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date: 21 August 2019

(p. 611) Index

(p. 611) Index

‘Abduh, Muhammad, 444–45
Abhidharma (chos-mngon-pa), 189, 193, 210, 252
categorizing lists (mātrkā, mātikā), 194
doctrines, 194
epistemology, perceptual objects status, 201–4
etymology, 193
momentariness theory, 196–201
primary and secondary existents, distinction between, 189, 194–95
on suffering's origin, 207
Ābhidharmikas, 203
Abhināvagupta, 148, 175
abiding (baqā’), 422, 423
abiding purity (gnas su dag pa), 273
Aboriginal peoples. See Australian Aboriginal peoples
absence (abhāva), 113, 114, 124
types of, 115
absence and presence (ghayba and hudūr), 423
absence of the no-more type (dhvamsābhāva), 115
absence of the not-yet (prāgabhāva), 115
absolute (Brahman), 110, 132, 147, 172, 173
according to Advaita, 151–55
according to Viśista Advaita Vedānta, 155–58
absolute (zettai), 367
absolute absence (atyantābhāva), 115
absolute knowledge (kevalajnāna), 165
absolute nothingness, 300, 320, 362, 367, 368, 369
absolute Self, 207 (see also self entries)
absolutism (yod mtha'), 218
abstinence (zuhd), 423
Abu Zaid, Nasr Hamid, 445
acceptance (abhyupagama), 238
acquired enlightenment (shikaku), 345
acquisition (kasb), 440
action (dharma), 111, 136, 141, 163, 187, 231, 280
action by nonaction (wu wei), 23, 33, 53
actions, good vs. bad, 280–81
activity (pravrtti), 116 n 4
al-‘Adawiyya, Rābi'a, 421
Adham, Ibrāhīm ibn, 421, 422
Adi Śankara, 132, 152, 153, 161
Brahmasūtrabhāsya, 149, 150
Yogasūtrabhāsyavivarana, 135
adjunct (pratiyogī), 124
Advaita Vedānta (Absolute Nondualism), 147, 150, 151–55, 172
Dvaita critique of, 155
Viśista Advaita critique of, 155–58
Advaitic Idealism, 172
adventitious defilements (aguntakamala), 214
aesthetics, 175–77 (see also Japanese aesthetics)
Aristotelianism, 400
categorical aesthetics, 317
Hellenizing philosophers, 403–5
affective obscuration (kleśāvarana), 251 n 8
affirmative action, 533–41
toward African Americans, 533–34
equal opportunity argument to justify, 536, 539
in higher education, 535
to justify present-day Blacks as compensation, 537
as rectificatory compensation, 538
versus reparations, 607–8
in university examination, 533
“affirming negation” (Skt. paryudāsa; Tib. ma yin dgag), 219
afflictive mentality (klista-manas), 224
al-Afghānī, Jamāl al-Dīn, 445
Africa
attainment of political independence, 468
language of development, 467 n 1
nonexistence philosophy, 467
pacification campaigns in, 467
African American philosophers
segregated by Color Line, 510–12
African American philosophy, 509–20
defined, 515–18
perspectives and trends, 518–20
African Americans
affirmative action toward, 533, 534
racial injustice against, 534
Africana philosophy, 467–77
African philosophy component of, 473
critical-reverent appropriation of precolonial heritage, 476
critique on Eurocentrism, 470–71
otherness of the other, 469–70
particularities dialectical relationship to universality, 462
African philosophy, 478–86
as analytic philosophy, 481–84
antecedents, 478–79
environmental ethics of, 577
ethnophilosophy and, 479–81
feminism in, 484–85
Marxism and, 484–85
phenomenological hermeneutics in, 481
postmodernism and, 479
(p. 612) Afro-Caribbean philosophy, 489–506
abandoning misconceptions about, 490
as anticolonial intellectual production, 498–99
contesting modernity, 492
contextualizing, 491
as critical ethnophilosophy, 494–95
as ethics, 499–500
imagination and, 503
memory and, 503
metaphor in, 505–6
and nature of philosophy, 492–93
patterns of creolization, 500
as philosophical anthropology, 495–96
postmodernism and, 503–5
redemptive prophetic of, 498
school is negritude, 502
as sociogenesis, 496–97
traces of existentialism, 502
trauma and, 503
after-perception (anuvyavasāya), 118
aggregates (skandha), 208
aggregate whole (al-kull al-‘ijtimā‘ī), 415
Ahsā’ī, Muhammad ibn Zayn al-Dīn ibn Ibrāhīm, 417
aikidō, martial arts, 312, 313
aim (prayojana), 115
Aims of the Philosophers, The (Maqāsid al-Falāsifa), 391
Ājīvikas, 111
Akalanka, 161
Akhbārī school, 444
Akira, Kurosawa
Rashōmon, 325
Akira, Yanabu, 339
Aksapāda Gautama, 118
Nyāyasūtra, 115
Ali, Syed Ameer
Spirit of Islam, The, 173
al-‘Allāf, Abū al-Hudhayl, 438
Allahabad University Studies, 171
Allen, Anita, 513
all-knowing (sarvajña), 165
American Philosophical Association, 511
American Society for Aesthetics, 321
Amida Buddha, 341
Analects, 27, 29, 32, 37, 40, 52
analytic philosophy, 489, 519
African philosophy as, 481–84
anamnesis (dhikr), 427
Anand, Mulk Raj, 175
Hindu View of Art, The, 175
Anglophone philosophy in colonial India, 170
aesthetics, 175–77
comparative philosophy, 173–75
English philosophy in India and diasporas post-1947, 181–82
ethics and social and political philosophy, 178–81
metaphysics and epistemology of, 170–73
annihilation (fanā’), 422
Ansārī, ‘Abdullāh-i, 423
anthropomorphism, 434
anticolonial intellectual production
Afro-Caribbean philosophy as, 498–99
Anti-Confucius Campaign, 95, 100
antiglobalization movement, 585
Appayya Dīksita, 145
Siddhāntaleśasaġraha, 150
apperception (svasam vittih), 259 n 22
application (upanaya), 118
‘Arabī, Muhyī ‘l-Dīn Ibn, 425
al-‘Arabī, Muhyi al-DīnIbn, 442
Arab philosophy
distinguished from Islamic philosophy, 391
Arab sciences, 391
Aristotelianism, 293, 400
aesthetics, 404
ethics, 404
philosophy of illumination and, 413–14
Aristotle, 399
Ariyaratna, A. T., 291
Arkoun, Mohammad, 445
Arnold, Dan, 138
art of flexibility, Confucius, 30
arts (shu), 30, 65, 66
Āryadeva, 211
al-Asadābādī, ‘Abd al-Jabbār, 439
Asanga, 212, 226, 230, 233, 275
Asante, Molefi, 515
ascertained (niścita), 239, 240
ascetic quality and astringency (shibui), 317
al-Ash'arī, Abū al-Hasan, 439
Ash'arite, 439–40
transformation of, 441–43
Āśmarathya, 149
assertion (pratijñā), 118
Association for Women's Rights in Development (AWID), 559
Asvabhāva, 230
Atā’, Wāsil ibn, 436, 437
Atiśa, 250
Ati Yoga, 274
Ātmasiddhi, 150
atomism, 228, 438
atoms, 202
attachment (rāga), 136
‘Attār, Farīd al-Dīn, 425
Audulomi, 149
Aung San Suu Kyi, 291
Aurobindo, 174, 179, 180
Essays on the Gita, 178
Life Divine, The, 172
Renaissance in India, The, 179
Australian Aboriginal peoples
environmental ethics of, 576
authenticity, 501
authentic sincerity and self-realization (cheng), 86
autonomous inference (svatantrānumāna), 213
autonomy, 338
Avatamsaka Sūtra, 354 n 20
(p. 613) awakening, 378, 384
awareness of poignance of things (mononoaware), 299, 317, 323
awe and intimacy (hayba and uns), 423
Azad, Abul Kalam, 173
Babūya, Ibn, 434, 444
backward-looking arguments, for reparations, 600, 607
Bādarāyana, 132, 147, 149
Bādari, 149
al-Bājūrī, Ibrāhī̄m, 442
Baker, Thomas Nelson, 511, 512
al-Balkhī, Shaqīq, 422
al-Bāqillānī, Abuī Bakr, 440
Bashō, Matsuo, 323, 334, 344
basic category (padārtha), 113, 115
basis consciousness (ālaya-vijñāna), 223–24 (see also consciousness)
and meditation, 224
al-Basrī, al-Hasan, 421, 435
Baudhāyana, 149
beauty accompanying loneliness (sabi), 317
becoming, 415
being
the best qualified for position, 538
in Buddhism, 374–75
beign (you), 49, 53
being a citizen of the world, 583
ben, 20
benevolence (ren), 29, 39, 306
benti, 21
benti-cosmology, 21
benti-ontology
as onto-cosmology of the yi, 18–20
Berlin, Isaiah, 337
Besant, Annie, 174
Bhagavad Gīta, 109, 128, 147, 148, 149, 157, 178
Bhāgavata Purāna, 150, 157
Bhāmatī school, 150
Bharata
Natya Shāstra, 109, 175
Bhartrhari
Vākyapadīya, 149
Bhāsaravajna, 113
Bhattacharyya, Gadādhara, 120
Bhattacharyya, Gopinath, 171, 177
Bhattacharyya, Kalidas, 171, 177
Bhattacharyya, Krishna Chandra
Concept of Philosophy, 171
Concept of Rasa, 176
Subject as Freedom, 171
Bhatta Umveka, 145
Bhatta Vādīndra
Kanāda-sūtranibandha, 113
Bhāvanākrama (“Stages of Meditation”), 215
Bhāvaviveka, 211, 212
Bhoja
Bhojavrtti, 135
Bhushan, Nalini, 170
bi-lā kayfa, 434
Bin, Kimura, 339, 342, 343
binary distinctions, 368
bioethics, feminist approaches to, 559
biology
race and, 526–30
birth, 116
birth–death cycle (samsāra), 133, 159, 207, 217
Bistāmī, Bāyazīd, 422
Black Power Movement, 535
“blueness,” 236
Bocheński, Innocentius, 239
Bodhidharma, 349
bodhisattva, 223, 226, 229, 258, 268, 274, 283, 287–89, 293
Bodhisattva-bhūmi, 289
bodhisattvas, 267, 381, 383, 384
body (ti), 19, 20
body, 116
“Bön,” 246, 249, 251
Book of Lord Shang, 64
Bradley, F. H., 173
Brāhmanas, 139
Brahmasūtra, 132, 147, 149
Brahmo Samaj, 174
Brazil
affirmative action for university admission, 533
breathing practice (prānāyāma), 136
Brhadāranyaka Upanisad, 151, 152, 171
British Society for Aesthetics, 321
Buddha, 160, 165, 224, 305, 310, 349
Buddhadeva, 199
Buddha Dharma, 354
Buddhahood, 78, 81, 216
and deviltry, 72
goal of, 288
Buddha-nature (tathāgatagarbha), 79, 80, 191, 214, 254–58, 269
and extrinsic emptiness, 271–73
Buddhapālita, 211, 213
Buddha Way, 340, 348, 350, 354
Buddhism, 127, 164, 165, 299, 302, 304, 322, 373–74, 380, 575 (see also specific Buddhism)
release from suffering, 187
Buddhist epistemology, 213, 233
“bottom-up” approach, 237
ontology and, 235–36
“top-down” approach, 236
Buddhist ethics, 279
dharma and karma, 280
engaged Buddhism, 291–92
karma, intentions, 280–81
Mahāyāna developments, 288–90
merit, 282–83
moral theory, 292–93
precepts, 283–84
śīla, 284–86
virtues, 283–84, 286–88
(p. 614) Buddhists, 83
on self, 189
view of reality, 190
Buddhist tantras, 214
Caird, E., 173
calligraphy, East Asian, 327–28
Canadian Museum of Civilization, Ottawa, 313
Candrakīrti, 211–16, 251, 258
on “autonomous inferences” (svatantrānumāna), 217
rejection of Buddhist epistemology, 217, 218, 220
rejection of Yogācāra, 218
skepticism about the reach of reason, 215
Candrānanda
Vrtti, 113
Caodong school, 79
Carter, Robert E., 298, 302
Cārvākas (Lokāyatas), 111
castes (jāti), 243
categorical aesthetics, 317
causally connected (tadutpatti), 241
causal theory of reference, 237
causation, 260
causation theory (asatkāryavāda), 112, 114
cause–effect relationship, 131
ceeraa fokko, 578
Centennial International Exhibition (1876), 326
centrality (zhong), 71
Central Tibet, 261
cessationism (uccheda-vāda), 222
Chadō (Way of Tea), 312
Chakrabarti, A., 181
Chan, 214, 248 (see also Zen Buddhism)
“public case” (Ch. gong-an; Jap. koan) technique, 80
self-overcoming of absolute subjectivity, 77–81
Chāndogya Upanisad, 151, 153, 155
change and transformation (bianyi or bianhua) of things, 21
Changkya Rolpei Dorjé, 261
Chapa's approach
scholasticism of, 216
Chapa Chöki Senggé, 253
Chapa Chokyi Senge, 215
characterizer-characterized (viśesya-viśesana-bhāva-sambandha), 117
Chatterjee, Amita, 112
Chattopadhyaya, D. P.
History of Science, Philosophy and Culture in Indian Civilization, 181
Cheng Chung-ying. See Cheng Zhongying
Chengguan, 73
Cheng Hao, 85, 87, 88
Cheng Yi, 85, 87
Cheng Zhongying, 96
Chen Liang, 89
China, 297, 304, 323, 325, 327, 349, 373
Chinese Buddhism, 11, 68
Chan (Japanese: Zen) school (see Zen Buddhism)
Huayan school, 68, 73–77
and Indian Buddhism, 24 n 8
Tiantai school, 68, 69–73
and Tibetan Buddhism, 245
“Chinese Great Perfection” (rgya-nag rdzogs-chen), 253
Chinese philosophy, 9–12 (see also individual entries)
Confucianism, 11
contextualism, 11
Daoism, 9, 10, 11
de (virtue), 9, 10
dynamism, 11
Han dynasty, 11
he (harmony), 9
Legalism, 11
ming (mandate, the unavoidable), 9
Mohism, 11
Neo-Confucianism, 12
pre-Qin period, 11
qi (energy, vital force), 9
Qing dynasty, 12
Song dynasty, 12
Spring and Autumn, 11
Tang dynasty, 11
tian (Heaven), 9
Warring States, 11
yang, 9
yin, 9
zhong (centrality, equilibrium), 9
Chinul, Pojo, 300, 373, 374
Encouragement to Practice, 378
language and subjectivity in Sŏn Buddhism of, 377–80
Treatise on Resolving Doubts about Huatou Meditation, 378
Christianity, 585
Chu-ci, 53
Citsukha
Tattvapradīpikā, 150
clairvoyance (vadhi), 165
clarification or illumination (ming), 16
classical age, of sūtras, 129–30
classic Sunni Kalam, 433, 439–41 (see also Kalam)
“clear light,” 270 n 4, 271
clinging to life (abhiniveśa), 136
cognition, 120
intuitive, 403
“cognition-only” concept, 228, 229
cognitive obscuration (jñeyāvarana), 251 n 8
coherent identity, 71
coherent principle (li), 83
collective moral responsibility, 606
colonialism, 4
community, 566–68
comparative philosophy, 173–75
comparison (upamāna), 116, 119
(p. 615) compassion (en), 39
compassion (karunā), 268, 286–87
compassionate intention, 268
Compendium of Ascertainments (Viniścayasamgrahanī), 231
Compendium of Higher Doctrine (Abhidharmasamuccaya), 226
Compendium of the Great Vehicle (Mahāyānasamgraha), 226
compositionality, 237
conceptual identity/difference, 242
conceptual structures (prapañca), 217
conceptual thought (kalpanā), 235
conclusion (nigamana), 118
conclusion (siddhānta), 115
condemning fatalism (fei ming), 63
condemning music (fei yue), 63
conditional predication (syādvāda) doctrine, 110, 161, 166–67
as possibility of intellectual ahimsā, 168
conditioned causality, 374–75
conduct, 268
conformity (tong), 33
Confucian
Analects, 27, 29, 32, 37, 40, 52
gongfu, 35
idea of zhonghe (equilib-rium and harmony), 104
notion of wu wei (action by nonaction), 33
Confucianism, 11, 26, 64, 96, 302, 304, 305
Heaven and human being, 27–29
ren, 29–31
xue, 34–36
yi and li, 31–33
zheng, 33–34
Confucius, 26
art of flexibility, 30
death and consciousness, 27
about exemplary person, 35
on Heaven's Mandate (tian ming), 52
ideal of Great Unity (dadong), 101
on ming, 28
Spring and Autumn Annals, 34
conglomeration, 202
conjunction (samyoga), 117, 121, 123
consciousness, 114, 152, 156, 223, 269, 277, 364, 369
basis, 223
and open presence, difference between, 274
consciousness of the ground-of-all (ālayavijñāna), 254
consequence (prasanga), 238
consequences (prasanga), 213, 217
constituents of an argument (avayava), 115
constructed nature (parikalpita), 225
constructed nature (parikalpitasvabhāva), 212
consumerism, 575
contact, 117–18, 121
contacts (sannikarsa), 117
contemplative open presence (bsam rig), 275
contemporary Buddhism, 291 (see also Buddhism)
Contemporary Neo-Confucianism, 96–97
First Generation, 97–105
contentedness (ridā), 423
contextualism, Chinese, 11
contraction and expansion (qabd and bast), 423
contraposition of the consequence (prasangaviparyaya), 238
conventionally real (vyavahārasat), 208
Conventional Truth, 69, 70
Cook, Joyce Mitchell, 513
Coomaraswamy, A. K., 175, 176, 179, 180
Cooper, Anna Julia, 513
cosmology, 400–2
cosmopolitan
as citizen of the world, 583
justice, 582, 584 (see also justice)
cosmopolitanism, 476, 582–93
compatible with other commitments, 592–93
extreme versus moderate, 587
globalization and, 584–86
global justice and, 584–86
institutional, 586–87
moral, 586–87
origin of, 582
Rawls's critique on, 588–92
weak versus strong, 587–88
cosubjectivity, 328
counterpositiveness, 124
courage (yong), 39
courtly elegance (miyabi), 322
“createdness of the Koran,” 437
creativity, 101
critical ethnophilosophy
Afro-Caribbean philosophy as, 494–95
Crummell, Alexander, 511, 512
cultivation (shugyō), 352
Cultural Revolution, Chinese, 95
culture, 3–4
Daisaku Ikeda, 291
Daisetsu, Suzuki, 336–37
Daishi, Kōbō, 323, 324
Dai Zhen, 93
Dalai Lama, 263, 272
Danesh Nameh Alā’ī (The Book of Sciences for ‘Alā’ al-Dawla), 391
dao (the Way), 9, 10, 23, 28, 34, 86
Daoism, 11, 17, 33, 47, 302, 576 (see also Laozi; Zhuangzi)
theory of true knowing, 54
Daoists, 82
dao shu, 10
Daring, Bon Lishu, 266
darśana (sight/vision/insight), 110, 127
Das, Rasvihari, 174
Daśabhūmika-sūtra, 289
Daśavaikālikasūtra, 168
Dasgupta, S., 171
(p. 616) Dashtakī, Ghiyāth al-Dīn Mansūr, 417
Davis, Bret, 299, 334, 348
debate (vāda), 234
Vādavidhāna (Methods of Debate), 233
Vādavidhi (Rules of Debate), 233
Vādhavidhānaţīkā, 233
debate, practice of, 252
deep and mysterious and powerful beauty (yūgen), 317
defeat situations (nigrahasthāna), 115
defilement, 77
delusion, 378
demerits (adrsta), 112
dependent arising (pratītya-samutpāda), 223, 225
and emptiness, 223
Dergé Printery, 261
Descent into Lanka Discourse (Lankāvatārasūtra), 226
designations (prajñaptisat), 207
desire and desirous mind, 209
desire to know (jijñāsā), 239
destructive debate (vitandā), 115
determinacy, 71
Deutsch, Elliot, 181
Development Alternatives with Women for a New Era (DAWN), 559
Dewey, John, 98
Dhammacakkappavattana-sutta (Discourse That Sets in Motion the Wheel of Doctrine), 187
Dhammapada (Verses of the Dharma), 283
dhāranā, 136
Dharmakāya (the Truth Body of the Buddha), 357
Dharmakīrti, 145, 161, 191, 213, 214, 215, 219, 230, 234, 235, 237, 238, 239, 240, 252, 262
Dharmarāja
Vedāntaparibhāsā, 150
dharmas, 73
Dharmaśrī, Lochen, 274
Dharmatrāta, 198, 199
dharmic naturalness (jinenhōni), 341
dharmic naturalness, 341
dialectic (jadal), 395
dialectic, people of (jadaliyūn), 395
difference (bheda), 147
Differentiation of the Middle Way and Extremes (Madhyānta-vibhāga), 227
Digambara, 161
Dignāga, 190, 191, 212, 213, 230, 233, 235, 237
“dim” (al-nūral-‘adam), 415
al-Dimashqī, Ghaylān, 435
al-Dīn, Mu‘īn, 424
al-Dīn al-Davvānī, Jalāl, 417
al-Dīn Muhammad, Muhammad Bāqir ibn Shams, 417
Dinnāga, 115
al-Dīn Rūmī, Jalāl, 425
Dīpamkaraśrījñāna, 250
direct perception, 276
disagreement (khilāf ), 395
Discourse Explaining the Thought (Samdhinirmocana-sūtra), 223–26, 229, 230, 231
and interpretations, 224
Discourse on the Ten Levels (Daśabhūmikasūtra), 226
discretion (quan), 30
discriminate discernment (viveka), 134
dissolution of boundaries, 370
distinctions, analysis of, 366–70, 380
Distinctions of Views (Lta ba'i khyad par), 247
Divākara, Siddhasena, 161
divination (bu), 16
divine virtues, 287
Doctrine of the Mean, 100
Dodrupchen III, 270
Dōgen, 299, 322, 340–41, 348, 354, 356–57
Bendōwa, 345, 352
Fukanzazengi, 345, 352
Genjōkōan, 348, 350, 351, 352, 354, 356
Shōbōgenzō, 348, 353
Dolpopa, 271
Dölpopa Sherab Gyeltsen, 256
Dongag Tenpe Nyima, 274
Dorjé, Mikyö, 261
doubt (sašśaya), 115
doxastic practice, 138
Dranpa Namkha, 266
dreaming, 576
Driving While Black (D.W.B.), 540
dropping off the body-mind (shinjin-datsuraku), 356
Dubey, S. P., 181
Du Bois, W. E. B., 510, 511, 513
Duke Zhou, 26
Dushun, 73, 74
Du Weiming, 9, 104
Dvaita (Dualistic Vedanta), 148, 150–51
critique of Advaita, 157
dynamism, 268
dynamism, Chinese, 11
Dzog, 272
Dzogchen, 191, 265
extrinsic emptiness and Buddha-nature, 271–72
open presence, classification, 274–77
outer three vehicles, 267–71
tantric vehicles, 273–74
Early Diffusion, 214
Earth (di), 49
East Asian Buddhism, 300
Eastern Han, 47
economic globalization, 556 (see also globalization)
Edo period, 322
ego (ahamkāra), 133, 134
egoless perspectivism, 348
enlightenment practice, 353–54
forgetting the self, learning of, 354–56
nondual perspectivism, 356–58
(p. 617) through Buddhism to Zen, 350–52
Egyptians
environmental ethics of, 577
eight precepts (astānga-śīla), 285
ekapratyavamarśa, 237
Ekken, Kaibara, 92
elements (dharmas), 208, 209
Elucidating ghosts (ming gui), 63
emotion (qing), 92
emptiness (śūnyatā), 69, 70, 71, 74, 78, 190, 209, 214, 223, 225, 227–28, 267, 270, 351, 371 n 17
of emptiness, 351
extrinsic, 271–72
form and, 77
meditation on, 250
of other, 271
of self, 271
empty circle, 357
empty of essence (svabhāvaśūnya), 210
energy (qi), 9, 10, 88, 99
engaged Buddhism, 291–92
English philosophy in India and diasporas post-1947, 181–82
enlightened beings (jinas), 165
enlightenment, 73, 302, 309, 356, 358
practice of, 353
and six perfections, 267
sudden vs. gradual, 248
enlightenment (shō), 353
entitylessnesses, 224, 225
Entry into the Middle Way (Madhyamakālamkāra), 230
“Epistemological Path” (Tshad ma lam rim), 262
epistemological principles, in Yijing, 18
equality of things, 55
equal opportunity argument, to justify affirmative action, 536
equanimity (upeksā), 286
equilibrium (zhong), 9, 10, 35
eradication, 269
esoteric Buddhism, 323
essencelessness of persons (pudgalanairātmya), 208–9
essencelessness of things (dharmanairātmya), 209
essentialism, 212
essentially (svabhāvatah), 207
essential nature, 219
Establishment of Cognition-Only (Vijñaptimātratāsiddhi), 229
eternalism (śāśvata-vāda), 222
eternal substances, 114
ethics, 136–37, 267
Afro-Caribbean philosophy as, 499–500
and law, relationship between, 455
and social and political philosophy, 178–81
ethics, Japanese, 302
Japanese arts and, 308–11
past and present, 303–6
praxis, 309–11
Tetsurō, Watsuji, 306–9
ethnophilosophy
African philosophy and, 479–81
everyday experiences (bhoga), 133
examination of things (gewu), 90
example (drstānta), 115
example (udāharana), 118
exclusion (apoha), 143, 236
and logic, 240
exclusions of what is other (anyāpoha), 236
exclusion theory (apohavāda), 236
existence, 197
being of, 415
of external objects, 229–30
inherent existence, 225
reality of, 415
existence-nonexistence-fixedness (wujūd-‘adam-thubūt), 397
existential phenomenology, 495
experience, 558
external objects
existence of, 229–30
extraordinary contacts (alaukika), 117
extreme versus moderate cosmopolitanism, 587 (see also cosmopolitanism)
extrinsic emptiness, 256, 258 (see also emptiness)
eye consciousness, 275, 276
fa, 59, 65, 66
Han Fei on, 65
fair equality of opportunity principle, 589
Fa Jia, 59
falāsifa, 405
falsafa, 394, 395, 405–6
false rejoinder (jāti), 115
Fang bian xin lun, 233
Fang Dongmei, 96, 102
Fan Zongyan, 84
fault, 116
Fazang, Xianshou, 75, 373, 376 n 2
fivefold taxonomy of, 378
fear (khawf ), 423
feeling and object, relationship between, 177
feminism (see also women)
in African philosophy, 484–85
components of, 550
defining, 550–52
feminist approaches to bioethics, 559
first-wave, 551
global, 549–59
inequality and, 550–51
second-wave, 550, 551–53
third-wave, 551
transnational, 545–49
Feng's philosophy
Great Whole (daquan), 99
material force (qi), 99
principle (li), 99
substance of Dao (daoti), 99
(p. 618) Feng Youlan, 96, 98
History of Chinese Philosophy, 98
on intuition, 98
on Mao Zedong, 100
Six Books from Zhen to Yuan, 99
filial piety (xiao), 31
final liberation (apavarga), 134
First Thing, the, 400–1
five precepts (pañca-śīla), 284
folk art, craft (mingei), 317
formal reasonings (prayoga), 239
formal validity, 238
form and emptiness, 74
forms and names (xing ming), 66
forward-looking arguments, for reparations, 599–600
Four Noble Truths of Buddhism (ārya-satya), 207, 224–25, 279
freedom (jiy ū), 334, 335, 345
freedom (jizai), 335
freedom and nature, 335–36 (see also under human/nature nondualism in Japanese thought)
friendliness, 286
fundamental mind, 272
Fundamental Verses on the Middle Way (Mūlamadhyamaka-kārikā), 227
Fundamental Wisdom of the Middle Way, 267
Fung Yu-lan. See Feng Youlan
Fūrak, Ibn, 440
Fu Xi, 13, 14 n 3
Gandhi, M. K., 164, 179, 180
Gangeśa
Tattvacintāmani (TCM), 120, 125
Gang of Four, 95, 100
Gaozi, 41
Gaudapāda, 129, 136
Āgamaśāstra, 149
Gautama, Siddhartha, 421
gaze, and Japanese aesthetics, 325–26
gei dō (way of arts), 327
Gelug (“Virtuous tradition”), 218, 220, 290
Gelukpa (Dge-lugs-pa), 259
monasteries, 261
Order, 269
generosity, 287
generous patron (dānapati), 287
genetic determinism, 524
genetic distance
to trace human evolutionary history, 528
al-Ghazālī, Abū Hāmid, 423, 441
al-Ghazālī, Ahmad, 452
Ghijduvānī, ‘Abd al-Khāliq, 428
Ghosaka, 198, 199
Gines, Kathyrn, 513
Global Difference Principle, 589, 591
global feminism, 549–59 (see also feminism; women)
commonalities and differences, 550–52
impact of networks on, 558
transnational feminism, 549
universalizing tendencies in, 552–54
globalization, 584–86
economic, 556
women and, 556–58
global justice, 584–86, 588 (see also justice)
Global Justice Movement, 584
gnosis, 480
God, 400
approach to annihilation in, 422
transcendence, 434
gongfu, 35
Gong Yang Zhuan, 30
“goodness,” 239
good reason (saddhetu), 238–39
Gorampa Sönam Senge (Go rams pa Bsod nams seng ge, 220
government, 64
Gratz v. Bollinger (2003), 535
Great Exposition of the Stages of the Path (lam-rim chen-mo), 258
Great Law of Peace, 569
Great Mādhyamika (dbu ma chen po), 218
Great Perfection (rdzogs chen), 251
great ultimate (taiji), 17, 19, 21, 86
Greek knowledge, translation to Arabic, 399–400
Greek philosophy
embraced by Muslim scholars, 393
Greek sciences, 391
Green, T. H., 173
Guanding, 69
Guang, Sima, 85
Comprehensive Mirror for the Aid in Government, The, 85
Guan Zhong, 63–64
Guanzi, 64
Guifeng Zongmi, 73, 77
Guo Yi, 28 n 2
Gu Yenwu, 93
Gyatso, Kelzang, 262
Gyel Lhakhang monastery, 216
Gyeltsab-jé, 259
Gyeltsen, Sera Jetsün Chöki, 261
hadīth, 433
Hahn, Thich Nhat, 291
haiku, 299, 323
Hajime, Tanabe, 349 n 3
Haldar, H., 173, 174
al-Hamadhānī, ‘Ayn al-Qudāt, 442
Hanafīs
on purity, 447
Han dynasty, 37
Han Fei, 37, 63, 64, 65, 66
on Confucian view, 67
on fa, 65
Hanfeizi, 64
(p. 619) Han History, 63
Hanīfa, Abū, 448–49
Han Yu, 83
Haribhadrasūri, 164, 168
Saddarśanasamuccaya, 127
Yogadrstisamuccaya, 164
harmful wrongdoing, collective responsibility for, 596
harmony (he), 9, 10, 33
harmony (wa), 313
hatäta, 475, 476
hatred (dvesa), 136
Hayy Ibn Yaqzān (Alive Son of the Awake), 394
Healy, Patrick, 511
hearers, 267
heart-mind (xin), 35, 88
Heart Sutra, The, 351, 371 n 17
heart universal (sahrdaya), 177
Heaven (tian), 9, 49
Heaven's intention (tian zhi), 63
Hegel, G. W. F., 173
hegemony, 564
Heian era, 322
Heidegger, Martin, 350, 363
He Lin, 96, 100
Hellenizing philosophers, 397–408
adoption by Islamic intellectual milieu, 405–7
aesthetics, 403–5
cosmology, 400–2
epistemology of, 402–3
ethics, 403–5
metaphysics, 400–2
physics, 400–2
transmission of Greek thought, 399–400
Hemacandra, 162, 164–65
Anyayogavyavacchedika, 164
Hetucakra, 239
hetutāvacchadkasambandha, 125
hetvābhāsa (fallacy), 115
hexagrams (zhonggua), 13–14, 16, 18, 22
He Xinyin, 91
Hideyoshi, Toyotomi, 319
al-Hillī, Ibn al-Mutahhar, 444
Hiriyanna, M., 171, 175, 176, 178
historical injustice, moral statute of limitations on, 596
historical world, 365
History of Formal Logic, 239
history recorder (shi), 14, 66
Hogg, A. C., 174
Hōnen
One Page Testament, 311
hope (rajā‘), 423
Huang, 47
Huang Di, 60
Huayan, 373
enlightenment in, 78
Four Dharmadhatus (si fajie), 76
interdependence as interidentity, 73–77
Huayan fajieguan, 74
Huayan yisheng fenqi zhang, 75
Huiguo, Abbot, 324
Huineng, 78
al-Hujwīrī, ‘Alī, 423
human/nature nondualism in Japanese thought, 334–35
beyond naturalism and supernaturalism, 340–41
and existence and return, 342–43
freedom and nature intimacy, 335–36
natural freedom, practice of regaining, 344–46
nature as way of naturalness, 339–40
positive and negative freedom and, 336–39
unfathomability, of nature and freedom and, 343–44
human beings (ningen), 307
communal relationships among, 577–78
existential dimensions of, 497
humanity of, 469
as ningen, 307
racial classification in, 526–27
responsibility of, 577
human-heartedness (ren), 29, 34, 302
human perfection
collective, 403
individual, 403
human rights
Rawls critique on, 591
reparations as, 601–5
Hu Shi, 97
hwadu meditation, 300, 379, 380
Hwaŏm Buddhism, 300, 373, 374–77
idealism, 229–30
from epistemological perspective, 230
from ontological perspective, 228
and realism, dichotomy between, 171–72
identifying upward (shang tong), 62
identity, 72
and dyadic relationship, 209
relational, 567
identity (tādātmya), 124, 242
Identity-in-Difference (Bhedābheda), 147, 151
ignorance (avidyā), 136, 152, 153, 154, 156–57, 207, 269, 288
al-Ījī, ‘Adud al-Dīn, 442
illumination (Ishrāq), philosophy of, 410–18
and Aristotelian scientific method, 413–14
epistemology of, 412–14
illuminationist texts, structure of, 411–12
logic, 414
methodology of, 416–18
ontology, 415–16
after Sohravardī, 410–12
illuminationist wisdom (hikma ishrāqiyya), 395
illusory transformation (vivarta), 152
image (xiang), 15, 16, 21, 24
immanent transcendence (naizai-teki-chōetsu), 342
(p. 620) immediate knowledge, 412 (see also knowledge)
“option” (doxa) and, 413
impermanence, 188, 200
gross, 188
and momentariness theory, 196
subtle, 188
inclusive care (jian ai), 62
India, 109, 297, 301, 349
Indian Buddhism, 69, 70
philosophical traditions of, 222–23
scriptures and philosophy, 191
and Tibetan Buddhism, 249
Indian Council of Philosophical Research (ICPR), 181
Indian logicians
means of knowledge, 101
Indian Madhyamaka, 69
rejection of ultimate existence of mind, 212
Indian nationalism, 179
Indian Philosophical Congress (IPC), 173, 177, 181
Indian Renaissance, 178
Indian Tathagatha-garbha literature, 78
Indic religions, 68
Indic traditions
nonviolence, 576
view of transmigration, 575
indigenous environmental philosophy, 574–79
individuality, Japanese way to, 304–7
individual self (jīva), 150, 162, 175, 328
multiple, 165
individuals life
global structure affecting, 591
Indo-Tibetan Buddhist philosophy, 187–92
Indra's Net, 300, 375
inexhaustion, 260
inexpressible (anirvacanīya), 153
inference (anumāna), 110, 116, 117, 118, 125, 213, 235, 246
inference-for-oneself (svārthānumāna), 118
inference-for-others (parārthānumāna), 118, 239
inferential reasoning, 219
Inferior Vehicle (Hīnayāna), 225
inherence (samavāya), 113, 114, 115, 117, 121, 123, 143
inherent existence, 225
inner tantras, 273
insight (prajñā), 288
inspirational knowledge, 414 (see also knowledge)
institutional cosmopolitanism, 586 (see also cosmopolitanism)
institutionalized academic racism, 511 (see also race(ism))
intellect (mahat), 116, 133, 134–35
intellect modification (vrtti), 133
intention (cetanā), 281
intensional identity, 242
Intentiones Philosophorum, 391
Interactionism, 512
intercultural philosophy, 4
interdependence, 575–76
and impermanence, 188
interdependent origination (pratītya-samutpāda), 351
Internalization of Neo-Confucianism Self-Cultivation, 90
International Association for Feminist Economics, 559
International Conference of Orientalists (1899), 173
international justice
compensatory principles of, 597
principles of, 602
interpenetrating identities, 75
interpretable (neyārtha) teachings, 224
interpretation (jie), 16
interracial marriage, 529
intersubjectivity, 328
intoxication, 285
intrinsic emptiness, 256 (see also emptiness)
intrinsic reliability (svatahprāmānya), 138, 140, 141
intuitiveness, 54
invariable concomitance, 252
Iqbal, Muhammad
Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam, The, 173
Isagoge, 412
I-sense (asmitā), 136
Islamic intellectual culture, 405
Islamic jurisprudence (fiqh), 393, 405–6
Islamic legal philosophy (usūl al-fiqh), 450–54
Islamic Peripatetic Philosophy, 411
Islamic philosophy, 389–96
distinguished from Arab philosophy, 391
and Greek philosophy, 393–94
and medieval philosophy, 390–91
and Middle Eastern philosophy, 392–93
non-religious literature, 394–96
Islamic theology, 432–45
beginnings of, 433–36
classic Sunni Kalam, 439–41
dissenting traditions, 443–44
Kalam, transformation of, 441–43
modern developments in, 438–39
Mu'tazilite School, 436–39
Safavid dynasty, 444
Umayyad dynasty, 434
Īśvara, 135, 148
Īśvarakrsna, 129
Sāmkhyakārikā, 129
Iyer, Subrahmanya V., 172
Jaimini, 149
Mīmāmsā Sūtras, 139
Jain philosophy, 110, 127, 159
epistemology of, 164–66
intellectual history of, 160–62
logic and linguistics of, 166–68
ontology of, 162–64
syādvāda as intellectual ahimsā possibility, 168
(p. 621) James, Joy, 513
Jamgön Kongtrül, 271
Jamgon Kongtrul Lodro Thaye, 271
Japan, 297, 298, 300, 329
Japanese aesthetics, 299, 317–18
and art and truth, 323–25
contrasting definitions of, 320–21
cosubjectivity, 328–30
intersubjectivity, 328–30
personal and national identity construction, 325–27
and pleasure, in everyday life, 321–23
self-cultivation and self-realization and, 327–28
uniqueness of, 318–20
Jayānanda, 216, 217
Jayantabhatta, 113
Nyāyamanjarī, 127, 145
Jayatīrtha, 157
Nyāyasudhā, 151
Je Tsong Khapa, 217, 218
Jé Tsongkhapa Lozang Drakpa, 258
Jiao Hong, 91
al-Jīlānī, ‘Abd al-Qādir, 424, 427
Jincheng, 246
jivanmukta, 175
Jñānagarbha, 212
jnānalaksana, 117
Johnson, Lyndon, 534
Jōmon, 319
al-Jubbā’ī, Abū ‘Alī, 439
judgments (guaci), 16
Ju Mipham, 220
jurists class (fuqahā), 451–52
al-Jurjānī, al-Sayyid al-Sharīf, 442
justice
cosmopolitan, 587, 589, 593
global, 585–86
Kadampa, 251
Kagyüpa, 251
al-Kalābādhī, Abū Bakr, 423
kalām, 395
Kalam
classic Sunni Kalam, 439–41
transformation of, 441–43
Kamakura Buddhism, 324 n 12
Kamalaśīla, 145, 212, 213, 214, 215, 216, 230, 248
Bhāvanākrama (“Stages of Meditation”), 215
Kamalaśīla
on reason, 215
Kammūna, Sa'd ibn Mansūr Ibn, 417, 418
Kanāda
Vaiśesikadarśana, 113
Kanhwa Sŏn, 374
kanji, 336 n 2
Kant, Immanuel, 31, 104, 105, 337, 338, 354
Kapila
Sāmkhyasūtras, 129
karma, 133, 134, 162, 207, 269, 280–81
and matter, 163, 165
Karma Mīmāmsā, 139
karman, 243
Karma Pakshi, 254
karmic fruitfulness, 282
Kāśakrtsna, 149
Kasulis, Thomas, 298
Keiji, Nishitani, 313, 320, 338
Kelsey, George D., 514
Khosraw, Nāsir-i, 444
Khyentse, Jamyang, 262
King Vessantara, 287
King Wei, 51
King Wen, 14, 15, 16, 26
Kitarō, Nishida, 300, 308, 320, 341, 342, 344, 362
distinctions, analysis of, 366–70
obscurity, 370–71
self and world and, 363–66
significance of, 361–62
knowledge (‘ilm), 395
knowledge (pramāna), 235
immediate, 412, 413
inspirational, 414
primary, 413
scientific, 414
knowledge, means of, 101
Kohlberg, Lawrence, 304
Koichi, Tohei, 313
Kokushi, Musō, 338
Kong Fu-zi, 26
Korea, 297, 298, 323
Korean Buddhism, 300, 373
language and subjectivity in Chinul's Sŏn Buddhism, 377–80
nondualism and Mahāyāna Buddhist ethics, 380–84
universal and particular in Ŭisang thought, 374–77
Krsna, 148
Kubrā, Najm al-Dīn, 424
Kūkai. See Daishi, Kōbō
Kumārila, 139, 143, 145, 237
Kundakunda
Pravacanasāra, 161
Samayasāra, 161
Kunkyen Dölpopa, 218
kunyuan (source power of kun), 19
laksana, 224
Lamp on the Path of Enlightenment (Bodhipathapradīpa), 250
landscape gardening, 313–14
Laozi, 23, 47–51, 60
Dao, 48–49
dialectics, 50–51
naturalness (zi-ran), 49–50
nonaction (wu-wei), 50, 52
relationship between you and wu, 48
(p. 622) Later Diffusion, 214, 215, 217
law and ethics, relationship between, 455
Law of Peoples, The, 588–92
Law School Admission Test (LSAT), 539
leap, the (tafra), 438
learning of principle (li-xue), 100
learning to be human (Xue), 34
Legalism (Fa Jia), 11, 58, 59, 63–67
Legalist view of history, 65
Levels of Yogic Practice (Yogācāra-bhūmi), 226
liang (pramānā, means of knowledge), 101
Liang Shuming, 96, 98
Eastern and Western Cultures and Their Philosophies, 97
spiritual Confucianism and institutional Confucianism, distinguishing, 98
Li Ao, 83
liberality, 287
liberation (kaivalya), 136
liberation, 116
Liji, 53
Li Kui, 63, 64
limitor (avacchedaka), 124
limitorhood (avaccehadakat ā), 124
line (yao) divinatory explanations, 14, 16
line explanations (yaoci), 16
Lingpa, Jigme, 266, 268, 271
Linji (Jap. Rinzai) school, 80, 81
Linji Yixuan, 80
Lishu Daring, 266
Li Si, 64
Liu Shuxian, 96
Liu Zongyuan, 83
Li Zhi, 91
Locke, Alain, 518
locus of inference (paksa), 118
logic
and exclusion theory, 240
and pervasion, 240
philosophy of, 240–41
logical inference (anumāna pramāna), 110
logic of place, 368
Long, Jeffery D., 159
Lotus Sūtra, 290
Lotus Sūtra, The, 327
love (mahabba), 423
loving-kindness, 286–87
“lower eight vehicles, the,” 266
luminosity, 414
Lunyu, 27
Lu Xiangshan, 89
lying, 285
Ma, 97
Maat, 577
Mabja Changchub Tsondrü, 216
Macaulay, Thomas
Minute on Education, 170
Machiavelli, Niccolo, 59
macrocosm, 100
Mādhava
Sarvadarśanasangraha, 127
Madhusūdhana Sarasvatī
Advaitasiddhi, 150
Madhvācārya, 150
Anuvyākhyāna, 150
Brahmasūtrabhāsya, 150
Nyāyavivarana, 151
Madhyamaka, 72, 190, 206, 222, 223, 231, 247, 250
emptiness, 190
in India, 210–12
Nāgārjuna (see Nāgārjuna)
in Tibet, 214–20
Mādhyamikas, 190, 213
Mahābhārata, 128, 150
Mahadevan,T. M. P., 174
Maha Ghosananda, 291
Mahākāshyapa, 349
Mahāmudrā tradition, 216, 251
Mahāparinirvāna Sūtra, 353
Mahāprajñā-pāramitā-śāstra, 290
Mahāvīra, 160, 165, 166
Mahāyāna Buddhism, 81, 205, 250, 351 (see also Korean Buddhism)
developments, 288–90
scriptures, 69
śīla in, 289
Mahāyāna Buddhist, 74, 205
Mahāyāna-samgraha, 289, 358
Maitra, S. K., 173
Maitreya, 229, 271
al-Makkī, Abū Tālib, 424
Malaysia
affirmative action for university admission, abandoning, 533
al-Malik, ‘Abd, 435
Mālikīs, 449
Man'yōshū, 318, 329
Mandanamiśra, 145, 155
Brahmasiddhi, 149
mandate, the unavoidable (ming), 9, 16
Mandate of Heaven (tian ming), 28, 40
Mann, Anika, 513
Maori people
environmental ethics of, 574
Mao Zedong, 95
Maraldo, John C., 300, 362
Marpa Chöki Lodrö, 251
martial arts, 298
Marxism
African philosophy and, 484–85
masā’il, 447, 448
material principle (prakrti), 130, 131, 132–34, 154, 162
Matilal, B. K., 182
matrix, 564
matter (pudgala), 162
al-Māturīdī, Abū Mansūr, 440
māyā (illusion), 110, 147, 152, 153, 172
Ma Yifu, 96
McLaughlin, Wayman, 513
medieval lords (shō gun), 319
meditation (dhyāna), 136
meditation, 265
and basic consciousness, 224
on emptiness, 215
meditative stability (samādhi), 273
Mehta, J. L., 182
Meiji period, 333
Mencian virtues, 39
benevolence (ren), 39
rectitude (yi), 39
ritual propriety (li), 39
wisdom (zhi), 39
Mencius, 37, 38
natural human capacities and the Confucian life, 40–42
virtuous rulership, 39–40
mental consciousness, 224
mental direct perception, 276
me-ontology, 368
mereological reductionism, 197
merit (punya), 281
merit transference (parināmana), 283
metaphysics, 400–2
Miaofalianhuajingxuanyi, 69
microcosm, 86, 100
Middle Way (dbu-ma), 252, 266, 270
middle way (madhyama-pratipad), 221
Middle Way School. See Madhyamaka
Midewiwin, 562
Miller, Mara, 299, 317
Mīmāmsakas, 120
Mīmāmsā. See Pūrva Mīmāmsā
mind (manas), 116 n 4, 134, 135, 136
mind, 79
definition of, 275–76
emptiness, 269
luminosity of, 254–58
and open presence, difference between, 276
mind's wandering (you-xin), 54
mind-fasting (xin-zhai), 54
mind-heart (xin), 82, 89
mind-heart, learning of (xin-xue), 91, 100
mind-heart and nature (xin-xing), 99
mind-nature (sems nyid), 265, 268, 270 (see also Buddha-nature)
as ultimate, 270
“mind of awakening, the” (bodhicitta), 288
Mind-Only
support of all consciousness in, 275
mind-stuff (citta), 135
Ming period, 92
Minjung Buddhism, 382, 383
Mipam Namgyel, 262
Mipam Rinpoche, 266, 268, 271, 272
Miśra, Paksadhara, 120
Miśra, Vacaspati
Nyāyavārttika-tātparya-tīkā, 115
Bhāmatī, 150
Tattvakaumudī, 129
Tattvavaiśāradī, 135
al-Misrī, Dhū al-Nūn, 421
moderate versus extreme cosmopolitanism, 587 (see also cosmopolitanism)
moderation in burial (jie zang), 63
Modernists, 176
Mo Di (Mozi; “Master Mo”), 38, 52, 58, 60
Mohanty, J. N., 182
Moheyan, 215, 248
Mohezhiguan, 69
Mohism (Mo Jia), 11, 58, 60–63
benefit of all doctrine, 62
causes of disorder, diagnoses of, 61
condemning aggression doctrine, 63
condemning music doctrine, 63
elucidating ghosts doctrine, 63
and Heaven, 61, 62
Heaven's intention doctrine, 63
identifying upward doctrine, 62
inclusive care doctrine, 62–63
Mencius criticisms of, 38
moderation in burial doctrine, 63
moderation in use doctrine, 63
order (zhi)., 62
promoting the worthy doctrine, 62
Mohist, 38
moksa (liberation), 159, 175, 178
momentariness, 196, 201
“monad” (kull wāhid wāhid), 415
Mongol Yuan dynasty, 90
Monism, 565
Moody-Adams, Michele M., 513
moral conduct (śīla), 288
moral cosmopolitanism, 586 (see also cosmopolitanism)
morality
foundations of, 280
Japanese ideal of, 335
morally exemplary person, jun zi, 29
moral reasoning, 304
moral theory, 292–93
moral universalization, 304
Morehei, Ueshiba, 312
Morley, John David, 303
Mou Zongsan, 87, 96, 102, 103
criticism on Martin Heidegger, 104
Phenomenon and the Thing-in-itself, 104
Mu'tazilism, 437
Mu'tazilites, 393, 401, 434–36
atomistic theories of matter, 401
on divine oneness, 439
principles of faith, 437
ta'tīl and, 439
(p. 624) al-Mufīd, Shaykh, 443
Muhammad, Elijah, 517
al-Muhāsibī, al-Hārith, 422
Mukerji, A. C., 172, 174
Concept of Self, The, 171
Self, Thought and Reality, 171
multiculturalism, 564
Mundaka Upanisad, 151, 153
Murji'ites, 436
Muslim jurisprudence, 447–58
ethics and law, relationship between, 455
ijmā‘in, 448
purity (tahāra) in abstract, 447–49
usūl al-fiqh, 450–54
Mutahhar, Murtadā, 444
mutakallim, 437
al-Mutawakkil, 439
mutual absence (anyonyābhāva), 115
mystical knowledge (ma'rifa), 395
mystical state (hāl), 423
mystical station (maqām), 423
Nāgārjuna, 161, 189, 205, 206, 222, 228, 233, 251, 270, 351
and Abhidharma tradition, 208
definition of ignorance, 208
doctrine of the emptiness of emptiness, 190
on nirvāna and samsāra, 211
philosophy of emptiness as nihilism, 210, 211
Precious Garland (Ratnāvalī), 285 n 6
Wisdom, 207, 211
Nakamura, Hajime
Ways of Thinking of Eastern Peoples, 303
Namdak, Lopon Tenzin, 276
Naqshband, Bahā’ al-Dīn, 428
Natarāja (the god of dance), 176
Nāthamuni, 150
national learning (kokugaku), 318
nation-people, 567
native American philosophy, 562–72
community, status of, 566–68
experience and truth, 563–66
individuals, status of, 566–68
sovereignty, 568–71
native Americans, earth-based spirituality of, 576
natural collection (svabhāvapratibandha), 240
natural harmony, 50
naturalized epistemology, 237
Naturally Liberated Mind, 266
natural mind of clear light, 272
naturalness (jinen), 335, 339
naturalness (zi-ran), 49
naturalness
and freedom, 299
nature as way of, 339–40
natural order, 49
nature (shizen), 336, 340, 344
nature (svabhāva), 196, 208
Navya-Nyāya, 120–25
grammar in, 121–23
relation expression in, 123–24
al-Nazzām, Ibrāhīm ibn Sayyār, 438
negative freedom, 337–38
Negritude, 479
school as, 502
Nelson, William Stuart, 512
Neo-Confucianism, 12, 83
development in the Northern Song dynasty, 84–85
dictum of liyifenshu (one principle, many manifestations), 104–5
internationalization in Korea and Japan, 92
late Ming developments, 91–92
late Tang origins, 83–84
li (coherent principle), 83
qi (vital energy), 83
Qing critics, 92–94
self-cultivation, 90–91
Southern Song synthesis, 88
xin (mind-heart), 83
xing (nature), 82
Neoplatonism, 400
Neopythagoreans, 399
“Never-never Land” (wu-he-you-zhi-xiang), 53
“new Kadampa,” 258
New Realism, 98, 99
Ngog Loden Sherab, 215
Ngok Lekpé Sherab, 251
Ngok Loden Sherab, 251
Nietzsche, Friedrich, 349
nihilism (med mtha'), 190, 218
nihsvabhāva, 224
Nimbārka, 151
nine vehicles, 265, 267
nirvāna, 78, 164, 165, 206, 217, 231, 279, 281, 292, 293, 352, 381
as “unlocated” (prati sthita), 206
niyama, 136
Noble Eightfold Path, 279
Nobunaga, Oda, 319
no-feeling (wu qing), 54
nonabsolutism doctrine (anekāntavāda), 159, 163–64, 168
nonaffirming negation (Skt. prasjyaprati sehda; Tib. med dgag)., 219
nonchange (buyi) of change, 21
nondelusion (amoha), 288
noneternal substances, 114
nonexistent, 70, 197, 201
non-Gelukpa orders, 262
nongreed (alobha), 287
nonharming (ahimsā), 284
nonhatred (advesa), 286
non-occurrence-exacting (vrtti-aniyāmaka), 123
(p. 625) nonviolence (ahimsā), 111, 137, 159, 168, 576
Norinaga, Motoori, 318
no-self (anātman), 350
“not born from self,” 247
nothingness, 308, 310, 313, 362, 363
absolute, 300, 320, 362, 367, 368, 369
self-determinations of, 367
self-negation of, 367
nothing or nonbeing (wu), 48, 49
no-thinking (wu xin), 54
noumenon and phenomenon
distinction between, 104
mutual interpenetration of, 376, 381
nun, 577
Nussbaum, Martha, 182
nyāyābhāsa-s (pseudoarguments), 115
Nyāyabindu (Buddhist Logic), 238
Nyāyamukha (Gateway to Reasoning), 233
Nyāya School, 110, 144
epistemology, 120–21
ontology, 120
Nyima, Jigme Denbey, 266
Nyingma, 191, 262
Nyingmapa, 251
objectification, 81
objectless samadhi (asamprajnāta-samādhi), 136
object of observation for purification (viśuddhālambana), 225
objects of knowing (prameya), 115
obscuration
affective, 251 n 8
cognitive, 251 n 8
obscurity, 366
and distinctions, 367
light side of, 368–69
and nothingness, 368
observation (guan), 15, 16
occurrence-exacting (vrtti-niyāmaka), 123
Odin, Steve, 320
Old Tantras, 265 n 1
Old Transmission, 269
omnisolipsism, 69, 73, 75, 81
omnisolipsist, 72
one body (yiti), 19
oneness (samprajnāta-samādhi), 136
oneness of body-mind (shinjin ichinyo), 355
oneness of practice and enlightenment (shushōittō), 345
one principle, many manifestations (liyifenshu), 88, 105
oneself (mizukara), 336, 342, 343
One True Mind, 73, 76
onto-cosmology, 17
of the yi, 22
ontology, 496
and Buddhist epistemology, 235–36
philosophy of illumination and, 415–16
of the Sarvāstivāda Abhidharma, 194
open presence (rig pa, vedanā), 265, 272
classification, 274–77
and mind, difference between, 275
optimum, the, 438, 439
oracle bones, 16
oral divination (zhan), 16
order (zhi), 61
ordering or rectifying names (zhengming), 34
ordinary contacts (laukika), 117
organic wholeness (ti), 19, 20
Orientalism, 389–90
medieval, 390–91
Arab, 391
Middle Eastern, 392–93
Greek derived, 393–94
religious, 394–96
original enlightenment (hongaku), 345, 352
original judgments (guaci), 15
original wisdom (xingzhi) and measuring wisdom (liangzhi), distinction between, 101
Ornament to the Sutras, 275
Oromo, 578
ostensible reality (samvrtisatya), 251
other-emptiness (gzhan stong), 218, 271
otherness, 499
otherness of the other, 469–70
outer tantras, 273
outer three vehicles, 267–71
Ou-yang Jingwu, 100
Ouyang Xiu, 84
overcoverage (ativyāpti), 125
overnegation, 218, 219
Padmapāda
Pancapādikā, 150
Padmasambhava, 268
pain, 116, 136
paksadharmatva, 239, 240
Pancarātra Āgama, 150
panpsychism, 365
paper-and-pencil test, 539
parabhāvatah, 208
parama-nyāya (demonstration par excellence), 119
Park, Jin Y., 300, 373
Pārśva, 160
Pārthasārathimiśra, 145
past traces (vāsanās), 134
Patanjali
eightfold path of, 136
Yogasūtras, 129, 135
pathway (michi), 306, 312
patience (sabr), 423
Patsab Nyima Drag, 216
perception (pratyaksa), 110, 117
perception (pratyaksa), 213, 234, 246
perception, 117–18, 234
direct, 276
perceptual images (ākāra), 237
Perfection of Wisdom sūtras, 230, 252, 257
(p. 626) perfect nature (parinispanna), 225
perfect nature (parini spannasvabhāva), 212
personal and national identity construction and Japanese aesthetics, 325–27
perspectives doctrine (nayavāda), 159, 165
pervasion (vyāpti), 118, 125, 125, 238, 252
bidirectional, 241
and logic, 240
pervasion as coabsence (vyatirekavyāpti), 239
pervasion as copresence (anvayavyāpti), 239
pervasive open presence (kyab rig), 275
phenomena, 222, 225
and ultimate truth, 225
phenomenological hermeneutics, in African philosophy, 481
phenomenon and noumenon, distinction between, 104
Phenomenon and the Thing-in-itself, 104
philosophical anthropology
Afro-Caribbean philosophy as, 495–96
physics, 398
Piper, Adrian M. S., 513
Platform Sutra, 78
Plato, 321
Platonism, 400
play (līlā), 172
pleasure, 116
political philosophy, 64
Pŏpsŏng, 300, 373, 374, 382
position (shi), 65
positive freedom, 337
postcolonial feminism, 549 (see also feminism; women)
postmodernism
African philosophy and, 479
Afro-Caribbean philosophy and, 503–5
posture (āsana), 136
potentia/actus division, 454
Potter, Karl, 181
power (shi), 65
powerlessness, loneliness, shabbiness, wretchedness (wabi), 317
Prabhākara, 139
pragmatism, 96
Prajñāpāramitā, 252
prakāra/viśesana (qualifier), 122
Prakāśātman
Pancapādikāvivarana, 150
pramānas (different means of obtaining knowledge), 110, 116, 141, 145, 149, 150, 156
Pramānasamuccaya (Compendium of Epistemology), 234, 236, 240
pramānavāda, 234
concepts and language, 236–38
epistemology of, 235–36
logic, 238–42
ontology of, 235–36
real entities, 236
religion, 242–43
Pramāna-vārttika (Commentary on Valid Cognition), 230, 234, 240, 243, 253
Prāsangika-Mādhyamika, 247, 251, 258
Praśastapāda
Padārthadharmasamgraha, 113
pratijñārthaikadeśahetu, 241
pratyekabuddha, 260 n 23, 267
praxis, ethics as, 309
precepts, 283–84
preferential treatment. See affirmative action
preferred (istihsān), 453
prelogical mentality, 474
presentist, 197
primacy of quiddity, 415
primary existents (dravyasat), 194
and secondary existents (prajñaptisat), distinguishing, 194
primary knowledge, 413 (see also knowledge)
primordial open awareness, 275
primordial open presence (ye rig), 275
primordial wisdom, 274, 275, 277
principle (li), 75
principle of rest (adharma), 162
probative nonperception (anuplabdhihetu), 219
Profound Inner Meaning (Zab mo nang don), 255
promoting the worthy (shang xian), 62
proto-Sufi movement, 421
provers (sādhana), 240
Provisional Posits, 70
Provisional Truth, 71
public case (Ch. gong-an; Jap. koan) technique, 80
pure, 575
pure abodes, 287
pure experience, 361
pure Function, 79
purity (sei), 317
purusa-viśesah, 135
Pūrvamīmāmsā, 132, 138
Buddhists and, 145
on dharma, 141–42
on language, 142–45
Pustimārga, 151
Qaalluu, 578
Qianlong (emperor), 262
Qian Mu, 96, 102
qianyuan (the source power of qian), 19
Qing dynasty, 82
qiyās, 452–54
qualificandum (viśesya), 122
quality (guna), 113, 114–15, 131, 132–33
al-Qushayrī, ‘Abd al-Karīm, 423
Qutb, Sayyid, 445
Ra-Atum, 577
Rabjam, Longchen, 257, 266, 268, 268
race(ism)
and biology, 526–30
(p. 627) categories of, 524–25
in contemporary philosophy, 524–26
eliminating, 525
essentialist definition of, 526
institutionalized academic, 511
populational definition of, 526
social reality of, 529
racial differences
currency differences as model for, 529
racial discrimination, 540
racial identity
folk conceptions of, 528
racial injustice, 534
racists, 524
Radford-Curry, Blanche, 513
Radhakrishnan, S., 171, 174
radically inaccessible things (atyantaparoksa), 243
Raghunātha
Padārth atattvanirūpanam, 113
Raghunātha Siromani
Dīdhiti, 120
Rai, Lajpat
Young India, 180
rajas, 133, 136
Raju, P. T., 174
Rāmānuja, 155, 156
Śrībhāsya, 150
Vedāntasāra, 150
Vedārthasangraha, 150
Ramayana, 124
Ranade, R. D., 171
Rangjung Dorjé, 255
Rangzom, 266
rasa, 175
al-Rāwandī, Ibn, 441
al-Rāzī, Fakhr al-Dīn, 442
Realism and Idealism, dichotomy between, 171–72
reality, 77
real transformation (parināma), 152
reason, 219
reasoning, 132, 216
rebirth. See transmigration
rectitude (yi), 39
recursive reflection (fanquan), 86
reductio ad absurdum (prasanga) approach, 222, 238
reflective meditation (fikr), 428
reflexive awareness, 276
Rege, M. P., 181
reification, 190
relational identity, 567 (see also identity)
relationality, 199
relations, 123–26, 144, 198
relative nature (paratantra), 225
relative nature (paratantrasvabhāva), 212
reliable (avisamvādin) new understanding, 235
religion
and Buddhist epistemology, 242–43
Remdawa Zhönu Lodrö, 258
Rendawa, 218
renunciation, 286
reparations, 596–608
definition of, 596
economic value of, 597
as human right, 601–5
justification of, 596–98, 599–601
moral value of, 597
nature of, 598
objections to, 605–8
political value of, 597
right to, 601–5
social value of, 588
value of, 598–99
repentance (tawba), 423
resolution (jie), 16
respect (kei), 313
responsive dynamism (thugs rje), 268
“return to the source,” 467
reverence (jing), 90
“reversal of the basis” (āśraya-parāvrtti), 224
reverse discrimination. See affirmative action
Revivalists, 176
“rhetorical considerations,” 239
al-Rifā‘ī, Ahmad, 424
RgVeda, 129–30, 150, 160
Rikyū, Sen no, 319
Risabha, 160
ritual propriety (li), 39
Roy, M. N., 180
Roy, Ram Mohan, 173, 174
ru jia, 26
Rukmani, T. S., 127
Rules for Reasoning (Vādavidhi), 228
Śabara, 139, 141, 145
Sabri, Mustafa, 445
sādhyatāvacchedaka-sambandha, 125
Sadrā, Mullā, 417, 444
saffuu, 578
Sakya, 254
Śākyabuddhi, 243
Śākyamuni Buddha, 269
Sakyapa, 251
Sakyapa Gorampa Sonam Senggé, 261
Sakya Pandita, 218, 253
Sakyapas, 218
Śākyaśrībhadra, 253
samadhic freedom (jiyūzammai), 345
Samantabhadra
Āptamīmāmsā, 161
sāmānyalaksana, 117
samaveta-samavāya, 117
Sāmkhya, 127, 128, 129, 151, 152–53, 162
essentials of, 130–35
Sāmkhyakārikā, 128
samsarga, 122
Samvada Project, 181
Samvitsiddhi, 150
samyukta-samavāya, 117
samyukta-samaveta-samavāya, 117
Sanā‘ī, 425
Sangha
and merit, 282
Sangphu (gsang phu) monastery, 215
Sangpu, 251, 252–53, 254
Śankaramiśra
Upaskāratīkā, 113
Śāntaraksita, 230, 234, 242, 259
Śāntideva, 287, 289
Śāriputra, 206
Sarkar, B. K., 176, 180
al-Sarrāj, Abū Nasr, 422
Sarvajñātman
Sanksepaśārīraka, 150
Sarvāstivāda Abhidharma, 193, 194, 195, 198, 201 (see also Abhidharma)
definition of existent, 201
on problem of nonexistent objects of perception, 201
Sarvāstivādins, 199
Sastri, S. Subrahmanya, 174
sat-cid -ā nanda (Being, Consciousness, and Bliss), 147
satkāryavāda, 131, 133, 151
sattva, 133
Sautrāntika, 203, 227
scheme-content gap, 236
Scholar's Gate (Mkhas-pa ‘jug-pa'i sgo), 253
Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT), 539
“School of Fa. See Legalism
School of Youth for Social Service, 291
scientific knowledge, 413 (see also knowledge)
Scott, Jacqueline, 513
scriptural inference (āgamāśritānumāna), 243
Scripture of the Blissful Samantabhadra, 266
Seal, B. N., 173
“seeds” (bīja), 222
self (ātman), 114, 117, 130, 156, 207, 336, 342, 343
individual, 154, 156, 329
learning to forget the, 354–56
and world, in Nishida's philosophy, 363–66
world, distinctions and oppositions between, 362–63
self-actualization, 327
self-awareness, 367, 368, 369
self-contained world (kosmos), 340
self-contradiction, 308
self-cultivation (adab), 399, 405
self-cultivation (xiuji), 90, 302, 309, 310, 313, 327–28
process in Confucianism, 21
self-determinations, of nothingness, 367
self-emptiness (rang stong), 271
self-knowledge, 110
selflessness, and impermanence, 188
self-marking particular (svalaksana), 259 n 22
self-mastery (swaraj), 180
self-nature (svabhāva), 78, 231
self-negation, of nothingness, 367
self-realization, 327–28
self-reflexiveness, 364
self-renunciation, 178
Sellars, Wilfrid, 3
Sen, Amartya, 182
Sen, Keshub Chunder, 174
Sen, Soshitsu XIV, 311
sense consciousnesses, 224
sense impressions, 223
sense objects, 136
senses, 116
sensory direct perception, 276
Serdok Panchen, 261
settlement or decision (nirnaya), 115
“Seveners, The,” 441
“seven works on epistemology” (tshad ma sde bdun), 234
sexual division of labor, 553, 555
sexual harming, 284
al-Shādhilī, Abū al-Hasan ‘Alī, 424
Shāfi‘īs, 448
on purity, 447
Shahrazūrī, Shams al-Dīn Muhammad, 417
Shakyamuni Buddha, 273
shaman (wu), 14
Shang Di (Lord on High), 9, 10
Shang Di, 28
Shang dynasty, 9, 11, 14, 28, 52
oracle bone inscriptions, 9
Shang Yang, 63, 64, 65
Shao Yong, 86
interest in cosmos, 86–87
sharī‘a, 395
Shen Buhai, 63, 64, 65
Shen Dao, 63, 64, 65
shenming, 13
Shī‘a, 449
Shi'ism
on purity, 447
Shi-Ji (Historical Records), 47
Shi-jing, 53
Shikibu, Murasaki
Tale of Genji, The, 318, 322
Shin'ichi, Hisamatsu, 320
Shinran, 341
Shintō, 299, 302, 304
Shīrāzī, Qutb al-Dīn, 417
Shiyi (Ten Commentaries), 15
Shofuso Japanese House and Garden, 326
Shonagon, Sei
Pillow Book, The, 322
Shunmyo, Masuno, 313
Shūzō, Kuki, 318, 335
Siddhantavāgīśa, Bhavānanda, 120
Siddhartha Gautama. See Buddha
sign (hetu), 118, 125
śīla, 279, 281
(p. 629) in Mahāyāna Buddhism, 288
Si-Ma Qian (Sima Qian; Si-ma Qian), 47
Historical Records, 14, 47, 51
Siming Zhili, 77
simplicity of change (jianyi), 21
Sīnā, Ibn, 415, 441
sincerity (makoto), 306, 312
Singer, Peter
How Are We to Live?, 303
“single guiding thread,” 469, 470
sitting-and-forgetting (zuo-wang), 54
Śivādityamiśra
Saptapadārthī, 113
six perfections
and enlightenment, 267–68
skepticism, 54
skillful means, 289
skillful or wholesome (kuśala), 281
snang-gshen, 249
social nexus, 305
limited, 303
society
unfavourable conditions affecting, 590
sociogenesis
Afro-Caribbean philosophy as, 496–97
Sōhō, Takuan, 334, 345
Sohravardī
“Knowledge by Presence” (al-‘ilm al-hudūrī), 412, 413
philosophy of illumination after, 410–12
“Science of Lights, the” (‘Ilm al-Anwār), 412–13
Soka Gakai International, 291
Sokolowski, Robert, 366, 369
solitary realizers, 267, 267 n 2
solitary retreat (khalwa), 428
Sŏn Buddhism, 300, 373, 377
Sŏngch’ŏl, T'oe'ong, 300, 373
Correct Path of the Sŏn School, The, 382
Song Confucians, 87
Song dynasty, 12, 37
Songgwang monastery, 374
Song-Ming Neo-Confucianism, 17, 103
Songtsen Gampo, 245
so-of-itself (onozukara), 336
Sōtō Zen school, 377
soul (Atm ā), 116, 401
South Africa
Constitution of the Republic of South Africa's Bill of Rights, 533
national commitment to affirmative action, 533
sovereignty, 563, 568–71
space (ākāśa), 162
spiritual Confucianism, 98
spirituality of Confucianism is mostly associated with tian, 28
spiritual reality (purusa), 130, 131, 134, 135, 136, 162
śrāvaaka-s, 260 n 23
Śrīdhara
Nyāyakandalī, 113
Śrīharsa
Khandanakhandakhādya, 150
Sri Ramakrishna, 164
Śrīvallabha
Nyāyalīlāvatī, 113
stainless consciousness (amala-vijñāna), 224
states, relationship between, 591
Sthiramati, 230
Stirling, J. H., 173
Stoics, 583
Storehouse of Higher Doctrine (Abhidharma-kośa), 226
straightforwardness (zhi), 31
strong versus weak cosmopolitanism, 587–88 (see also cosmopolitanism)
study of Japanese (nihonjinron), 318
style and chic (iki), 317
subject-object duality, 190, 212, 225
subjunct (anuyogī), 123
substance (dravya), 113, 114
substance (svabhāva), 199
substantially real (dravyasat), 208
substitutivity, 241
Sucaritamiśra, 145
Sudarśana Sūri
Śrutaprakāśikā, 150
sudden enlightenment, 248
Sudden-Gradual debate, 382
Śuddhādvaita, 151
Sufism (tasawwuf ), 419–30
contemporary manifestations, 428–30
early history (eighth to tenth centuries), 420
institutions and practices, 426–28
later developments (eleventh to fourteenth centuries), 422–26
Sūfiyya, 421
al-Suhrawardī, ‘Umar, 424
Sulak Sivaraksa, 291
al-Sulamī, Abū ‘Abd al-Rahmān, 423
Sumatiśīla, 230
Summa Theologica, 395
Sun Xing Yan, 28
supernal coherent principle (tianli), 87
supportive argument (tarka), 115
support of all consciousness, 275
Supreme Polarity, 89
Surangama Sutra, 78, 79
Sureśvara
Brhadāranyakabhāsyavārttika, 150
Naiskarymayasiddhi, 150
Su Shi, 85
“sutra” vehicles, 272
sutra-based cultivation, 269
sūtras, 193, 194
Sutta-Nipāta, 287
Suvarnasaptati, 129
svarūpa, 123
Svātantrika (Syllogistic) Mādhyamika, 217, 247
Svavrtti, 242
(p. 630) Śvetāmbara, 160, 161, 168
symbolization (xiang), 15, 16, 21, 24
sympathetic joy (muditā), 287
systematization (tong), 15
Taber, John, 147
al-Taftāzānī, Sa'd al-Dīn, 442
Tagore, R., 174, 179, 180
Bhārat Mata, 176
Gitānjali, 177
Taishô Shinshû Daizôkyô, 69
Taittirīya Upanisad, 149
Tālib, ‘Alī ibn abī, 434, 443
tamas, 133
Tanaka, Koji, 297
Tang dynasty, 79, 82, 84
Tang Junyi, 96, 100, 102
Tanka, 149
tantra-based cultivation, 269
“tantric” Buddhism, 249
tantric practice
completion, 273
creation, 273
tantric vehicles, 273–74
Tāranātha, 271
Tarkālankāra, Jagadīśa, 120
Tarkavāgīśa, Mathurāntha, 120
tathāgatagarbha, 254, 255
Taymiyya, Ibn, 443
techniques (shu), 30, 65, 66
telepathy (manahparyāya), 165
temporal properties, 198
tempting inference, 242
Tendai philosophy, 351
tenets (samānatantra), 112
Ten Oxherding Pictures, 357
ten precepts (daśa śīla), 285
ten thousand things (wan-wu), 49
Tetsurō, Watsuji, 299, 306–9, 349 n 3
Theology of Aristotle, 399
Theory of True Knowing, 54
Theosophical Society, 174
Theravāda Abhidharma, 193, 195, 201
Theravada Buddhism, 322
things, 415
thing to be inferred (sādhya), 118, 124, 125
“third turn of the doctrinal wheel,” 254
third-world feminism, 549 (see also feminism; women)
third-world feminists, 549
critique on Western feminism, 553–54
Thirty Verses (Trimśikā-kārikā), 228
three “poisons,” 281
three natures (trisvabhāva), 212
Three Truths, 351
Three Truths model of Tiantai, 77
“Three Turnings of the Wheel,” 266–71
tian ming, 28
Tiantai, 70–74
doctrine of the Three Truths (sandi), 69–70
enlightenment in, 77
putative entity as conceivable and inconceivable, 70
Tibetan Buddhism, 245
beginnings and sources of, 245–49
Buddha-nature, 254–58
Early Diffusions, 214
later developments, 261–63
Later Diffusions, 214, 215, 217
and luminosity of mind, 254–58
major traditions, formation, 249–50
Tibetan scholasticism, 250–54
Tsongkhapa, 258–61
Tibetan scholasticism, 251–54
Tibetan traditions
Ancients (rNying ma), 217
Kargyü (bKa’ brgyud), 218
Sakya (Sa skya), 218
time (kāla), 162
Tīrthankaras (Ford-makers), 160
Ti-Yong, 20
Tlamatinime, 562
tongbian, 14, 16
tranquility (jaku), 314
transcendency thesis, 293
transformative phenomenology, 352
transmigration, 116, 135
Transmission of the Way, the (dao-tong), 88
transnational feminism, 549 (see also feminism; women)
Treasury of Epistemology (Tshad-ma rigs-gter), 253
Treatise on the Mother Tantra, 276
tricky debate (jalpa), 115
Tri Detsuktsen, 246
trigrams (gua), 13–14, 16, 21, 22
divinatory judgments, 16
trigrams, 16, 17
triple criterion (trairūpya), 239, 240
Tri Songdetsen, 246
true knowledge, 54
truth, according to Navya-Nyāya, 122
Tsongkhapa, 258–61, 270
Tuanzhuan (Commentary on Judgment), 15
al-Tūsī, Muhammad ibn al-Hasan, 448
Tūsī, Nasīr al-Dīn, 416
al-Tūsī, Nāsir al-Dīn, 444
Tu Wei-ming. See Du Weiming
Twenty Verses (Vimśatikā-kārikā), 228
Two Truths, 77
Tzu Chi Foundation, 291
'Ubayd, 'Amr ibn, 436, 437
Ubuntu, 577
Udayana, 115
Kiranāvalī, 113
Laksanāvalī, 113
Udayanācārya
Tātparyatīkā-pariśuddhi, 115
(p. 631) Uddyotakara, 117, 237
Nyāyavārttika, 115
Ŭisang, 300
Diagram of the Reality Realm of the One Vehicle of Hwaŏm Buddhism, The, 373, 374
universal and particular in Hwaŏm thought of, 374–77
ultimate (don dam du dpyod pa'i tshad ma), 219
ultimate differentiator (viśesa), 113, 114, 115
ultimate reality (paramārthasat), 110–11, 129, 208, 270
ultimate source (yuan), 19
ultimate truth (paramārtha)
and emptiness, 226
and phenomena, 223
Ultimate Truth, 70, 71
Umāsvāti
Tattvārthasūtra, 161, 165, 168
unbounded wholeness, 275, 277
uncaused realization, 266
undercoverage (avyāpti), 125
underhand tricks (chala), 115
undernegation, 218
unfindability, 267
United Nations
WomenWatch, 559
United States
Driving While Black (D.W.B.), 540
racial discrimination in, 538, 540
second-wave feminism in, 551–52
universal (sāmānya), 113, 114, 117–18, 143
universal imper-manence, 196
universally inclusive affection (jian ai), 38
unknowable, 79 n 9, 171
unreal imagination (abhūta-parikalpa), 228
unskillful/unwholesome (akuśala), 281
upamiti, 118
Upanisads, 128, 130, 132, 135, 147, 148, 151, 152
Upavarsa, 149
Upāyahrdaya, 233
usūl al-fiqh (the principles of jurisprudence), 450–54
usūlīs, 451
Usūlī school, 444
utilitarianism, 292
utility (yong), 20
Uttara Mīmāmsā, 139, 145
Vaidalyaprakarana, 233
Vaiśesikas, 155
epistemology, 117, 120
ontology, 113–15
Vajradhāra, 269
Vajrayāna Buddhism, 290
valid cognition (pramāna), 213, 266
Vallabhācārya, 151
Vardhamāna, 120
Vasubandhu, 212, 226–29, 231, 233
on emptiness, 227–28
Vasumitra, 198
Vatsyāyana, 115
Vedānta, 110, 130, 132, 147, 164, 165, 172
Advaita Vedānta, 151–55
Dvaita critique of Advaita, 157
literature, 149–51
types, 147–48
Viśista Advaita critique of Advaita, 155–58
Vedānta Deśika, 150
Vedas, 243
Vedic age, 129
verbal testimony (śabda), 110, 119, 120
verify-in-practice (shushō), 353
Vest, Jennifer Lisa, 513
Vidyāranya
Jīvanmuktiviveka, 150
Pañcadaśī, 150
Vigrahavyāvartanī, 233
Vijñānabhiksu
Yogavārttika, 135
Vimuktātman
Īstasiddhi, 150
vinaya ('dul-ba), 193, 252
Vindyavasin
Yuktidīpikā, 129
virtue (de), 9, 10, 28
virtue of humaneness (ren), 84
virtues, 283–84, 286–88
Viśista Advaita Vedānta (Qualified Nondualism), 148
critique of Advaita, 155–58
Visnu, 148, 150
Visnudāsa, 151, 157
Viśvasāratantra, 127, 128
vital energy (qi), 84
vital force (qi), 9, 10, 87, 100
vivaksā, 237
Vivarana school, 150
Vivekananda, Swami, 178
Jnana Yoga, 172
Vyāsa, 137
Vyāsatīrtha, 157
Nyāyāmrta, 151
Tarkatāndava, 151
Vyomaśiva
Vyomavatī, 113
Waka (Japanese-style poems), 323
Wang Anshi, 84
on Zhu's theory of gewu, 90
Wang Bi, 24, 49
Wang Fuzhi, 92
Wang Xizhi, 328
Wang Yangming, 83, 90, 98
Warring States, 58, 64
Mandate of Heaven (tian ming), 40
Washington, Booker T., 512, 517
watchfulness (wara'), 423
Watts (California) riots of 1965, 535
Way (dōtoku), 349
(p. 632) Way, the, 91 (see also Daoism)
Way of Swordsmanship (kendō), 313
weak versus strong cosmopolitanism, 587–88 (see also cosmopolitanism)
Wei-Jin, 47
Weixin, 351
Weltanschauung, 394
Wenyan (Commentary on Text and Words), 15
West, Cornel, 510
Westerhoff, Jan, 189
Western Han, 47
“Western Inscription,” 87
Western philosophy, 4–5
learning areas from Eastern thought, 102
Western Zhou dynasty, 11, 52
Whakapapa, 576–77
wheels of doctrine (dharma-cakra), 224
Will, 97
Williams, Samuel, 514
wisdom (hikma), 395
wisdom (liangzhi) and original wisdom (xingzhi), distinction between, 101
wisdom (zhi), 39
wisdom, 266, 267
withdrawal (i'tizāl), 436
withdrawing the mind from external objects (pratyāhāra), 136
women (see also feminism)
globalization and, 550–52
inequality of, 556
oppression against, 553
sexual objectification of, 550
as victims of male violence, 555
Wonch'uk, 229
Wŏnhyo, 300, 373–74
Essentials of Observation and Violation of Bodhisattva Precepts, 381
word (śabda), 143–44
World Social Forum, 584
World Trade Organization, 584
Wu Cheng, 90
wuji, 23, 86
wuji-taiji, 23
Xia dynasty, 9, 14
Xiangzhuan (Commentary on Images), 15
Xianshou Fazang, 73
xiao-yao, 53
Xici (Comprehensive Commentary), 13, 13 n 1, 15, 16, 21
xin tong xing qing, 88
Xiong Shili, 96, 100, 102, 103
benxin (original mind) and xixin (habitual mind), 101
Xin Wei-shi Lun (New Doctrine of Consciousness-Only), 100
Xuan Xue, 47
Xu Fuguan, 96, 102
Xunzi, 37, 42
on confucian life, 43–45
defense of traditional culture, 45
discussions of human nature, 43
on Heaven (tian), 44
transformative power of confucian education, 42–43
Yajnapati Upādhyāya, 120
Yājñavalkya, 152, 171
yama, 136
Yāmunācārya
Āgamaprāmānya, 150
Siddhitraya, 150
yang, 9, 10
Yaśovijaya, 162
Yasujiro, Ozu, 326
Yeshé-dé, 247
Yi
diversification, into xiang-shu and yi-li, 22–23
three meanings of, 21–22
ti-yong, 20–21
Yijing (Book of Changes), 13–25, 86, 99
divination, 14
five stages/levels of onto-hermeneutical formation of yi text, 15–18
historical background and theoretical presupposition, 13–15
in Neo-Confucianism, 25
original judgments (guaci), 15
and raise of Daoism and Confucianism, 23
Shiyi (Ten Commentaries), 15
Xici, 13, 13 n 1
yin, 9, 10
yin-yang, 14, 16, 17, 22, 87
Yi T'oegye, 92
Yi Yulgok, 92
Yizhuan, 15, 16, 20
Yoga, 127, 128, 129, 130, 135–36, 162
eightfold path of Patañjali's, 136
Yogācāra, 190, 212, 213, 214, 222, 230
Asanga and Vasubandhu, 226
and idealism, 229–30
interpretation of emptiness, 212
as school, 230–31
scriptural sources of, 223–26
texts, 230
Yogācāra-Mādhyamika, 212
Yogācārins (Cittamātrins or Vijñānavādins), 190
yogaja, 117
yogic direct perception, 276
yong, 35
Yu Yingshi, 96
Zack, Naomi, 513
Zen Buddhism (Chan Buddhism), 69, 299, 313, 338, 342–43, 348, 349, 377–378 (see also Kigen, Dōgen)
Zenji, Dōgen. See Kigen, Dōgen
Zhang, 87
“Western Inscription,” 87
(p. 633) Zhang Junmai, 102
Zhang Zai, 19, 87, 88, 92
Zhao Zheng, 63
Zhaozhou, 80
Zhen Dexiu, 90
Zheng, 33
Zhengyan, 291
Zhepa, Jamyang, 261
Zhiyan, 373
Zhiyi, 69, 71, 351
zhongyong, 19, 21, 35
Zhou Dunyi, 23, 85, 86
Zhou dynasty, 11, 13
Zhu
cosmological vision, 90
Zhuangzi, 51–56, 365–66
being at ease with destiny, 52–53
carefree wandering, 53–54
equality of things, 55–56
general notion of ming, 52
notion of ming, 52, 53
on spiritual experience of freedom and independence, 54
theory of true knowing, 54–55
Tianxia, 10
Zhu Xi, 22, 37, 83, 90, 98, 99
Zonggao, Dahui, 379 (p. 634)