Show Summary Details

Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD HANDBOOKS ONLINE (www.oxfordhandbooks.com). © Oxford University Press, 2018. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Handbooks Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 15 September 2019

(p. 527) Index

(p. 527) Index

a priori arguments as to existence of God, see ontological argument
Abrahamic faiths, see also Christianity; Islam; Judaism
concept of God, 59–61
revelation, 323–24
absolute characteristics of God, see goodness of God; knowledge of God; power of God
absolute vs. relational space and time, 42–43
absolutes or certitudes in religion, 453, 458–59
action of divine in world, 280–88
direct divine acts, 282–83, 284
indirect divine acts, 282, 284, 285–88
methodological naturalism, 283–85
power, knowledge, and goodness of God, 285–88
theism vs. deism, 280–83
Adams, Marilyn, 6
Adams, Robert M.
Divine Command theory (DC theory), 357, 359
grace and goodness of God, 24–27
Leibniz' ontological argument, 104, 106
necessary truth, 438–39
adhyasa (“superimposition”), 69–70
Advaita Vedanta
avidya, 347
Buddhism, 77
relationship between Mimamsa and, 57, 66
Sankara, 67–72, 77
agnosticism, 4
Alexander, H. G., 42
Alston, William P.
actions of divine in world, 281, 282, 283, 286
analytic philosophy of religion and religious language, 427
beliefs as mental phenomena, reason for trusting, 452
biographical information, ix
feminist critique of analytic philosophy, 513, 519, 520
mystical and religious experience, 144, 145, 153–54
Reformed epistemology, 264, 266
religious diversity, 396–400
religious language, 220–44, 427
Wittgenstein, use of, 441
Amis, Kingsley, 189–90
analogical speech about God, 239–41, 425, 501, 519–20
analytic philosophy of religion
attributes and nature of God, 427–28
broadening and maturation of, 421, 435
Christianity
religious language, 424–25
theism, 6
continental philosophy of religion and, 495
criticism of, 442–43
different approaches, importance of studying, 10
evil, problem of
providence, divine, 436, 438
religious language, 422, 423, 425
theism, 427, 428, 431–35
faith, reason, and theism, 427, 430–31
historical background, 5–6
isolation from continental school, 9–10
metaphysical realism, acceptance of, 441, 448
necessary truth, 438–40
proofs of God's existence, 428–31, 440
providence, divine, 435–38
relationship to other schools, 441–42, 495
religious language, 422–27
topics addressed by, 6–7
weaknesses of, 9
Wittgensteinians
compatibility with analytic philosophy, 441
(p. 528)
influence of, 447–48
religious language, 422, 425–26
Anaxagoras, 485
Anderson, C. Anthony, 108–10
Anderson, Pamela Sue, 495–96, see also feminist critiques of analytic philosophy
ability to build bridge between analytic and continental/feminist schools, 496, 512
assessment of argument, 512–16
conclusions drawn by, 511–12
desire and reason, 506, 508–9, 510–12
epistemological views of, 506–10
influences on, 506, 508–9
Jantzen compared, 496, 502, 505 et seq.
animalism, 387–89
annihilation vs. creation, 39
Anscombe, Elizabeth, 348
Anselm of Canterbury
definition of the divine, 66
epistemology, 7, 250
nature of God, 3
necessary truths dependent on God, 96, 440
ontological arguments of, see ontological argument
rationally grounded theology, 250
antirealism, 355
apologetics, 7, 169, 172
apophatic or negative theology
continental philosophy of religion, 488–92
feminist critique of, 500, 519–20
mysticism, 144
Arendt, Hannah, 498, 499
Aristotle
eudaimonia, 347
formalization, 442
metaphysics, 485, 487
morality and religion, 347, 357–58
power of God, 18
sensory perception, 398–99
soul and afterlife, 372, 376
aseity or independence of God, 36–37, 47–57
conservation of creation as divine drudgery, 40
contemporaneous vulnerability, God's lack of, 48
content dependencies, 49, 51–52
freedom, divine, 36–37, 54–56
historical dependency relations, God's lack of, 48
modularity of mind, 49–51
personal nature of God, problems raised by, 49
propositions standing as components of, 36
simplicity of divine mind, 50–54
structural dependencies, 49–51
assertoric meaning, 255–57, 492
atheism
indifference replacing, 448
morality, goal of, 351
nonexistence of God argued from existence of evil, 188–89, 192–94, see also evil, problem of
reason, truths about God based only on, 4
Atkins, J. F., 130
Atman-Brahman, 66–71, 140, 347
Augsberg Confession, 325
Augustine
creation ex nihilo, 38
death, afterlife, and personal identity, 368, 375
epistemology, 7
Mencius compared, 412–13
metaphysics, 23, 487
necessary and contingent propositions, 45–47
self, concepts of, 501
space, time, and God, 53, 201, 428
theological determinism, 436
vision and voice, 484
Austin, J. L., 451
Austin, James H., 160
authority of sound of Vedic texts, 63–64
avidya, 347
Ayer, A. J., 255, 422, 447
ayin, 147
Bagger, Matthew C., 148, 155, 161
Baillie, John, 154
Baker, Lynne Rudder, ix, 366–91
Barbour, Ian G., 240, 241, 276
Barnard, G. William, 151
Barnes, Jonathan, 35
Barth, Karl, 5, 325
Basinger, David, 435
Batson, C. Daniel, 160
Bayle, Pierre, 402–5
Beard, A. W., 160
Beardsworth, Timothy, 230
Beauvoir, Simone de, 509
(p. 529) Beer, Frances, 163
beginninglessness, see eternality
Behe, Michael J., 130
being as such, philosophical concern with, 454–55, see also reality
Belgic Confession, 325
belief in God, see also epistemology; faith
certitudes or absolutes, 458
conviction or confession, 462–63, 465
natural belief, 452
pragmatic rationality of, 169, 182, 184–85, see also Pascal, Blaise, and Pascal's wagers
“properly basic,” 334, 431, 513, 517
Ricoeur and continental philosophy, 476–79
truth-relevant merit of, 246–47
Bergson, Henri, 154
Bernard of Clairvaux, 142
best of all possible worlds conundrum, 24–27, 55–56
Big Bang theory, 121, 284
blik, 423, 425, 515
Blond, Philip, 456
bodhisattvas, 75
Boehme, Jacob, 151
Boethius, 28–29, 53, 201, 428
Borchert, Bruno, 163
Boyle, Robert, 171
Brahma Sutra, 151
Brahman and Atman, 66–71, 140, 347
brain and soul, 371
Braithwaite, R. B., 224, 424
Brhadaranyaka Upanisad, 67
bridge principles, verificationism, and religious language, 223
Broad, C. D., 154, 158
Brower system of modal logic and ontological argument, 90–91, 96, 104, 109–11
Brown, Joseph, 141
Brümmer, Vincent, 498, 501
Brunn, Emilie Zum, 163
Brunner, Emil, 5, 325
Buber, Martin, 5
buddhi (discriminating intellect), 68
Buddhism
doctrinal foundations, 393
life of Gautama Sakyamuni, 72–73
morality and religion, 347
mystical and religious experience
constructivism, criticism of, 151–52
pure conscious events (PCEs), 147
“unconstructed awareness,” 139–40, 146
Zen, 140, 145, 147, 160
nature of God, speculations as to, 3, 9, 73–77
nontheistic conceptions of divine, 72–77
reincarnation (cycle of rebirth and redeath), 68, 69–72, 366
Sankaran nondualism, desire to avoid, 77
Theravada, 406, 408–10
three bodies of Buddha, 74–75
Western emphasis on theism and, 9
Bulhof, Ilse N., 488
Bultmann, Rudolph Karl, 477
Bynum, Caroline Walker, 368, 370, 376
Byrne, Peter, 156
Calvin, John, 324, 405, 431, 436, 438
Cambridge school of analysis, 447, 448
Camus, Albert, 351
Caputo, John, 488, 489, 490
Carlson, Thomas A., 488
Carnap, Rudolph, 222
Cartesian thought, see Descartes, René, and Cartesianism
Caterus, Johannes, 102–3
Cech, T. R., 130
certitudes or absolutes in religion, 453, 458–59
chaos theory, 282
Chinese ethics, 411
Chrétien, Jean-Louis, 480
Christian, William A., 416
Christianity
analytic philosophy of religion
religious language, 424–25
theism, 6
death, afterlife, and personal identity, 367–69, 387–89
definition of religion, 409–10
doctrinal foundations, 393
faith, 331, 339–41
Heidegger on, 268–69, 473–75, 485
hermeneutics of suspicion, 479
Incarnation of Christ, traditional concept of, 384
infallibility of Bible, 64
metaphysics, 485
miracles, 304–5, 311, 321
morality and religion, 356, 359, 360
mystical and religious experience, 139
identity with God, 143
pure conscious events (PCEs), 147
union with God, 142, 146
(p. 530)
Passion of Christ, 464
providence, divine, 436
religious diversity and Christian mystical practice (CMP), 396–400
revelation, 323–24, 328, 329
science and conservative Christian thinkers, 295–96
scope of philosophy of religion, 8–9
sin vs. moral wrong, 346–47
theistic or Abrahamic concept of God, 59–61
Clarke, Samuel
cosmological arguments for existence of God, 122–23, 124, 429
goodness of God, 24, 27
Leibniz correspondence on divine watchmaker theory, 285–86
modern interest in, reasons for, 6
proofs of God's existence, 7
classical foundationalism, 264
Clayton, Philip, 282, 295, 296
Clifford, W. K., 180–84
Clifton, Rob, 126–27
clockmaker, divine, 285–86
Coakley, Sarah, ix, 494–525
Collins, Steven, 8
communion as philosophical category, 517
comparative philosophy of religion, 394–95, 406–7, 411–16
compatibilism, 199, 436
compulsion of religious practice, 401–5
concepts (predicates) applied to God, 221, 227, 232 et seq., see also religious language
conceptualism, modal, 439–40
concernment, maximal, 253, 264
Confucianism, 409, 410, 413
consciousness, see also self
Descartes' epistemological legacy, 449–50
Kantian claim that categories of consciousness are presupposed in what we experience, 452
nature of God, 456–57
single subject of consciousness, denial of, 284
conservation, God's power of, 39–41, 42–43
constitution view of personal identity, see death, afterlife, and personal identity
constructivism and mystical experience, 148–52
content dependencies of divine mind, 49, 51–52
continental philosophy of religion, 472–93, see also Heidegger, Martin; phenomenology
analytic philosophy of religion and, 495
deconstruction, 488–90
Derrida, 488–91
different approaches, importance of studying, 10
feminism, 495–96, 498
isolation from analytic school, 9–10
Marion, 475, 480–84, 488, 490
metaphysics, 475, 484–87
negative or apophatic theology, 488–92
psychoanalysis and hermeneutics of suspicion, 8, 9, 478–79
Ricoeur, 476–79, 480
weaknesses of, 9
contingent propositions, see necessary and contingent propositions
Cooper, John W., 368
Copernican theory, 274
cosmological and design arguments for existence of God, 116–37
analytic philosophy and, 428–30, 440
Big Bang theory, 121
Clarke, Samuel, 122–23, 124
contingent being(s) and contingent facts, 117
Clarke, Hume, and Rowe, 122–23
Kalam cosmological argument, 120
Swinburne's teleological argument, 133
Thomistic argument based on existence of at least one, 120
Darwin, Charles, 129–30, 430
evil, 123, 132, 135–36
Haldane, John, 135
Hume, David, 122–23, 129, 133–34
Kalam cosmological argument, 120–22
many universes anthropic principle (MUAP), 131–34
Paley, William, 127–31
prime mover (infinite regress) arguments, 118–22
principles and propositions, 117–18
reasons for appeal of, 116
science and laws of nature, use of, 121, 129–31, 133, 276
Swinburne, Richard, 132–34
Thomas Aquinas, 118–21, 135
(p. 531)
types of cosmological arguments, 118–27
types of teleological or design arguments, 127–36
Craig, William Lane, 120, 300, 429
creation
analytic philosophy, 429
annihilation vs., 39
conservation, God's powers of, 39–41, 42–43
continued involvement of God in creation, 38
ex nihilo
ramifications of, 38, 39
Visistadvaitin concept of God, compared to, 9
freedom of God to create world, 54–56
Leibniz' contingent propositions, 43
relationship between God and creatures, 35–37
reworking of existing materials, 37–38
scientific origin of life research, 284
sovereignty of God, 37–38
space and time, 42–43
creation science, 273
creationalism (early Christian theories of soul), 370
creative powers of God, 37–38
creaturehood, sense of, 460–61
creatures, differences vs. similarities between God and, 35–37, see also religious language
Crites, Stephen, 443
Crombie, I. M., 240–41, 242, 425
Cullman, Oscar, 367
Curley, Edwin M., 44
Daly, Mary, 163
Daoism, 409, 410
d'Aquili, Eugene, 149, 159–60
Darwin, Charles, 129–30, 274, 430
Davey, Kevin, 126–27
Davidson, Donald, 514
Davies, Brian, 498
Davis, Carolyn Franks, 154, 159
Davis, Stephen T., 386
DC (Divine Command) theory, 356–57, 359
D'Costa, Gavin, 158
de Beauvoir, Simone, 509
death, afterlife, and personal identity, 366–91
ancient cultures, 366
animalism, 387–89
Christian concepts of, 367–69, 387–89
constitution view, 380–89
advantages of, 387–89
first-person perspective, 381–82, 384, 385, 387
human persons as constituted by human bodies, 384–85
identity, constitution not the same as, 382–84
resurrection of the body, 385–87
duplication problem, memory criterion, 375, 379–80
embodiment, 385
feminist critique of analytic necrophilia, 496–99, 501–2, 511–12
first-person perspective, 381–82, 384, 385, 387
immortality of the soul, 366–67
incorporeal soul, 370–71, 375, 387
materialistic concepts of soul, 371, 375
memory criterion, 369, 370, 373–74, 379–80
miraculous aspect of, 368, 386
personal identity issues and problems, 368–69, 385–86
reincarnation (cycle of rebirth and redeath), 68, 69–72, 366, 368, 372
resurrection of the body
Christian doctrine, 367–68
of constitution view, 385–87
embodiment, 368, 385–86
sameness of body, 372–73, 377–78
sameness of soul-body composite, 372, 376
sameness of body, 369, 370, 372–73, 377–78
sameness of soul before and after death, 369, 370–71, 374–75
sameness of soul-body composite, 369, 370, 372, 376
seed metaphor, 367–68
spiritual body, 367, 373
deconstruction, 488–90
Deikman, Arthur, 151
deism, 4, 38, 39–40, 280–83
Dembski, William A., 130, 296, 297, 298
Denham, Alison, 465
Derrida, Jacques
analytic and continental philosophies, isolation of, 9
deconstruction and apophatic or negative theology, 488–91
feminist critique of philosophy of religion, 498, 502, 503
God as metaphysical reality, 457
(p. 532) Descartes, René and Cartesianism
death, afterlife, and personal identity, 375, 376
dualism, 279
epistemological legacy, 449–50, 453
Freudian theory, 478
Husserl and phenomenology, 473, 476, 478
logic, Cartesian questions as problems of, 453
morality and religion, 351, 352
natural light, 403–4
nature, defining, 278–79
nature of God, 4
necessary and contingent propositions, 44–45
ontological arguments, see ontological argument
philosophy generally, value of philosophical theism for, 8
self, concepts of, 501
sensory perception, 398–99
Wittgenstein and Descartes' legacy, 449–50
desire, feminist critique of repression of
Anderson, 497, 500, 506, 510–13, 515
direct perception of God, 520
Jantzen, 497, 500
rapprochement between feminism and analytic philosophy, prospects for, 520
determinism, 199–200, 436
devils and demons, 307
devotional setting and practice, see epistemology
Dewey, John, 5
Dewhurst, K., 160
dharma-kaya, 75
diachronic problems of personal identity, 369
dialectical theology, 325
direct divine acts, 282–83, 284
direct perception of God, 520
diversity of religious belief, see religious diversity
Divine Command theory (DC theory), 356–57, 359
Divine Motivation theory (DM theory), 356, 357–60
divine watchmaker theory, 285–86
DM (Divine Motivation) theory, 356, 357–60
DNA sequences and design arguments for existence of God, 130
Dobzhansky, Theodosius, 275
Dogen, 147
doxastic practice approach
feminist critique of, 513
mystical and religious experience, 153–54, 155, 161–62, 513
religious diversity, 396
doxastic voluntarism and Pascal's wagers, 169, 172, 182
Draper, John William, 272, 273, 274
Draper, Paul, ix, 272–303
Drees, Willem B., 273, 274, 276
dualism
Cartesian dualism, 279
feminist critique of mind-body dualism, 501, 506
God, dualistic experiences of God, 140, 142, 146, 151
Duhem, Pierre, 291
Duns Scotus, 6, 456
Eckhart, Meister, 143, 147, 148, 151, 489
Edwards, Jonathan, 6, 331
Edwards, Ward, 293
Egyptian concepts of death and afterlife, 366
Éliade, Mircea, 477
embodiment after death, questions of, 368, 385–86, see also death, afterlife, and personal identity
empiricism
feminist critiques of analytic philosophy, 503, 506, 512–14
Wittgensteinianism, 451, 452
Enlightenment
atheism and morality, 351
epistemology, 248
evidentialism, see Enlightenment evidentialism
Heidegger as child of, 475
logical positivism as child of, 253–54
natural religion, 247–48, 252
neutral philosophical reason, 431
philosophy, conception of, 448
significance for philosophy of religion, 4
enlightenment as Buddhist aim of morality and religion, 347
Enlightenment evidentialism, 248, 249–53
Reformed epistemology, 265
rejection of, 7, 248
Wittgensteinianism and, 260, 262
“Enlightenment project,” 8, 510
(p. 533) entitlement and epistemology, 247, 248, 250, 263, 265
epilepsy and mystical experience, 160
Epiney-Burgard, Georgette, 163
epistemology, 245–71
classical foundationalism, 264
defined, 247
Descartes' legacy, 449–50, 453
doxastic practice approach, 396
Enlightenment evidentialism, see Enlightenment evidentialism
entitlement, 247, 248, 250, 263, 265
faith, 334–35
Heidegger and ontotheology, 248, 266–69
interpretive nature of religious beliefs, 249, 263
Locke, John, 247, 250–53, 262–65, 332
logical positivism, 248, 253–55
maximal concernment, 253, 264
Mimamsa thought consistent with epistemic duty, 66
miracles, 311–12
modern developments in, 7, 247–49
mystical experience, see mystical and religious experience
naturalism, epistemological (scientism), 279–80
positivist verificationism and logical positivism, 248, 253–55
Reformed, see Reformed epistemology
religious diversity, 393, 395–400
religious language's dependence on religious practice, 226–27, 242
religious tolerance/intolerance, 403–5
skeptical solution to problem of evil, 434
skepticism in, 352
standpoint epistemology, 499–500, 504, 507–8, 514–15
Wittgenstein, 248–49, 253–62, 450–53, 458
eschatalogical verification, doctrine of, 425
eternality
conservation of beginningless things by God, consequences of, 43
memory and independence of divine mind, 52–54
Veda in Mimamsa school, 65
eudaimonia, 347
Evans, C. Stephen, ix, 7, 323–43
evidentialism, see also Enlightenment evidentialism
evil considered as evidential or probabilistic problem, 196
faith, 333–35
feminist critique of, 500, 506, 513, 518
evil and good, human, see morality and religion
evil, problem of, 188–219
analytic philosophy, see analytic philosophy of religion
Christ, Passion of, 464
conservation, God's powers of, 39, 40–41
cosmological and design arguments, 123, 132, 135–36
defense distinguished from theodicy, 195–97
doctrine, Christian and Jewish, 6
evidential or probabilistic problem, considered as, 196
feminist critiques of analytic philosophy, 10, 502, 506
free-will defense
amount and kinds of evil, accounting for, 202–4
compatibility of free will and determinism, 199–200
feminist critique of, 502
incompatibility of free will and God's omniscience, 201–2
particular horrible evil, consideration of, 210–16
prelapsarian vs. postlapsarian horrors, 216–17
primordial estrangement of humanity from God as elaboration of, 204–10
statement of, 197–98
good outweighing evil arguments, 197, 198, 212–16, 433–35, 502
goodness or moral perfection of God, 191–92
grace and compassion, 464
gratuitous evil, 433–35
intellectual vs. emotional or spiritual problem, considered as, 188–91
knowledge of God (omniscience), 191–92, 201–2
logical problem, considered as, 194, 196, 432–33
moral insensitivity, consideration of intellectual problem of evil as form of, 189–91
(p. 534)
nonexistence of God argued from existence of evil, 188–89, 192–94
power of God (omnipotence), 191–92
providence, divine, 436, 438
reasons for God to allow evil to exist, need for, 194–97
skeptical solution, 434
statement of, 191–94
theodicy, 195–97, 435, 464
evolutionary theory
creation science rejecting, 273
design arguments for existence of God, 129–30
Wilberforce-Huxley argument, 274
Ewing, A. C., 5
ex nihilo creation
ramifications of, 38, 39
Visistadvaitin concept of God, compared to, 9
examplarist nature of Divine Motivation theory (DM theory), 358
existence of God, proofs of, see proofs of God's existence
existentialism, 5, 351
extrovertive mystical experiences, 142
faith, 330–41
defining, 330–31
epistemology, 334–35
evidentialism, 333–35
fideism, 332–33, 335, 338–41
formed faith, 331
Heidegger's phenomenology and ontotheology, 473–74
no-neutrality thesis, 335, 339
“properly basic,” belief in God as, 334, 431, 513, 517
reason
analytic philosophy of religion and theism, 427, 430–31
evidentialist objection and limits of inferential reason, 333–35
faith above reason, 335–38
faith against reason, 338–41
feminist critiques of, 339
rationalism and fideism, continuum between, 332–33
revelation and faith, relationship between, 323–24, 330–31
sensus divinitatis, 334
sin, role of, 339–41
Fales, Evan, 155, 159
“false consciousness,” religion as expression of, 8, 478–79
fana, 147
feminist critiques of analytic philosophy, 9, 441, 494–525, see also Anderson, Pamela Sue; Jantzen, Grace
analogical speech about God, 501
apophatic or negative theology, 500, 519–20
continental philosophical schools, feminist use of, 495–96, 498, 502
death, analytic obsession with, 496–99, 501–2, 511–12
direct perception of God, 520
empiricism, 503, 506, 512–13, 514
epistemology
Anderson, 506–10, 513–15
Jantzen, 499–500, 504
religious experience, 517–19
ethics of justice and trustworthiness vs. intellect, 499–500, 504
evidentialism, 500, 506, 513, 518
evil, problem of, 10, 502, 506
faith and reason, 339
Father, Rule of the, 497–98, 502–3
feminine divine, need for, 502, 511
fluidity of gender boundaries, need for, 516, 518
“God's-eye view,” 499–500
identification of male philosophical subject with God, 501, 516
Mariology, 502, 511
mind-body dualism, 501, 506
mystical and religious experience
Coakley on epistemology of religious experience, 517–19
direct perception of God, 520
Jantzen, 144, 162–63, 498, 500
natality, need to celebrate, 498, 502
otherness, problem of, 499–500
psychoanalysis and Freudian theory, 497, 509
psycholinguistic gender binary, 497, 508, 516
rapprochement between feminism and analytic philosophy, prospects for, 516–21
Anderson, 496, 512
apophatic or negative theology, 519–20
desire and direct perception of God, 520
(p. 535)
epistemology of religious experience, 517–19
Jantzen, 496, 499, 504–5
realism
Anderson, 506, 508, 512, 513, 514
Jantzen, 499, 504
reason and rationality, 339, 500, 505, 508–12
salvation, 501–2
semiotic/symbolic binary split, rejection of, 496–97, 498, 503, 508, 516
standpoint epistemology, 499–500, 504, 507–8, 514–15
truth, analytic obsession with, 496–97, 499–500, 504
women philosophers' subjection to male mentors, 509, 513, 518
Fenwick, P., 160
Feuerbach, Ludwig
continental philosophy, 473
feminist critiques of analytic philosophy, 496, 500, 502, 504, 519
Wittgensteinianism, 462
fideism, 332–33, 335, 338–41, 466
Findlay, J. N., 82
Fiorenza, Elisabeth Schüssler, 498
Fischer, John Martin, 437
Flew, Antony G. N., 157, 306–7, 422–25, 448
Flint, Thomas P., 20, 437
Fodor, Jerry A., 49
Forgie, William, 152
Forman, Robert K. C., 145, 147, 149
Forms, Platonic concept of, 45, 46–47, 454
Foucault, Michel, 498, 500, 506
foundationalism, 264, 521
Frazer, James (The Golden Bough), 259
Freddoso, A., 20
free will, human
Augustine and Mencius compared, 412–13
contingent propositions, 43
evil, free-will response to, see evil, problem of
knowledge of God (omniscience) and, 29–32
power of God (omnipotence) and, 19
providence, divine, 436, 437–38
sovereignty of God and, 36
free will theism, 437–38
freedom, divine, 36–37, 54–56
Frege, Friedrich Ludwig Gottlob, 454
Freud, Sigmund, 8, 9, 478–79, 497
Friedländer, Saul, 407
Fulmer, Gilbert, 131
fundamentalism, Protestant, 328
Gale, Richard M.
biographical information, ix
cosmological and design arguments, 116–37
James, William, and “The Will to Believe,” 183
mystical and religious experience, 143, 155, 156
Galileo, 274
Game Theory, 168, 409
Gassendi, Pierre, 102–3, 106
Gaunilo of Marmoutiers and ontological argument
Anselm, Reply to Gaunilo, 89–91
parody of Proslogion 2, 92–96
Gautama Sakyamuni, see also Buddhism
body of, 74
life of, 72–73
Geach, Peter, 20
Geertz, Clifford, 407–9
Gellman, Jerome I., ix, 138–67
Gesteland, R. F., 130
al-Ghazali, 3, 15
Gilson, Etienne, 5
Glasenapp, Helmuth von, 73
Gödel, Kurt, 108–11
“God's-eye view,” 499–500
Goldenberg, Naomi, 163
good and evil, human, see evil, problem of; morality and religion
goodness of God, 21–27
acquisition of perfect goodness by nature vs. by free will, 23
actions of divine in world, 286–88
analytic philosophy of religion, 428
best of all possible worlds conundrum, 24–27
deviations from perfect goodness in concept of God, 15–16
evil as problem for, 191–92, see also evil, problem of
existence of morality and goodness apart from God, 22–23
grace, Judeo-Christian concept of, 25–27
metaphysical goodness, 23, 32–33
moral vs. nonmoral goodness, 21–23, 32–33
power of God restricted by, 19–20, 21, 24–25
praising and thanking God for good acts, consistency with, 23–27
providence, divine, 436
(p. 536) Gould, Stephen Jay, 275
grace, concept of, 25–27, 460–64
gratuitous evil, 433–35, see also evil, problem of
greatness of God, proof of existence argued on grounds of, see ontological argument
Griffin, David Ray, 231, 436
Griffiths, Paul J., ix, 8, 59–79, 140, 406–7, 411
Habermas, Gary R., 306
Hacker, P.M.S., 447, 455
Hacking, Ian, 169, 172, 174, 175
Hades, 366
Haldane, John, 135
Hallaj, Hussein, 143
Hamilton, William, 458
Hampson, Daphne, 498
Hansen, Chad, 409
happiness
maximal perfection of God, 32–33
morality and religion, 349–50
Harding, Sandra, 500, 507
Hare, John E., 415
Hare, R. M., 423, 425
Harris, James F., 274
Hart, Kevin, 488
Hartshorne, Charles, 231, 276, 429
Hartsock, Nancy, 500
Hasidism, 143, 147
Hasker, William, ix, 421–46
Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich
Absolute Spirit, 454
continental philosophy of religion, 473
deconstruction, 489
master/slave parable, 507
metaphysics, 485, 487
philosophy generally, value of philosophical theism for, 8
Heidegger, Martin, see also ontotheology
“Being,” 454
epistemology, 248, 266–69
feminist critique of philosophy of religion, 498, 499, 502
Marion influenced by, 483–84
metaphysics, 266–69, 475, 484–87
phenomenology, 473–76, 480, 481, 484–87, 488
Ricoeur compared, 476
Helm, Paul, 436, 498, 500
“Héloise complex,” 509, 513
Henry, Michel, 480
hermeneutics of suspicion, 8, 9, 478–79
Hick, John
death and afterlife, 366
eschatalogical verification, doctrine of, 425
feminist critique of, 498, 502, 505
James's “Will to Believe,” 183
mystical and religious experience, 157, 158
religion as interpretation of ultimate reality, 453
religious diversity, 409–10
“soul-making theodicy” of, 435
Hinduism and Indian religions, see also Advaita Vedanta; Veda
Anderson's use of, 512
Buddhism and Indian pantheon, 73
death and afterlife, ancient Indian views of, 366
mystical and religious experience, 139, 140, 151, 157
nature of God, 3
reincarnation (cycle of rebirth and redeath), 68, 69–72, 366
revelation and faith, 324
Sanskrit religious and philosophical literature of India, 60
historical science, 289–90
Hobbes, Thomas, 199
Hoffman, J., 20
Holland, R. F., 451
Hollenback, Jess Byron, 148
hooks, bell, 511
Hordern, William, 325
Howard-Snyder, Daniel, 433
Hume, David
analytic theism, 428, 429–30
anthropomorphic God, 456
compatibility of free will and determinism, 199
cosmological and design arguments for existence of God, 122–23, 129, 133–34
criticisms of philosophical theology, 5, 6, 8
first principles, problem of, 452
Kant, Critique of Pure Reason, 107
manifest and ultimate, distinction between, 452
methodological naturalism, justification of, 297
miracles, see miracles
natural instinctive beliefs, 452
religion as such rather than religious object, attempts to account for, 8
religious diversity, 395–96, 398
skepticism vs. trust, 517
(p. 537) Husserl, Edmund
Cartesianism, 473, 476, 478
Heidegger, 473
Marion influenced by, 480–81, 482, 483
Ricoeur, 476, 478, 479
Hutcheson, C. A., 130
Huxley, Aldous, 199
Huxley, Julian, 224
Huxley, Thomas Henry, 274
icon, phenomenology of, 482–84
idealism, 4–5, 355
Idel, Moshe, 152
identity of persons after death, see death, afterlife, and personal identity
identity with God
feminist critique of male philosophical subject, 501, 516
mystical experience of, 143
illusion (maya) in Advaita Vedanta, 69–72
immortality of the soul, 366–67
Incarnation of Christ, traditional concept of, 384
incorporeality of the soul, 370–71, 375, 387
independence of God, see aseity or independence of God
indirect nature of divine acts, 282, 284, 285–88
inductive or nomological science, 289–90
ineffability of mystical experience, 143–44, 160
inerrancy of revelation, 327, 328–30
infallibility
revelation, 327, 330
Vedic texts, 63–64
infinite regress (prime mover) arguments for existence of God, 118–22
inspired nature of revelation, 327–28
interloqué, 484
interpretive nature of religious beliefs, 249, 263, 453
intolerance, see religious diversity
introvertive mystical experiences, 142
Irigaray, Luce
Anderson's use of, 506, 509, 510–11
Jantzen's use of, 496, 497, 498, 503, 504
male appropriation of women's narratives, 518
Islam
death and afterlife, 367
infallibility of Quran, 64
Kalam cosmological argument for existence of God, 120–22
mystical and religious experience, 139, 147
providence, divine, 436
revelation, 323–24, 327
scope of philosophy of religion, 8–9
sin vs. moral wrong, 346
theistic or Abrahamic concept of God, 59–61
isvara, 67
Jaina, 366
James, William
mystical and religious experience, 139, 143
Pascal's wager and “The Will to Believe,” 169, 179, 180–84
religious language, 230
Janicaud, Dominique, 480–82
Jantzen, Grace, 495–96, see also feminist critiques of analytic philosophy
ability to build bridge between analytic and continental/feminist schools, 496, 499, 504–5
account of argument, 496–502
Anderson compared, 496, 502, 505 et seq.
assessment of argument, 502–5
conclusions drawn by, 502
influences on, 496, 498, 502
mystical and religious experience, 144, 162, 498, 500
John Paul II (pope), 272
Johnson, David, 311
Johnson, Phillip E., 295
Jones, J. R., 457
Jones, O. M., 452
Jones, Rufus M., 148
Jordan, Jeffrey, ix, 168–87
Judaism
analytic philosophy and Jewish theists, 6
death and afterlife, 366, 367
grace, Judeo-Christian concept of, 25–27
hermeneutics of suspicion, 479
infallibility of Tanakh, 64
miracles, 304–5
mystical and religious experience, 139, 140, 143, 147, 151
providence, divine, 436
revelation, 323–24
scope of philosophy of religion, 8–9
sin vs. moral wrong, 346–47
theistic or Abrahamic concept of God, 59–61
(p. 538) justification
methodological naturalism and, 297–300
science, as goal of, 292–95
truth-relevant merit in epistemology, 246–47
Kabbala, 64, 140, 151
Kalam cosmological argument, 120–22
Kant, Immanuel
analytic theism, 428, 429, 443
Anderson influenced by, 506, 508, 514, 519
criticisms of philosophical theology, 5, 6, 8, 106
definition of religion, 406
epistemology, 250, 266, 519
faith, 335–36, 337
Freudian theory and, 478
Marion's phenomenology, 482–83
morality and religion, 349–50, 351–52, 354, 355, 361
necessary divine existence, 428
neo-Kantianism, 452–53, 519, 521
ontological argument and Critique of Pure Reason, 80, 106–8
reason and religion, 4, 250
sensory perception, 399–400
Katz, Steven T., 148, 149, 150, 453
Kaufman, Gordon, 224
kensho, 160
Kierkegaard, Søren
continental philosophy of religion, 473
faith, 331, 332, 337–41
influence of, 5
King, Sallie B., 151
Kisiel, Theodore, 473
knowledge of God (omniscience), 15–16, 28–32
actions of divine in world, 285–86
analytic philosophy of religion, 428
Buddha, 76
death, afterlife, and personal identity, 386–87
deviations from omniscience in concept of God, 15–16
evil as problem for, 191–92, 201–2, see also evil, problem of
free will and, 29–32
immediate or direct vs. inferred nature of, 28
memory, divine, 52–54
“middle knowledge,” 428, 437
Mimamsa view of authority of Veda, 64–65
power of God restricted by, 19–20
providence, divine, 436
temporality and omniscience, 28–29
Kosky, Jeffrey L., 488
Kretzmann, Norman, 53, 428
Kripke, Saul, 228–30, 357–58, 439
Kristeva, Julia
Anderson's use of, 506, 509, 510–11
Jantzen's use of, 498, 502, 503
Kumarila, 63
Lacan, Jacques
Anderson's use of, 509
Jantzen's use of, 495, 496, 497, 502–3
rapprochement between feminist and analytic philosophy, prospects of, 516, 518
Lambert, Karel, 85
language, see also religious language
analogical speech about God, 239–41, 425, 501, 519–20
feminist critique of semiotic/symbolic binary split, 496–97, 498, 503, 508, 516
infallibility of sacred texts, 63–64, 327, 330
metaphorical vs. literal speech about God, 236–39, 519
vocables as divine (Mimamsa school), 61–66
Larrimore, Mark, 411
Lauden, Larry, 289
law and legal concepts
miracles, 309–10
moral lawgiver, need for, 348
morality and religion, 346, 348, 356, 361
natural law theory, 346, 348, 361
Le Doeuff, Michèle, 509
Leftow, Brian, ix, 80–115, 428
Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm
contingent propositions and creation, 43, 44
divine watchmaker theory, 285–86
goodness of God and best of all possible worlds conundrum, 24, 27, 434
metaphysics, 485
nature of God, 3, 4
ontological argument, 104–6, 108
space, time, and Newtonian physics, 42
Leo XIII (pope), 442
Leslie, John, 131, 430
Levinas, Emmanuel
evil, problem of, 10
(p. 539)
feminist use of, 498, 502
Marion's phenomenology, 480, 481, 484
Lewis, C. S., 214, 216, 282
Lewis, David, 132
liberation (moksa), 69
libertarianism, 428, 436
Lindman, Harold, 293
literal vs. metaphorical speech about God, 236–39, 519
Locke, John
epistemology and Enlightenment evidentialism, 247, 250–53, 262–65, 332, 506
faith, 332, 334
maximal concernment, 253, 264
nature of God, 4
personal identity, theory of, 49, 50, 373–74, 379
rationalism and fideism, 332
religious tolerance, 401–3
substratum, 454
logical positivism, 248, 253–55, 422, 447–48
loka, 65
love of God
analytic philosophy of religion and religious language, 423
faith, sin, and reason, 340
grace, concept of, 25–27, 461–62
Luther, Martin, 324, 436
MacIntosh, D. C., 224
MacIntyre, Alasdaire, 422, 448
MacKay, D. M., 371, 375
Mackie, J. L., 432–33
Macquarrie, John, 280
Macrae, Norman, 168
Madhva, 151
Maimonides
modern interest in, reasons for, 6
nature of God, 3
power, goodness, and knowledge of God, 15
Thomas Aquinas, cited by, 392
Malcolm, Norman, 261–62, 429, 457
Mann, William E., ix, 35–58
many universes anthropic principle (MUAP), 131–34
Marcel, Gabriel, 5
Mariology and feminism, 502, 511
Marion, Jean-Luc, 475, 480–84, 488, 490
Maritain, Jacques, 5
Martin, C. B., 155, 156
Martin, Michael, 155, 178
Marx, Karl, and Marxism
feminist critique of analytic philosophy, 507, 514
Hegel's master/slave parable, 507
Heideggerian phenomenology, 473
hermeneutics of suspicion, 8, 9, 478–79
religious diversity and tolerance, 407, 410
Ricoeur's phenomenology, 478
materialistic concepts of soul, 371, 375
Matt, Daniel C., 147
Matthews, Gareth B., 375, 380
Mavrodes, George I., ix, 304–22, 430
maximal concernment, 253, 264
maya (illusion), 69–72
McGinn, Bernard, 143
McMullin, Ernan, 279, 288, 292
Meinongian ontology, 98, 99
memory
divine memory, 52–54, 77
personal identity after death and memory criterion, 369, 370, 373–74, 379–80
Mencius, 412–16
Merleau-Ponty, Maurice, 481
Mervis, C., 410
metaphor
death, afterlife, and personal identity, metaphors explaining, 367–68
literal vs. metaphorical speech about God, 236–39, 519
pan-metaphorist strategy, 519
metaphysical naturalism
Big Bang theory, 284
defined, 279–80
justification as goal of science, 294–95
prescientific naturalism, 296
relationship between science and technology, 273, 276
metaphysical realism
analytic philosophy of religion's acceptance of, 441, 448
Descartes' epistemological legacy, 450
God as metaphysical reality, 456–58
Wittgensteinian rejection of, 447–48, 454–56
analytic philosophy, 441
certitudes or absolutes, 459
God as metaphysical reality, 456–58
God as other than the world, 460–64
metaphysics
Atman-Brahman concept in Sankara's Advaita Vedanta, 67
(p. 540)
continental philosophy of religion, 475, 484–87
goodness of God, metaphysical, 23, 32–33
Heidegger overcoming, 266–69, 475, 484–87
logical positivism's perjorative use of, 254
morality and religion, 355, 356–61
negative or apophatic theology, 488, 491
methodological naturalism
actions of divine in world, 283–85
defined, 279–80
demarcation of science from other pursuits, 289–90
goals of science and, 290–95
justification of modest version of, 297–300
prescientific, 296
presumption of naturalism justifying, 297
science not restricted by, 288
theism and, 283–85, 299–300
Meyer, Stephen C., 289, 290, 297
“middle knowledge,” 428, 437
Midgley, Mary, 274, 275
Mill, John Stuart, 189–91, 199
Mills, Eugene, 184
Milton, John (Paradise Lost), 195
Mimamsa school
relationship between Advaita Vedanta and, 66, 67
Veda text viewed as divine by, 61–66
mimesis, 511, 517
mind of God
accidental properties, 52–53
Buddhist precepts regarding, 76
memory, 52–54, 77
reason, God having no need of, 51, 52
simplicity of, 50–54
Wittgensteinian rejection of metaphysical realism, 457
Mirabai, 512
miracles, 304–22
alternative agents other than God, caused by, 307
continued involvement of God in creation, 38
death, afterlife, and personal identity, 368, 386
definitions of, 305–10
epistemology, 311–12
Hume on
defining, 305–6, 307
probability of, 312–14, 317–21
significance and purpose, 310–11, 312
laws of nature
concept of, 309–10
relationship of events to, 305–9
modern miracles, lack of, 313
probability of, 312–21
assigning degrees of, 317–21
Hume's statement on, 314
Lottery Surprise, 315–17
witnesses, 312–14, 316, 320
science and theology, 280, 288
significance and purpose, 310–12
success of scientific explanations leading to presumption of naturalism, 296
witnesses to, 312–14, 316, 320
Mitchell, Basil, 424–25
mitzvah, 151
modal conceptualism, 439–40
modal logic and ontological argument, 88–91, 96, 103, 109–11
modal realism, 439
modularity of mind
simplicity of divine mind transcending, 50–51
structural dependencies arising from, 49
moksa (liberation), 69
Molina, Luis de, 437, 438
monotheism, 307
Moore, G. E., 422
Moore, Peter, 144, 146
moral and nonmoral goodness of God, 21–23, 32–33, see also goodness of God
moral or practical reason, 4
morality and religion, 344–65
antiskeptical transcendental argument for existence of God based on, 354–55
Augustine and Mencius compared, 412–13
common morality, developing, 348, 361–62
diversity in religious belief, 345–46
Divine Command theory (DC theory), 356–57, 359
Divine Motivation theory (DM theory), 356, 357–60
existence of morality apart from God, 22–23
existence of morality apart from religion, 345–46
feminist ethics of justice and trustworthiness vs. intellect, 499–500, 504
goal of morality, 347, 349–51
happiness, 349–50
(p. 541)
intolerance and persecution on religious grounds, 402
law and legal concepts, 346, 348, 356
lawgiver, need for, 348
metaphysics, 355, 356–61
motivation
Divine Motivation theory (DM theory), 356, 357–60
religion as motivation for moral behavior, 344, 347–48
skepticism about, 351–55
natural law and morality, 346, 348, 361
philosophical task regarding, 348–49
relationship between, 344–49
sin vs. moral wrong, 346–47, see also sin
superogatory moral acts vs. moral duty, 24
thinning of religious moral concepts, 347–48
Thomas Aquinas and Mencius compared, 414–16
transcendental arguments regarding, 351–52, 354–55
Moreland, J. P., 300
motivation skepticism and morality, 351–55, see also morality and religion
Mounce, H. O., 452, 456, 458
MUAP (many universes anthropic principle), 131–34
Murphy, Nancey, 273, 278, 282
Muslims, see Islam
mystery, sense of life as, 460–61
mystical and religious experience, 138–67, see also union with God
checkability, lack of, 155–57
classification of, 142–43
constructivism, 148–52
deconstruction, 489
definitions, 138–41
direct perception of God, 520
disanalogies to sense experience, 155–57
disciplines and practices invoking, 141
diversity of religions, 157–58
doxastic practice, 153–54, 155, 161–62
dualistic experiences of God, 140, 142, 146, 151
epilepsy, 160
epistemological issues, 153
disanalogies to sense experience, 155–57
doxastic practice approach, 153–54, 155, 161–62
feminist epistemology of religious experience, 517–19
naturalistic explanations, 158–62
perception, argument from, 154–56, 161–62
religious diversity, 157–58
extrovertive, 142
identity with God, 142
ineffability, 143–44, 160
introvertive, 142
naturalistic explanations for, 158–62
negative theology, 489
neuropsychological explanations for, 159–61
noetic nature of, 139
nontheistic conceptions of divine, 142, 157, 158
numinous experience, 141, 162
paradoxality, 144–45
perception, argument from, 154–56, 161–62
perennialism, 145–46
constructivism, 148, 150
PCEs, 147
philosophical possibility of, 152–53
psychological explanations for, 159
religious diversity, 157–58, 396–400
religious language, 237
sociological explanations for, 159
theistic experience, 142
Wittgenstein's invocation of the Mystical, 422
mythology, 511, 512, 517
Nagel, Thomas, 280, 499, 506
naming, theistic, 59–60
natality, feminist doctrine of, 498, 502
Native American religious practices, 141
natural belief in God, 452
natural law theory, morality, and religion, 346, 348, 361
natural process, God as, 16
natural religion, Enlightenment concept of, 247–48, 252
naturalism, see also metaphysical naturalism; methodological naturalism
definition and types of, 279–80
epistemological naturalism (scientism), 279–80
prescientific, 295–96
presumption of, 295–96, 297
nature defined, 277–79
nature of God, see also specific characteristics, e.g., power of God
action of divine in world, 280–85
(p. 542)
attributes constituting, 15
Buddhist speculations as to, 3, 9, 73–77
creative powers, 37–38, see also creation
differences vs. similarities between God and creatures, 35–37
metaphysical reality, God as, 456–58
nontheistic concepts of, see nontheistic conceptions of divine
object of philosophy of religion, 3–4
other than the world, God as, 460–64
personal qualities, 35–37, 49, see also personhood, divine
Thomism, 3–4, 456
Wittgensteinianism, 456–58, 460–64
Nazism as religion, 407, 408, 410
necessary and contingent propositions
Augustinian strategy regarding, 45–47
content dependency of God on contingent facts, 49, 51–52
cosmological and design arguments, see cosmological and design arguments for existence of God
definition of contingent proposition, 117
dependence on God of necessary truths, 96
Kant, Critique of Pure Reason, 107–8
power of God (omnipotence), 17–18, 20–21
sovereignty of God, 43–47
necessary divine existence, 428, 440
necessary truth, 96, 438–40
necrophilia of analytic philosophy of religion, feminist critique of, 496–99, 501–2, 511–12
negative theology, see apophatic or negative theology
neo-Kantianism, 452–53, 519, 521
neo-orthodox theology, 325
neo-Platonism, 23
Neumann, John von, 168, 184–85
Neurath, Otto, 222
Neurathian ship, 508–9, 515
neuroscience
mystical and religious experience, neuropsychological explanations for, 159–61
single subject of consciousness, denial of, 284
Newberg, Andrew, 149, 159–60
Newton, Isaac, and Newtonian physics
cosmological arguments for existence of God, 122
divine watchmaker theory, 285
space and time, 42
Nicene Creed, 59, 227
Nietzsche, Friedrich
continental philosophy of religion, 473
feminist critique of philosophy of religion, 500
hermeneutics of suspicion, 8, 9, 478
metaphysics, 485, 486
Nirguna Brahman, 157, 158
nirmana-kaya, 74
nirvana, 139, 393
no-maximality, Plantinga's attribute of, 91
no-neutrality thesis, 335, 339
nominalism, 438–39
nomological or inductive science, 289–90
“nondual culmination of the Veda,” see Advaita Vedanta
nonexistence of God argued from existence of evil, 188–89, 192–94, see also evil, problem of; proofs of God's existence
nonpersonal power of being, God conceived as, 16
nonpropositional view of revelation, 325–27, 330
nontheistic conceptions of divine, 59–79
definition of religion, 406–11
Mimamsa school on divinity of Veda, 61–66
mystical and religious experience, 142, 157, 158
relationship between Mimamsa and Advaita Vedanta, 66, 67
religious language, 222
Sankara's Advaita Vedanta (nondual divine), 67–72, 77
Western vs. non-Western doctrines and arguments, 59–61, 64, 73
numinous experience, 141, 162
Oakes, Robert, 6
Ockham, William of, 31–32
O'Connor, Robert C., 289–92
omnipotence, see power of God
omniscience, see knowledge of God
ontological argument, 80–115
analytic philosophy, 428–29, 440
Anselm, Proslogion 2, 80–87, 111
analysis of reasoning, 83
analytic philosophy, 440
argument as presented in, 80–83
truth of premises behind argument, 84–87
(p. 543)
Anselm, Proslogion 3, 87–89, 429
Anselm, Reply to Gaunilo, 89–91
Caterus, 102–3
Descartes, Meditation V, 97–103, 111
alternative analyses of reasoning, 98–102
argument as presented in, 97–98
critiques and responses, 102–3
Kant on, 106, 107
Leibniz on, 104
Gassendi, 102–3, 106
Gaunilo of Marmoutiers
Anselm, Reply to Gaunilo, 89–91
parody of Proslogion 2, 92–96
Gödel, 108–11
Kant, Critique of Pure Reason, 80, 106–8
Leibniz, 104–6, 108
Meinongian ontology, 98, 99
modal logic, 88–91, 96, 103, 109–11
simplicity, see ?simplicity, divine
ontological reductionism, 278
ontotheology, see also Heidegger, Martin
assertoric speech acts, danger of, 492
epistemology, 248, 266–69
feminist critique of, 499
metaphysics, 484–87
phenomenology, 473–76
open theism, 437–38
Oppy, Graham, 85, 92, 126
Origen, 368
Otto, Rudolph, 5, 141, 162–63, 224
Oxford analytic philosophy, 447, 448, 454
Paley, William, 7, 127–31, 171
pan-metaphorist strategy, 519
paradox of the stone, 20–21
paradoxality of mystical experience, 144–45
Paramaartha, 147
parasensual mystical experience, 139
parodies of ontological argument
Gassendi, 103
Gaunilo of Marmoutiers, 92–96
Leibniz' vulnerability to, 106
Pascal, Blaise, and Pascal's wagers, 168–87
apologetic role, 169, 172
doxastic voluntarism, 169, 172, 182
epistemology, 7
James's “The Will to Believe,” 169, 179, 180–84
logic and features of, 170–71
many-gods objection to, 178–79
presentation of four versions in Pensées, 172–77
Pauline Christianity, 485
Peacocke, Arthur, 276, 286
Pennock, Robert T., 289
perception
Locke and Enlightenment evidentialism, 251–52, 264
mystical and religious experience, 154–56, 161–62
perennialism and mystical experience, 145–46
constructivism, 148, 150
PCEs, 147
perfections of God, 15–16, 32–33, see also goodness of God; knowledge of God; power of God
proof of God's existence argued on grounds of, see ontological argument
Persinger, Michael A., 160
personhood, divine
God perceived as having, 35–37, 49
Locke's theory of personal identity, 49, 50
nonpersonal power of being, God conceived as, 16
theistic vs. nontheistic conceptions, 59–61, see also nontheistic conceptions of divine; theism
perspectival particularism, 431, 448
Peterson, Michael, 434–35
phenomenology, 5, 473
Heidegger, 473–76, 480, 481, 484–87, 488
icon, phenomenology of, 482–84
Marion, 480–84, 488
metaphysics, overcoming, 484–87
psychoanalysis and hermeneutics of suspicion, 8, 9, 478–79
Ricoeur, 476–79, 488
saturated phenomenon, 482–84
Phillips, D. Z.
biographical information, x
epistemology and Wittgensteinianism, 255–56, 257, 261
feminist critique of, 498, 505
religious language, 225–27
Wittgensteinian philosophy of religion, 447–71
(p. 544) Phillips, Stephen, 8
philosophy generally, value of philosophical theism for, 6–7, 8
Philosophy of Religion, 3–11
definition of religion, 394
different approaches, importance of studying, 10
history of, 3–7
neglect and resurgence, 4–6
object of religious thought, 3, 5, 8
purpose of, 7–8, 465–66
reason, truths about God based only on, 3–4, 248, 250–53
scope of, 8–9
subject of, 3
topics addressed by modern scholars of, 6–8
weaknesses of modern study of, 8–9
phronesis (practical wisdom), 357
Pike, Nelson, 142, 146, 149, 152
Plantinga, Alvin
action of divine in world, 283
evil, problem of, 195, 432–33
faith, 334–35, 337, 341
feminist critiques of, 498, 513
logical possibility of being wrong, 459
mystical and religious experience, 143, 517
nature of God, 456
necessary truth, 438
ontological argument, 91, 92, 104, 429
Reformed epistemology, 262–63, 266, 431, 452
science and theology, 283, 288, 291–92
Plato
creation, Timaeus on, 37–38
creator, God's nature as, 37
death, afterlife, and personal identity, 366–67, 375, 376, 388
Forms, concept of, 45, 46–47, 454
freedom, divine, 55, 56
morality and religion, 359
nature of God, 3
necessary and contingent propositions, Augustinian strategy regarding, 45, 46
necessary truth, 438–39
neo-Platonism, 23
Wittgenstein's identification with, 454
Plotinus, 3
pluralism, religious, see religious diversity
plurality of perspectives and Jantzen's feminist critique of truth valuation, 499–500
Polkinghorne, John, 276, 282, 286, 370–71, 375
Pollard, W. G., 282
polytheism
miracles, 307
Pascal's wagers, many-gods objection to, 179–80
worship, things deserving of, 94
Popper, Karl, 503
Port-Royal Logic presentation of Pascal's wager, 170
positivist verificationism and epistemology, 248, 253–55
postmodernism, 510
poststructuralism, 508, 510
power of God (omnipotence), 15–21
actions of divine in world, 285–86
actualization, divine power of, 16–18
analytic philosophy of religion, 428
conservation of creation and, 40
death, afterlife, and personal identity, 387
deviations from omnipotence in concept of God, 15–16
difficulty in fully accounting for, 20–21
divine freedom and, 55–56
evil as problem for, 191–92, see also evil, problem of
human free will and, 19
“more powerful than any other being” argument, 20
necessary, contingent, and impossible states, 17–18, 20–21
paradox of the stone, 20–21
providence, divine, 436
restriction by other essential attributes, 19–20, 21, 24–25
practical or moral reason, 4
practical wisdom (phronesis), 357
practice of religion, see epistemology
pragmatic arguments for belief in God, 169, 182, 184–85, see also Pascal, Blaise, and Pascal's wagers
praise and thanks, see worship, things deserving of
Prajñaparamita Heart Sutra, 151
predicates (concepts) applied to God, 221, 227, 232 et seq., see also religious language
Presocratics, 454, 456
Price, H. H., 370, 371, 372
(p. 545) prime mover (infinite regress) arguments for existence of God, 118–22
principle of sufficient reason (PSR), 117
contingent being and, 120
critical evaluation of cosmological arguments, 123–27
Kalam cosmological argument, 121
prime mover (infinite regress) argument, 119–20
process theology, 231, 276, 429, 436, 503–4
proofs of God's existence, 3–5, 7–8
analytic philosophy of religion, 428–31
cosmological and design arguments, see cosmological and design arguments for existence of God
morality, antiskeptical transcendental argument for existence of God based on, 354–55
necessary divine existence, 428
ontological, see ontological argument
Pascal's wagers not considered to be, 169, see also Pascal, Blaise, and Pascal's wagers
pragmatic arguments, 169, 182, 184–85
“properly basic,” belief in God as, 334, 431, 513, 517
prophecy, 327–28
propositional view of revelation, 324–25, 330
Protestant conception of faith, 331
Protestant fundamentalism, 328
Protestant mindset, feminist critique of, 496, 501.505
Proudfoot, Wayne, 143, 148, 155
providence, divine
analytic philosophy of religion, 435–38
divine plan, 457
traditional doctrine of, 386–87
Pruss, Alexander R., x, 116–37
Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite
apophatic or negative theology, 489, 490–91, 500, 519
Derrida's deconstruction and negative theology compared, 489, 490–91
feminist critique of analytic philosophy, 500, 501, 519
metaphysical goodness of God, 23
religious language, 237
Thomist debt to, 501
psychoanalysis, 8, 9, 478–79, 497, 509
psycholinguistic gender binary of feminist theory, 497, 508, 516
psychological/neurological explanations for mystical and religious experience, 159–61
pure conscious events (PCEs), 146–47
constructivism, 148–50
perennialism, 145
Putnam, Hilary, 357–58
Pyrrhoneanism, 489
Pythagoreans, 457
quantum mechanics, 282
Quine, Willard Van Orman, 44, 438, 508–9, 515
Quinn, Philip L., x, 39, 289, 392–417
Radhakrishnan, S., 151
Radical Orthodoxy, 456
Ramanuja, 60, 151
Raphael, Melissa, 162
Rashdall, Hastings, 5
Rawls, John, 173, 406, 407
realism, 355, see also metaphysical realism
feminist critique of analytic philosophy
Anderson, 506, 508, 512, 513, 514
Jantzen, 499, 504
modal realism, 439
reality
appearance and interpretation of, 452–53
being as such, philosophical concern with, 454–55
ultimate reality, 452–53
reason and rationality, see also faith
analytic philosophy, faith, and reason, 427, 430–31
epistemological developments and, 247–49
evidentialism, 7, 248, 249–53
feminism, 339, 500, 505, 508–12
God having no need of, 51, 52
Lockean theory of maximal concernment, 253, 264
moral or practical reason, 4
neutral philosophical reason, 431
theoretical or speculative reason, 4
truths about God based only on, 3–4, 248, 250–53
rebirth and redeath (reincarnation), 68, 69–72, 366, 368, 372
reductionism, ontological, 278
reference to God in religious language, 227–32
Reformed epistemology, 248–49, 262–66
analytic philosophy, 431
faith, 334
(p. 546)
feminist critique of, 505, 513
“proper basicality” of belief in God, 517
Wittgensteinianism, 448, 451–52, 453
regulative function of religious language, 258
Reichenbach, Bruce, 123, 435
Reid, Thomas, 451–52, 456, 517
reincarnation, 68, 69–72, 366, 368, 372
relational vs. absolute space and time, 42–43
relationship as philosophical category, 517
religion as such rather than religious object, philosophy of religion as attempt to account for, 8
religion, definition of, 394, 406–11
religion, philosophy of, see Philosophy of Religion
religious diversity, 392–417
comparative philosophy of religion, 394–95, 406–7, 411–16
definition of religion, 394, 406–11
epistemology, 393, 395–400
morality and religion, relationship between, 345–46
mystical and religious experience, theories of, 157–58, 396–400
tolerance/intolerance, 393–94, 401–6
religious experience, see mystical and religious experience
religious language, 220–24
analogical speech about God, 239–41
analytic philosophy of religion, 422–27
autonomy of, 225–26
cognitive import of, 422–27
creatures vs. God, differences in predicates applied to, 232–34
analogical speech, 239–41
metaphorical vs. literal speech, 236–39
partial univocity, 234–36, 242
defined, 220
expressive function, 257–58
history of, 5–6
metaphorical vs. literal speech about God, 236–39, 519
mystical and religious experience, 237
nontheistic conceptions of divine, 222
partial univocity of, 234–36, 242
predicates (concepts) applied to God, 221, 227, 232 et seq.
radical otherness and divine mystery of God, expressing, 236–39
reference to God (subject terms), 227–32
regulative function, 258
simplicity, divine, 236–37, 240
statements about God, tendency to concentrate on, 221–22
Thomism
analogical speech about God, 239–40, 241
divine simplicity, ramifications of, 236–37, 240
verificationism, 222–25, 232, 242
Wittgensteinian language game, 225, 226, 256–62, 422, 425–26, 454–55, 460
resurrection of the body, see death, afterlife, and personal identity
revelation, 323–30
analytic philosophy of religion and religious language, 424
Enlightenment concept of revealed religion, 247–48, 251, 252
faith and revelation, relationship between, 323–24, 330–31
Heidegger's phenomenology and ontotheology, 473–74
inerrancy, 327, 328–30
infallibility, 327, 330
inspiration, 327–28
nonpropositional view of, 325–27, 330
propositional view of, 324–25, 330
Rgveda, 62
Rhees, Rush, 258, 456, 457, 461–64
Ricoeur, Paul, 476–79, 480, 481, 488, 511
Roman Catholic conception of faith, 331
Romanticism, 518
Rosch, E., 410
Rosenkrantz, G., 20
Ross, James, 427
Rowe, William L.
biographical information, x
cosmological arguments for existence of God, 123, 429
divine power, goodness, and knowledge, 15–34
evil, problem of, 203–4, 209, 211, 212, 216, 433
mystical and religious experience, 155, 156
Ruether, Rosemary Radford, 498
Ruse, Michael, 288
Russell, Bertrand, 158, 422
Ruysbroeck, Jan van, 142, 147
S5 system of modal logic and ontological argument, 88–89, 90
sacred texts, see texts, sacred
Sakyamuni, see also Buddhism
body of, 74
life of, 72–73
salvation
Buddha, maximal salvific efficaciousness of, 74, 75
feminist critique of doctrine, 501–2
morality and religion, 347
sambhoga-kaya, 74–75
samsara (cycle of rebirth and redeath), 68, 69–72
Sanders, John, 437
Sankara and Advaita Vedanta, 67–72, 77, 151
Santayana, George, 8, 224
Sartre, Jean-Paul, 509
saturated phenomenon, 482–84
Savage, Leonard J., 293
Schaff, Philip, 325
Schellenberg, J. L., 299
Schimmel, Annemarie, 143, 147
Schleiermacher, Friedrich, 4, 7, 141, 249, 466
Schlesinger, George N., 273
Schlick, Moritz, 222
Schoenrade, Patricia, 160
scholasticism, modern renewal of interest in, 6
science and theology, 272–303, see also naturalism
action of divine in world, 280–88
analytic philosophy, 442
Big Bang theory, 121, 284
conflicts between, 276–77
cosmological and design arguments for existence of God, 121, 129–31, 133, 276
definition of science, 288–89
deism, 280–83
demarcation of science from other pursuits, 289–90
direct divine acts, 282–83, 284
epistemological naturalism (scientism), 279–80
goals of science, 290–95
indirect nature of divine acts, 282, 284, 285–88
isolation of, 274–75
justification of claims, 292–95
miracles, 280, 288, 305–9
mystical and religious experience, naturalistic explanations for, 158–62
nature defined, 277–79
nature of science, 288–90
plausibility problem, 293–94
power, knowledge, and goodness of God, 285–88
prescientific naturalism, 295–96
success of scientific explanations leading to presumption of naturalism, 296
supernatural defined in terms of nature, 277
symbiosis of, 275–76
testability problem, 292–93, 294
truth as goal of, 291–92
verificationism and religious language, 223
warfare view of relationship between, 273–74
scientism (epistemological naturalism), 279–80
Scotus (Duns Scotus), 6, 456
scripture, see texts, sacred
Searle, John, 280
sefirah, 140, 147
self, see also consciousness; death, afterlife, and personal identity
Atman-Brahman concept, 66–71, 140, 347
feminist critique of analytic philosophy, 501
self-understanding, divine
Buddha's awareness, Indian concepts of, 76
Western, personal concept of God, 50, 51, 52
sensus divinitatis, 334, 431
shamanism, 140
Sheol, 366
Sherry, Patrick, 456
Shestov, Lev, 332
Sidelle, Alan, 439
simplicity, divine
analytic philosophy, 428, 440
content dependencies, 52–53
eternality and divine memory, 52–54
ontological argument
Anselm, Proslogion 2, 83
Descartes, Meditation III, 102
religious language, 236–37, 240
structural dependencies, 50–51
Thomism
modularity and, 50–51
religious language, 236–37, 240
sin, see also evil, problem of; morality and religion
faith and reason, 339–41
moral wrong distinguished from, 346–47
Ricoeur and continental philosophy, 476
(p. 548) skepticism
evil, problem of, 434
morality and religion, 351–55
negative or apophatic theology, 489
trust vs., 517
Smart, J.J.C., 135
Smart, Ninian, 140, 143, 146
Smith, Huston, 143
Sober, Elliott, 289
sociological explanations for mystical and religious experience, 159
solipsism, 457
“something than which no greater can be thought,” see ontological argument
Sorley, W. R., 5
“soul-making theodicy,” 435
sovereignty of God, 36, 37–47
conservation, God's powers of, 39–41, 42–43
creator, God as, 37–38
necessary and contingent propositions, 36, 43–47
space and time, 42–43
space and time, see also eternality
analytic philosophy and divine timelessness, 428
aseity or independence of God, 53
Buddha's lack of temporal properties, 76–77
evil, God's nontemporality and problem of, 201
mystical and religious experience, 156–57
omniscience of God and temporality, 28–29
sovereignty of God, 42–43, 53
speculative or theoretical reason, 4
Spiegelberg, Herbert, 473
spiritual body, 367, 373
Spiro, Melford E., 407–9
Sprague, Elmer, 454
sruti, 62, 68
Staal, Frits, 144, 145
Stace, Walter, 144, 145–46
standpoint epistemology, 499–500, 504, 507–8, 514–15
steady state theory, 284–95
Stoeber, Michael, 151
Stoicism, 359
Stone, Jim, 410–11
Stroud, Barry, 449
structural dependencies of divine mind, 49, 50–51
Stump, Eleonore, 53, 428
sub sense-perceptual mystical experience, 139
Sufism, 147
super sense-perceptual mystical experience, 139
supernaturalism, 277, 456
Suso, Henry, 142
Suzuki, Shunryu, 140
Swinburne, Richard
cosmological and design arguments for existence of God, 132–34, 429, 430
death, afterlife, and personal identity, 371
epistemology, 248, 517
evil, problem of, 434
feminist critique of, 498, 500, 501, 513, 517
mystical and religious experience, 154, 157, 161, 517
nature of God, 456
necessary truth, 438–39
probability calculus, 430–31
revelation, 328–29, 331
science and theology, 294
synthetic necessary truths, 439
Talmud, 436
tathata, 140
Taylor, A. E., 5
teleological or design arguments, see cosmological and design arguments for existence of God
temporality, see space and time
ten Kate, Laurens, 488
Teresa of Avila, 520
Tertullian, 332, 338
texts, sacred
inspiration, infallibility and inerrancy of, 63–64, 327–30
Mimamsa school understanding Veda text as divine, 61–66
Thales, 454
thanks and praise, see worship, things deserving of
theism, see also proofs of God's existence
actions of divine in world, 280–83
analytic philosophy of religion, 427–35, 442–43
concepts of God, theistic vs. nontheistic, 59–61
defined, 168, 280
free will theism, 437–38
metaphysical naturalism and scientific justification, 295
methodological naturalism and, 283–85, 299–300
(p. 549)
mystical and religious experience, theistic, 142
open theism, 437–38
philosophy of religion's focus on, 8–9
pragmatic rationality of, 169, 182, 184–85, see also Pascal, Blaise, and Pascal's wagers
science and theology, 280–85, 299–300
theodicy, 195–97, 435, 464
theology, philosophical, see Philosophy of Religion
theoretical or speculative reason, 4
Theravada Buddhism, 406, 408–10
Thomas Aquinas and Thomism
analogy, doctrine of, 425, 501, 519–20
analytic philosophy of religion and Thomism, 441–42
apophatic or negative theology, 519–20
cosmological and design arguments, 118–21, 135
death, afterlife, and personal identity, 368, 370, 372, 373, 375, 376
faith, 331, 335–37
feminist critique of, 501, 505
Mencius compared, 414–16
metaphysics and ontotheology, 487
modern interest in, reasons for, 6
morality and religion, 346, 350–51, 357, 360
natural law, 346
nature of God, 3–4, 456
power, goodness, and knowledge of God, 15, 17
rationally grounded theology, 250
religious language
analogical speech about God, 239–40, 241
divine simplicity, ramifications of, 236–37, 240
renewal of Thomism in twentieth century, 5
revelation, 324, 327, 337
simplicity, divine
modularity and, 50–51
religious language and, 236–37, 240
temporality, omniscience of God, and problem of evil, 201
theological determinism, 436
Tillich, Paul, 5, 16, 272, 275
Tillotson, John, 171
time and space, see space and time
timira, 68
traducianism, 370
transcendence, divine, 460–64
transcendental arguments, 351–52, 354–55
trust vs. skepticism, 517
truth, see also verificationism
feminist critique of analytic philosophy's obsession with, 496–97, 499–500, 504
necessary truth, 96, 438–40
reason and rationality, truths about God based only on, 3–4, 248, 250–53
religious beliefs and truth-relevant merits, 246–47
science, as goal of, 291–92
Turner, Donald, 132
Udayana, 8
Underhill, Evelyn, 154
union with God
identity with God, mystical experience of, 143
mysticism in its unitive sense, 140
perennialism, 145
type of mystical experience, 142
unity of God, see also simplicity, divine
Advaita Vedanta, 66, 67–72
Buddhism, 76
universal reason, 361
Upadesasahasri, 68
Van Buren, John, 473
Van Inwagen, Peter, x, 98, 188–219, 377, 378
Van Norden, Bryan W., 412–13, 415
van Ruysbroeck, Jan, 142, 147
Van Till, Howard, 287, 288
Veda, see also Advaita Vedanta
authorlessness of, 63, 64–65
Buddhism's nonrecognition of authority of, 72
Mimamsa school on divinity of, 61–66
nature of Brahman, 3
relationship between Mimamsa and Advaita Vedanta, 66
Sankara's Advaita Vedanta, 67–72
Ventis, W. Larry, 160
verificationism
epistemology and positivist verificationism, 248, 253–55
eschatalogical verification, doctrine of, 425
religious language and objective truth value of statements about God, 222–25, 232, 242
Vienna Circle, 222, 447
violence, religiously inspired, see religious diversity
(p. 550) Visistadvaitin concept of God, 9
vocables as divine (Mimamsa school), 61–66
von Neumann, John, 168, 184–85
Wainwright, William J.
affectivity, 518
analytic philosophy and theism, 430
biographical information, x
faith, 335
mystical and religious experience, 140, 146, 147, 151, 154, 159
Philosophy of Religion, 3–11, 465
religious tolerance, 398
robust conception of truth, 453
wajd, 147
Waldron, Jeremy, 401–2
Ward, Keith, 501
Warnock, J. G., 451
watchmaker, divine, 285–86
Western vs. non-Western doctrines and arguments, 8–9, 59–61, 64, 73
Westminster Confession, 29, 325
Westphal, Merold, x, 9, 472–93
White, Andrew Dickson, 273, 274
Whitehead, A. N., 398–99, 436
Wieman, Henry Nelson, 16, 224
Wierenga, E., 20
Wilberforce, Samuel, 274
William of Ockham, 31–32
Williams, Bernard, 182, 379
Williams, C.J.F., 454
Williams, Paul, 8
Wilson, Edward O., 283, 297
Winch, Peter, 458, 460, 463, 465
Wisdom, John, 422
wisdom, practical (phronesis), 357
Wissenschaft, theology as, 250
Wittgenstein, Ludwig, and Wittgensteinians, 447–71
analytic philosophy, see analytic philosophy of religion
assertoric meaning, 255–57
certitudes or absolutes in religion, 453, 458–59
convergence with Reformed epistemology and Heideggerian theory, 248, 266
definition of religion, 409
Descartes' epistemological legacy, 449–50, 453
Enlightenment evidentialism as background to, 253
epistemology, 248–49, 253–62, 450–53, 458
fideism, Wittgensteinian, 466
grace, concept of, 460–64
influence of, 447–48
logic, Wittgensteinian questions as problems of, 453, 458
logical positivism, 248, 253–55, 447–48
meaningful and meaningless discourse, 254–56
metaphysical realism, rejection of, see metaphysical realism
the Mystical, invocation of, 422
nature of God, 456–58, 460–64
philosophical investigation, purpose of, 465–66
religion as such rather than religious object, attempts to account for, 8
religious language and language games, 225, 226, 256–62, 422, 425–26, 454–55, 460
science and technology, isolation of, 275
transcendence, divine, 460–64
Wolff, Christian, 411–12
Wolfson, Harry A., 367, 370
Wolterstorff, Nicholas
analytic philosophy of religion, 431
biographical information, x
epistemology, 245–71
feminist critiques of, 513
mystical and religious experience, 517
Wittgensteinianism, 448, 453, 465
word-meaning relationship in Mimamsa school, 65
worship, things deserving of
good acts, sensibility of praising and thanking God for, 23–27
negative or apophatic theology, 488–92
ontological argument, 83, 86–87, 93–95
polytheistic vs. monotheistic worship, 94
Wulff, David M., 159
Wykstra, Stephen John, 211, 434
Xenophanes, 35, 48, 51, 53
Yandell, Keith, 143, 154
Yearley, Lee H., 414–15
Zaehner, R. C., 146, 147
Zagzebski, Linda, x, 344–65
Zalman, Rabbi Shneur, 143
Zen Buddhism, 140, 145, 147, 160
Zimmerman, Dean, 388