240 n1
amending provisions,23–24
bill of rights,56
Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms,11, 50, 54–55
Canadian political parties,198
CAP means testing,431 n4
Chaoulli v. Quebec,447
child care programs,332
civil rights,82
Clarity Act,35
clawback,428–29, 431 n7
and climate change,367
Climate Change Action Plan,480
Commission on Fiscal Imbalance,103–4
Constitution Act (1982),31
Council of the Federation,122
criminal justice appeals,47
deregulation of media,290
Dominion-Provincial Conference of First Ministers,114–16
double pact,94
economic issues and voting behavior,236–37
electoral reform,523, 525 n2
environmental policy,471, 474–76, 482
equalization payments,114
Established Programs Financing (EPF),120–21
federalism,79, 84–85, 87
federal-provincial election gaps,215
and foreign policy,362, 371
FPT (federal-provincial-territorial) accords,122–23
gang of eight,30
governmental legitimacy,508
grants to,114, 120
Guaranteed Income Supplement,117
health care systems,116, 435, 437, 443
impact of religion on voting,234
income tax,118
institutional completeness,84
judicial appointments,41–44
Kyoto Protocol,371
legislative councils,166
legislative powers,25
legislatures,160
local government, control over,134–36
Medical Care Act,436
Meech Lake Accord,97
(p. 550)
mothers' allowances,420
multiculturalism,103
Municipal Institution in the Provinces,131
National Defense Act,491
national security,490–91
natural resources,82, 85–87
notwithstanding clause,30, 63–65
PACs (committees on public accounts),163
party leadership selection,202
patriation,29
pay equity,334
political parties,198
population of,83–84
powers of,111
and the prime minister,176
property rights,82
property taxes,146
provincial rights movement,26–27
Provincial/Territorial Council on Social Policy Renewal,426
RCAP report,350–51
section 92 courts,40
section 96 courts,40–41
Senate reform,511–14
single-payer,439
and social policy,417
social programs,197
and the Supreme Court of Canada,49
surpluses,121–22
tariffs,87
taxation,113–14, 277 n9
transfers,103, 126–27
treaty power,83
Unemployment Assistance Act,420
unemployment insurance,417–18
unicameral legislatures,83
as watertight compartments,10
welfare state,117–19, 227 n16, 271–72, 273, 276, 277 n16
women's issues,321–22, 329, 331
Provincial Reconstruction Team,497
proximity model,238
PSC (Public Safety Canada),490–92, 496
PSR (public service reform),164
public funding.See elections
public health.See health care systems
public opinion
Afghanistan war,368–69
attentiveness,266–68
cabinet-parliamentary government,14
Canada-U.S. relations,386
Canadian Election Study,525 n6
citizens' assemblies,264
and diversity,310
drafting of legislation,161–62
and elections,264
environmental policy,472
human cloning,466–67 n5
legislative powers,159
legislatures, respect for,153
and public policy,174, 263–64, 272–74, 276 n2
Quebec,78, 106
Royal Commission of Inquiry,12
Senate reform,514
stability in,269
technology regulation,462
thermostatic model,264–66, 269
public policy
accountability norms,456
campaign platform,178
Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms,61–62
citizens' assemblies,13
deliberative perspective,248–51
electoral reform,519
evolution of,179
Indian Government,347
interest groups and,159, 181, 245
and the judiciary,41, 51
LEAF advocacy,326
legislative powers,159, 270, 275
lobbying,180–81
and parliamentary governance,268, 274–75
political parties and,173, 204, 210–11
and public opinion,174, 263–64, 272–74, 276 n2
in Quebec,102
responsibility for,164
responsiveness,265–66, 269–72, 275
Royal Commission of Inquiry,12
same-sex marriage,65–68
Senate of Canada,167–68
spending power,9
and the Supreme Court of Canada,47–48
thermostatic model,264–67
unitary system,270–71
welfare spending,272, 273
and women in Canadian politics,322, 331–36
Public Safety Canada (PSC),490–92, 496
public servants,180–81
public service,61–62, 136, 164, 172, 175, 177, 179–85, 197
public service reform (PSR),164
public trust,475
QLP (Quebec Liberal Party).See Quebec
QPP (Quebec Pension Plan).See Quebec
Quebec.See also Charlottetown Accord; Meech Lake Accord; PQ (Parti québécois)
Action démocratique du Québec (ADQ),104–5, 315
ambiguity,119
American Revolution,379–80
asterisk federalism,427, 431 n6
autonomy,102–3, 118, 120, 126, 308, 350
bilingualism,77, 98
Bill 101,101
Bloc québécois,214, 236–37, 330
(p. 551)
BNA Act,92, 94, 303
campaign financing,525 n5
Canada Health Infoway,440
Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms,15, 58, 96
and Canadian foreign policy,371–72
CAP opt out,431 n4
Chaoulli v. Quebec,62, 445–47
child care programs,332, 419, 430
common law provinces,25
and the Conservatives,217–18
Consultation Commission on Accommodation Practices Related to Cultural Differences,318 n14
CPP opt-out,96
creation of,22
Cullen-Couture agreement,309
cultural dualism,80
deamalgamations,140
denominational religious education,77
as distinct society,78, 104, 309–10
diversity,523
Dominion-Provincial Conference of First Ministers,115–16
dualism,78, 96
economic voting,236–37
education,309
egalitarianism,102, 106
electoral reform,519
environmental policy,479
equality or independence,96
federalism,77, 105, 128, 310
feminist movement,325
FLQ Crisis,491, 494
“For a Clear-Eyed Vision of Quebec,”105
francophones,26, 112
GDP (gross domestic product),102
health care systems,435
Health Council of Canada,440
House of Commons,78, 104, 512
immigration to,317 n4
income tax,95, 118, 128
interculturalism,104
intergovernmental affairs,123
judicial appointments,44
language and national cohesion,5
language laws,24
legislative councils,166
Liberal Party of Canada,29, 193, 216–17
Louisianization of,308
low-trust societies,99–100
manufacturing,397–98
migration to U.S.,381
minority rights,94, 106
Montreal,8, 133–34, 138–41, 143, 478, 490
Municipal Code of Quebec,132
as nation within,308
National Assembly,33, 138, 514, 519
national reconciliation,96
nationalism,56, 76
New France,307
and the Northwest Territories,86
notwithstanding clause,30, 63
Official Languages Act,303
opting out agreements,118
patriation,28–31, 33–34
patronage in,99–100, 106
pensions,309
poverty in,98, 102, 105–6
province debate,14–15
QLP (Quebec Liberal Party),103, 105, 117, 119, 380
QPP (Quebec Pension Plan),117, 119, 123, 421–22
Quadrennial Defense Review,489
Quebec Act of 1774,94, 303
Quebec City,5, 133
Quebec Liberation Front,98
Quebecers,113, 372
Quebecor,286
Quiet Revolution,4, 15, 28–29, 84, 98, 100
Radio-Canada,16
Reference re Secession of Quebec,49
referendums,13, 36, 96–97
religious education,33
same-sex marriage,66
Secession Reference,310, 317 n9
Senate of Canada,81–82
Senate reform,511–14
separatist movements,117, 366
7/50 rule,33
sign law,31, 51
social justice,103
social traps,99–100
sovereignty,93–94, 103, 238
sponsorship scandal,521
SUFA (Social Union Framework Agreement),123
terms of union,24
Tremblay report,95–96
and Trudeau,100
two-tier governments,138
union movement nationalism,218
veto power,28
welfare state,102
white niggers,312
women's movement,322
women's suffrage,323
women's vote,326
World Values Survey,384
Quebec Liberal Party (QLP).See Quebec
Quebec Pension Plan (QPP).See Quebec
Queen's Privy Council,79
quotas,516
R. v. Marshall,346
R. v. Oakes,60
(p. 552) R. v. Powley,340
R. v. Sparrow,346
R. v. Valente,41
racism,342
radio stations,289, 294
Radio-Canada,16
Rafferty-Alameda,478
railroads,86, 289
ranking system,43
rational choice theory,246
rationality test,61
Ratushny,291
Rawls, John,510
RCAP (Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples),307, 341–42, 350–51, 354
RCMP (Royal Canadian Mounted Police),133, 291, 437, 490–91
RCSW (Royal Commission on the Status of Women).See women
Reagan, Ronald,497
Realist school of international relations.See foreign policy
recall,509
recession,374
Reconstruction Party,196
recruitment,501
Red Cross,440
Red Paper,345–47
Red Power,312
Red River,86
redistribution,113
Reeve, Christopher,252
reference procedures,46, 66
Reference re Amendment of the Constitution of Canada,57–58
Reference re Public Service Employee Relations Act,61–62
Reference re Same-Sex Marriage,66
Reference re Secession of Quebec,49
Reform Party,219, 232, 234, 330, 509–10
Regina,137
regional districts,138
regional municipalities,132
regionalism,87–89, 112, 167, 173–74, 192, 196, 213, 233–34, 236–37
Register of Electors,227–28
Registered Education Savings Plan,431 n2
Registered Retirement Savings Plans (RRSPs),419, 426
registration,227–28
regulations
Assisted Human Reproduction Agency of Canada,463–64
assisted reproductive technologies (ART),462–64
border administration,409–11
campaign financing,519–22
Canadian media,288–91
CEPA enacted,477
cloning,451, 463–64, 466–67 n5
cross-border trade,408–9, 411–12
deferential political culture,454–57, 460, 463, 465
EARP enacted,477–78
environmental policy,473, 475–77, 481, 483 n1
fiduciary model of accountability,456–57
global economy,413
GM crops,454, 459–62, 464–65
judiciary,459
media,286
participatory regulatory politics,457, 459, 462–66
political culture,454
Regulatory Framework for Biotechnology,460
Royal Commission on New Reproductive Technologies,464
science and technology,451
scrutiny of,162
religion,33, 77, 193, 211, 233–34, 240 n2, 306–7, 311, 313, 315–16. See also Catholic Church
remedy clause,50
Renewable Fuels Act,481, 484 n2
Report of the National Defense Panel,489
Report of the Parliamentary Committee on Canadian Heritage,289
Report of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples,307
representative democracy.See democracy
Reproductive Technologies,12
Republican Party,288
The Responsibility to Protect,375 n5
responsible government,22, 79–80, 94, 99
Ressam, Ahmed,490
retirement,23
retirement age.See pensions
retirement savings,419
retrenchment,128, 471–72
revenue-sharing,113, 117–19, 126
The Rez,352
Rice, James J.,95
Richardson, David,404–5
Richler, Mordecai,390–91
ridings,215, 228–29
Riel, Louis,94
Riley, Del,342
rising star,183
Robillard, Lucienne,182
Roman Catholics,77
Romanow report,441, 445, 448
Rothstein, Bo,100
Rothstein, Marshall,45
Round Tables,478
Rousseau,263
(p. 553) Rowell-Sirois commission,27, 95
Royal Canadian Air Force,494
Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP),133, 291, 437, 490–91
Royal Canadian Navy,494
Royal Commission of Inquiry,12–13, 27, 95, 463, 491, 508, 515
Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples (RCAP),307, 341–42, 350–51, 354
Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism.See bilingualism
Royal Commission on Dominion-Provincial Relations,88
Royal Commission on Equality in Employment,334
Royal Commission on Health Services,436
Royal Commission on New Reproductive Technologies,464
Royal Commission on Newspapers,287
Royal Commission on the Status of Women (RCSW).See women
Royal Proclamation of 1763,302, 308, 351
Royal Society of Canada,460–62
RRSPs (Registered Retirement Savings Plans),419, 426
Ruggie, John,375 n3
rule of law,54, 364
Rupert's Land,77, 89 n2
Russell, Peter H.,42, 92, 512
safety net,121, 424
Saint John (New Brunswick),131
same-day registration,226
same-sex marriage,65–68
same-sex partners,32
Sartori, Giovanni,217, 506
Saskatchewan
amalgamations,140
Canadian federation,24
CCF election,84
Dominion-Provincial Conference of First Ministers,116
equalization payments,125
Federation of Saskatchewan Indian Nations (FSIN),347–49
Fyke Commission,445
health care systems,