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date: 24 October 2020

(p. 573) Index

(p. 573) Index

Abingdon School District v. Schempp, 228, 535–36
abortion
Catholicism and, 382
changes in attitudes on, 235–36n12
changing presidential policies on, 147–48
Christian Right and, 277
debates on, 289n12
decline in, 289n20
faith-based initiatives and, 560–61
parental consent for, 236n15
partial-birth, 236n16
as public and morality policy, 551–52
public opinion on, 223–27, 233, 235n7–10
religious Left and, 289n24
value-based arguments on, 565n7
views of Latino and black Protestants on, 566n21
women's rights and, 236n13
accommodationist policy, 528
Ackerman, Bruce, 96
active part internationalism, 258
activists, 344–47, 363n18, 498–99
Adams, John, 49, 55, 103
Adams, Samuel, 51
affiliation
versus identification, 11
with religious movements, 17–20
using religious traditions to identify, 12–15
African American churches
civil rights movement and, 300
community organization and, 319
economic policy attitudes and, 204–7
political activities of clergy in, 382
political participation and, 403, 416n9
religious recruitment and, 413
social movements and, 268
as socializing agents, 178–79
views on abortion of, 566n21
alcohol, 548, 565n3
Alinsky, Saul, 318
Almond-Lippmann consensus, 245
American Baptist Churches USA, 32n9
American Bible Society, 62
American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, 62
American Education Society, 62
American founding
political theory and, 103–4
religion and, 44–45, 139
religious interest groups and, 299–300
American National Election Studies (ANES), 18
amicus filings, 532–34
Andersen, Kristi, 148
Appleby, Joyce, 45
Articles of Confederation, 54–55
Asbury, Francis, 62
Ashcroft, John, 490
atheism, 133
attitudinal model, 523–24, 539n6
authoritarianism, 354, 360
Ave Maria List, 539n2
Bagehot, Walter, 54
Bailey, John, 484
Bailyn, Bernard, 44, 102
Baker, Jean, 85
Baldwin, Abraham, 371
Bancroft, George, 75
Barber, James David, 480
Barna Research Group, 22–23, 36n41
Bartkowski, John, 182n4
Bauer, Gary, 487, 489
Baylor Religion Survey of 2005, 22
Beard, Charles, 69, 70
behavior
approaches to religious, 23–24
effect of religious beliefs on, 20–21
link between political beliefs and religious, 32n7
measuring, 440
political participation and, 404–7
political tolerance and, 446n12
religious classification and, 7–9, 26
social integration approaches focusing on, 402–4
strategic, 524
belief(s)
approaches to religious, 20–23
influence on voting of, 76
measuring, 440, 443
measuring traditionalist, 36n43
political participation and, 404–7
religious classification and, 7–9, 25–26
significance of, 32n4
sociopsychological approaches focusing on, 402
Bell, Daniel, 95, 108, 113
Bellah, Robert, 109, 111, 142
(p. 574) belonging
ethnoreligious perspective and, 5–6
political participation and, 404–7
political tolerance and, 446n12
religious classification and, 7–9
religious denominations, traditions, and movements and, 9–12
sociological approaches focusing on, 401
Benson, Lee, 69, 71, 76, 144
Bercovitch, Sacvan, 102
Berger, Peter, 87n5, 108
Bernardin, Joseph, 281
Bible
biblical literalism, 219–20
colonial period and, 139
evangelical and mainliner views on, 33n19, 209n2
evangelical views on, 36n40
measurement categories for, 37n48
measuring traditionalism through, 362–63n14
measuring views on authority of, 20, 28
ratification of Constitution and, 56
reading, in schools, 236n20, 535–36
relationship between biblical conservatism and economic policy, 209n5
surveys on, 361n4, 361n7
varying beliefs in, 35n36
views of Christian Right on, 290n28
views of religious left on, 290n29
Bill of Rights, 59–60
Blackwell, Morton, 489
Block, James E., 103
Bono, 315
born-again
definition of term, 36n41
economic policy and, 195–96
Jimmy Carter as, 452
as measurement, 15–17, 34n23–27
political tolerance and, 440
social opinion and, 219–20
Boston miracle, 319
Bowers v. Hardwick, 221
Branch Davidians, 454, 455, 456, 462, 466
Bread for the World, 289n25
Brennan, William, 521, 527, 529
Brill, Alida, 432–33
Bryan, William Jennings, 82, 270–71, 362n11
Bryce, James, 70
Buckley, Thomas J., 477
Budziszweski, J., 99
Burger, Warren, 527, 528–29, 530
Burke, Edmund, 45–46
Bush, George H. W., 148, 150–51, 457, 489
Bush, George W.
abortion and, 225
accounting of attitudes on doctrine of, 253–60
Bible belief and voting for, 37n48
campaign tactics of, 410
Charitable Choice provision and, 558
civic integration and, 143, 154
criticism of, 112
evangelical voting behavior and, 33n20, 35n34, 336
foreign policy and, 244
gay rights and, 221–23
judicial nominations of, 518, 522–23, 539n1
Maureen Dowd on, 330
media coverage of, 458, 462, 468
partisan politics and, 236n18
policy agenda of, 491
religiosity of, 479–80
religious Left and, 279–80
religious media and, 465
staff choices of, 489
writings on faith of, 475
Calvin, John, 50
campaigning, 150–52, 453
Campbell, Ernest, 373
capital punishment, 555–56
Carrolls of Maryland, 107
Carsey, Thomas, 362n12
Carter, Jimmy, 452, 475, 480, 485, 486, 487, 489, 491
Carter, Stephen, 111, 454
Casanova, José, 109
case sponsorship, 531–32
Catholicism
abortion and, 224, 235n10
Cold-War era views on foreign policy and, 246–47
economic and partisan divisions in, 416n4
economic liberalism and, 201–4
foreign policy and, 252
ideology of revolution and, 46
judicial decision making and, 525–26
judicial politics and, 518–19, 521–22, 539n4
political activities of clergy in, 382–83
presidential selection and, 484
religious conflict between Protestantism and, 217–18
religious interest groups and, 300, 313
religious Left and, 281
religious recruitment and, 413
shift in voting behavior in, 336
social gospel movement and, 209n4
state lobbying and, 315–17
tension caused by, 81–82
traditional versus progressive, 34n28
Celetano, William C., 83
centrists, 8, 28
Cermak, Anton, 83
Charitable Choice, 100, 113, 134, 219, 506, 507, 558, 560–61
charity. See economic policy
Charles I, 47
Chauncy, Charles, 46
Chavez, Caesar, 319
(p. 575) Chicago Council on Foreign Relations (CCFR), 245
children, political and religious socialization of, 165–72, 179, 182n1, 183n8
Christian Coalition, 466
Christianity. See also specific denominations
globalization and, 314–15
linking liberty to, 46, 444
Christian Left, 198–99, 289n22 (see also religious Left)
Christian Right
activities of, 275–76
beliefs of, 290n28
defining movement of, 288n10
entrepreneurs in, 289n13
future research on, 285–87
impact of, 276–80
mapping movement boundaries of, 271–72
media coverage of, 457–58, 469
mobilization of, 273–75, 283–85
nature of, 269–71
operational differences of, 272–73
policy agenda of, 491
policy impact of, 320
as political movement, 288n6
political tolerance and, 443
relationship of George W. Bush with, 480
religious interest groups and, 307–9
scholarly works on, 288n5
scholarship on clergy and politics and, 374
social movements and, 266–67
state lobbying and, 315–17
stereotypes on, 455–56
strategic politicians on, 343–44
supporters of, 288n7
use of media by, 463–66
Christmas, 331
churches. See also African American churches; megachurches
as agents of political socialization, 174–79
American membership in, 133–34
declining attendance in, 235n11
determining membership of, 77, 88n11
encourage building of civic skills, 176–77
inflated attendance in, 134–35, 136, 156n4
measuring traditionalism through attendance in, 362–63n14
mobilization of, 377–78
as mobilization sites, 177–78
as transmitters of group norms, 175–76
voting behavior and attendance in, 336, 361n5, 361n7, 400, 404–7, 416n5
civic skills, 403–4
civic volunteerism model, 397
civil religion, 22, 111–12, 139–44, 153, 481
civil rights movement
effect on political participation of, 394
impact of, 289n18
influence of Christian Right on, 277, 280
influence of religious Left on, 281, 283
interest groups and, 300
involvement of clergy in, 373–74, 382
role of religion in, 268
civil unions, 222–23, 235n6
civil war, 139–40
clergy
as agents of political socialization, 174–75
economic policy and, 199–201, 207–8
foreign policy and, 249–50
future research on, 385–87
influence of theology on, 388n5
influences on, 383–85
political action roles of, 387n2
political actions of, 376–79
political motivation for, 379–83
political relevance of, 375–76, 401
religious interest groups and, 311
religious interest groups and prophetic, 304–5
role in antiwar movements of, 282–83
role in politics of, 371–72
scholarship on politics and, 372–75
social opinion and, 219
Clinton, Bill, 457, 480, 481, 489, 491, 554, 558
cloning, 225–26, 507
Cochran, Clarke, 99–100
Colbert Report, 156n3
Cold War era, 246–52, 477–78, 479, 491
colonial wars, 45–46
Colson, Charles, 487
Committee for Justice, 539n2
Common Sense, 49
communism, 249, 273, 429–30, 477–78, 491
community organizing, 317–19, 321–22
Community Solutions Act, 558
Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church, 202
congregation
influence on clergy of, 384
political participation and, 401, 403–4
social services provided by, 388n9
congress. See legislative politics
Connolly, William, 99
Conover, Pamela, 17
constituencies, 498, 503
Continental Congress, 51
Conzen, Kathleen, 69–70
Coolidge, Calvin, 84
cooperative internationalism, 245–46, 250–51
creationism, 52–53, 230–34
cultural conflict theory, 149–54
cultural politics, 354–56, 359, 503–4
cultural studies approach, 153
culture
campaign strategy and tactics and, 410–11
(p. 576)
as concept, 130–32
contemporary political thought and, 110, 112–13
differences in, in American politics, 144–52
impact of religion in politics and, 152–56
liturgical-pietist continuum and, 75–76
overview of religion and, 129–30
polarization and, 344–49
religion and civic integration in, 139–44
religion in American, 132–39
voting behavior and, 72–73
culture issues, 341–44, 349–52, 364n20
Culture Wars, 7, 110, 146
Danforth, John, 156
Davies, Samuel, 47
Davis, Jefferson, 52
Dawkins, Richard, 115
Daynes, Byron, 565n6
death penalty, 555–56
DeLay, Tom, 500
Demerath, Nicholas J., 147
democracy, linking Christianity to, 444
Democratic Party. See also political parties
Catholic economic liberalism and, 202–3
establishment and views of, 74–75
pietists and, 80–82
political activists and, 344–49
religious identification and, 485–86
religious Left and, 279–80
role of culture in, 155–56
strategic politicians in, 343
Deneen, Patrick, 107
Dennett, Daniel, 115
denominations, 11–12, 23, 501, 513n1
de Tocqueville, Alexis. See Tocqueville, Alexis de
devil, political tolerance and, 431
Diggins, John Patrick, 102
diversity, of religion in America, 112–13, 138–39, 141–42
Djupe, Paul, 375
Dobson, James, 288n6, 408, 459, 463, 464, 466, 487
domestic policy, 509–10
Douglas, Stephen, 81
Douglas, William O., 527, 535
Dowd, Maureen, 331, 462
Dreisbach, Daniel, 104, 477
Dukakis, Michael, 150–51
Dulles, John Foster, 107
Durkheim, Emile, 5, 141
Dworkin, Ronald, 96
earmarks, 320–21
“easy” issues, 285, 340–41, 355, 362n11, 503–4, 549, 564
Ebersole, Luke Eugene, 303
Eck, Diana, 113
Economic Justice for All, 202
economic policy
African American churches and, 204–7
Catholicism and, 201–4
contemporary evangelical attitudes toward, 195–201
historical view of Protestantism and, 194–95
overview of religion and, 191–94
relationship between biblical conservatism and, 209n5
research on, 207–9
economy, 136, 137–38
education. See also schools
cultural, 148–49
of evangelical and mainline Protestants, 210n6
mobilization of Christian Right and, 274
as social issue, 227–32, 233, 236n20
Edwards v. Aguillard, 230–31
Eisenach, Eldon, 95, 103, 106, 111
Eisenhower, Dwight D., 478–79, 481, 488, 521
Eisenstein, Marie, 440, 442
Elazar, Daniel, 145
electioneering. see mobilization
elections. See voting/voters
electoral coalitions, 485–88
Ely, Ezra Stiles, 88n8
Employment Division v. Smith, 312, 537
end-of-life issues, 453, 458–59, 553
Engel v. Vitale, 228
Epperson v. Arkansas, 230–31
Equal Access Act of 1984, 307
Equal Rights Amendment (ERA), 148, 527
Ersoz, Meryem, 464
essentialism, 130
Establishment Clause, 527–29, 531, 559–60
ethnicity. See race
ethnocultural interpretation, 69–70
ethnocultural political analysis, 144
ethnoreligious interpretation, 69–70, 84–87
ethnoreligious perspective
1960s elections and, 334
coining of term, 87n1
as explanation of link between religion and politics, 28–29
presidential selection, staffing, and policy making and, 482
religious belonging and, 5–6, 8–9
religious classification and, 12–13, 24–28
voting behavior and, 72–73, 78–80, 332–33
evangelicals
abortion and, 235n9
beliefs of, 33n19
born-again experiences amongst, 34n24–25
classification of, 36n41–42
contemporary attitudes toward economic policy of, 195–201
in early America, 62–63
education of, 210n6
historical view of economic policy and, 194–95
(p. 577)
judicial decision making and, 526
mobilization of, 486
political activities of clergy among, 381–82
religious interest groups and, 308, 310
shift in voting behavior of, 336
views on Bible of, 36n40
views on foreign policy of, 251–52
views on proselytizing of, 32n10
voting percentages of, 35n34
evolution, 230–34
faith-based initiatives, 558–61, 566n20
Falwell, Jerry, 288n6, 343, 451, 459, 463, 466, 471n1, 487
families
religious, 10, 33n20
role in political socialization of, 166–67
Federal Council of Churches, 84
Federalist Papers, 55–56, 534
feminist movement, 289n18
Ferraro, Geraldine, 484
Feuerbach, Ludwig, 156n6
Finney, Charles G., 80
First Amendment, 58–64, 104, 228, 231, 299, 559
Fish, Stanley, 99
Foley, Mark, 151
Ford, Gerald, 489
foreign policy
during Cold War era, 246–52
conclusions on studying religion and, 259
full accounting of attitudes on, 253–60
legislative politics and, 510–11
overview of religion and, 243–45
public attitudes on religion and, 245–46
founding. See American founding
Fowler, Robert Booth, 107, 109, 137
Fox, Frederick, 488
France, King George's War and, 46
Franklin, Benjamin, 49, 57, 88n7
Free Exercise, 527
Freedman, Samuel, 155
Freedom Forum survey, 460
free-rider problem, 302–3
functional approach, 4, 32n2
fundamentalism, 445–46n6, 566n10, 566n16, 567n17–18 (see also informational fundamentalism)
Gaddy, Beverly, 440–42, 443, 444, 446n11, 446n13
Gallup, George, 70
Galston, William, 98
gambling, 554, 565n3
Garrison, William Lloyd, 54
gay rights
Christian Right and, 277
legislative politics and, 504–5
media coverage of, 466
as public and morality policy, 552–53
public opinion on, 221–23, 226–27, 232–33, 235n4–6
studying morality policy and, 566n13–14
gender
judicial decision making and, 526
as personal context for clergy, 385, 388n10
political participation and, 396–97
General Social Survey (GSS), 439–40
Gerson, Michael, 489
Gibson, James, 430–31, 441, 443, 445n3–4
Gibson, John, 331
Gjerde, John, 76
Gladstone, William, 54
Glendon, Mary Ann, 97
globalization, 314–15
Glock, Charles, 32n8, 87n5
God
American culture and, 133
civil religion and, 143
differing views on, 21–22, 35–36n37–9
political movements and, 288n3
Revolutionary-era views on, 45–46
views of Ludwig Feuerbach on, 156n6
Goeglein, Tim, 489
Goldwater, Barry, 484
Goodridge v. Department of Public Health, 221
Gore, Al, 148
government-sponsored religions, 138
Graham, Billy, 490
Great Awakening, 47, 88n9 (see also Second Great Awakening)
Great Society, 491
Greeley, Andrew, 22
Green, John, 362n12
Greenawalt, Kent, 98
Greenstone, J. David, 103
group norms, 175–76
GSS (General Social Survey), 429–40
Guliani, Rudi, 236n18
Guth, James, 374
Gutterman, David S., 106
Habermas, Jürgen, 98
Hadden, Jeffrey, 373
Hamburger, Philip, 104
Hamilton, Alexander, 49, 55, 534
Hammarberg, Melvyn, 86
Hansen, John Mark, 377
Harlan, John M., 527, 531
Harrington, Michael, 108, 109
Harris, Sam, 115
Hart, Tom, 315
Hartz, Louis, 44, 95, 102, 113
Hauerwas, Stanley, 99
Haynes, Lemuel, 53
Hays, Samuel, 69, 72, 144
Heclo, Hugh, 105, 108
Hehir, J. Bryan, 243
Heilke, Thomas, 100
(p. 578) Heimert, Alan, 102
Henry, Patrick, 57
Herberg, Will, 10, 32n5, 108
Hero, Alfred O., 246–48, 252, 258
Herrera, Richard, 362n12
Hertzke, Allen, 107
Himmelfarb, Milton, 207
Hochschild, Jennifer, 209n1
holistic approach, 130–31, 153
Holl, Jack, 478–79
Hollenbach, David, 101
Holsti, Ole, 246
Holt, Michael, 81–82
homosexuality. See also gay rights; same-sex marriage
Christian Right and, 277
public opinion on, 234–35n3
Hoover, Herbert, 83, 84
Hopkins, Samuel, 53
Horton, Willie, 150–51
H.R. 4437, 510
Huckabee, Mike, 151, 377, 454, 485, 487
Hughes, John, 75
Human Cloning Prohibition Act, 507
humanitarianism, 191–92
Hunter, James Davison, 7, 110, 145–46, 217, 332, 376
Huntington, Samuel P., 112, 249
Hussein, Saddam, 139
Hutcheson, Francis, 50
“Hyde amendment,” 225
Iannaconne, Laurence, 176
identification
as born-again, 15–17, 34n23–27
confusion over questions about, 35n33
measuring traditionalism through, 362–63n14
mobilization of voters and religious, 485–86
policy issues and religious, 352–53
political participation and, 397
political tolerance and, 440
versus affiliation, 11
with religious movements, 17–20, 32n11, 35n32
ideology, 498, 508
Ignagni, Joseph, 527–28
immigration, 131, 137, 149–50, 180–81
impressionable years model, 166
individualism, 109
Industrial Areas Foundation, 289n25
informational fundamentalism, 461
Inglehart, Ronald, 147
Inhofe, James, 498, 500
interest groups. See also religious interest groups
judicial decision making and, 531–34
mobilization of, 540n16–18
public policy and, 566n15
Internal Revenue Service (IRS), 301
internationalism, 245–46, 250–51, 252, 258
International Religious Freedom Act of 1998, 314
International Social Survey Program, 35n38
intrinsic-extrinsic distinction of religion, 445n1, 446n13
Iran hostage crisis, 452–53
Iraq, 139, 143, 154
issue frames, 231–32, 233
Jackson, Andrew, 74, 534
Jackson, Jesse, Jr., 179, 290n26, 377, 454, 458, 459, 466
Jacksonians, 88n7
Jacobson, Gary, 249
Jay, John, 49, 55, 525
Jefferson, Thomas, 49, 58, 60–61, 74, 299, 476, 477, 490
Jehovah's Witnesses, 531–32
Jenkins, Phillip, 314
Jensen, Richard, 71
Jews/Judaism
church-state litigation and, 532
Cold War era views on foreign policy of, 246–47
economic and partisan divisions among, 416n4
economic policy and, 207
foreign policy and, 510–11
Harry Truman's support for, 478
petition of, 58
pluralism in religious interest groups and, 313
political activities of clergy among, 383
political affiliations of, 87n2
presidential selection and, 484
social gospel movement and, 209n4
Johnson, Benton, 373
Johnson, Joseph, 205
Johnson, Kristen Deed, 100
Johnson, Lyndon, 488, 491
Johnson, Paul, 139
journalists, 459–62
judicial politics
conclusions on, 538–39
decision making and, 523–31, 539n8, 540n9, 540n15
faith-based initiatives and, 559–60
implementation and impact of decisions in, 534–38
interest groups in litigation and, 531–34
judicial appointments and, 520–23
mobilization of interest groups and, 540n16–18
overview of religion and, 518–19
policy making and, 539n3
study of, 519–20
Kelley, Robert, 75
Kengor, Paul, 479, 481
Kennedy, John F., 484, 488
Kerry, John, 458, 462, 484
Kessler, Sanford, 105
Keyes, Allan, 487
(p. 579) King, Martin Luther, Jr., 106, 143, 179, 371
King George's War, 46
Kleppner, Paul, 73, 75–76, 85–86, 87n5
Kloppenberg, James, 102
Koresh, David, 454, 456
Kousser, Morgan, 86
Kramnick, Isaac, 45, 103–4
Ku Klux Klan, 140
LaFollette, Robert, 84
Land, Richard, 487
Landy, Marc K., 102
Latinos
community organization and, 319
economic policy and, 206, 210n11
views on abortion of, 566n21
Lawrence v. Texas, 221
Layman, Geoffrey, 10, 362n12
Lazarsfeld, Paul, 69, 70
leadership. See clergy
Leege, David, 418n12
legal model, 524, 527, 539n6
legislative politics
aggregate policy outputs and, 511–12
conceptualization and measurement of religion and, 499–502
conclusions on religion and, 512–13
domestic policy and, 509–10
foreign policy and, 510–11
moral issues and, 503–7
overview of religion and, 497–99
role of religion in general voting patterns and, 508–9
Lemon v. Kurtzman, 528–29, 531, 559–60
Leo XIII (Pope), 201, 490
liberalism
African American churches and economic, 204–7
Catholicism and economic, 201–4
ideology of revolution and, 45–48
John Rawls and, 96–98
Lockean, 102–3
post-revolution shift toward, 51–52
Protestants and economic, 198–201
success of religion and, 137
liberty
linking Christianity to, 46, 444
virtue and, 48–49
Lieberman, Joseph, 484, 500
life cycle model, 172
lifelong openness model, 172
Lincoln, Abraham, 52, 81, 103, 105, 107, 143, 481
Lipset, Seymour Martin, 69, 71
liquor laws, 548
litigation, 531–34
liturgical-pietist continuum, 74–77, 85–86, 87–88n6
lobbyists/lobbying, 300–301 (see also religious interest groups)
Locke, John, 44, 102–3
lottery, 554, 565n3
Louisbourg, assault on, 46
Loyalism, 52–53
Lubell, Samuel, 69
Macedo, Stephen, 96, 97, 100
MacIntyre, Alasdair, 47, 97
MacWhorter, Alexander, 54
Maddox, Robert, 489
Madison, James, 49, 55–56, 58, 59, 60–61
Madsen, Richard, 109
Mahoney, Cardinal, 510
Mann, John, 62
Marsden, George, 195
Marshall, John, 60, 534
Marshall, Thurgood, 527, 529
Maslow, Abraham, 147
Mason, George, 107
Massachusetts Constitution of 1780, 57
materialism, 136, 147
Mather, Cotton, 45
Mayhew, Jonathan, 47
McAtee, Flo, 489
McCain, John, 458, 487–88
McCarthy, Joseph, 84
McClay, Wilfred, 111
McClosky, Herbert, 432–33
McCollum v. Board of Education, 228, 535
McGovern, George, 217, 343
McGraw, Barbara, 112
McKenna, Joseph, 521
McKinley, William, 82, 521
McWilliams, Wilson Carey, 102
media
antireligion bias in, 454–59, 471n2
assessing research on religion and, 467–71
overview of politics and religion in, 451–52
religion as hard news in, 452–55
religion uses, 462–67
role in political socialization of, 168–69
secularization and, 459–62
megachurches, 183n12, 205–6
Melville, Herman, 105
Merton, Robert K., 72
Methodists, 61–62, 300
Miers, Harriett, 522–23
Milbank, John, 99
militant internationalism, 245–46, 248, 252
Miller, Perry, 102
Miller, Warren E., 362n12
Miller, William E., 484
Minutemen, 131
Mitchell, Joshua, 105
mobilization. See also political participation
campaign strategy and tactics and, 409–11
of Christian Right, 273–75
of churches by clergy, 377–78
of evangelicals, 486
(p. 580)
future research on Right and Left, 285–87
of interest groups, 540n16–18
partisan targeting and, 411–12
recruitment and, 383–84, 412–15, 416n8, 416n19
religion as source of, 287n1
of religious interest groups, 311
of religious Left, 282
religious media and, 465, 470
research reports on, 418n18
understanding dynamics of, 283–85
varying approaches to, 416n6
modernism. See also traditionalism-modernism
decline of religion and, 108–9
definition of term, 8
as religious movement, 17
views on Bible and, 28
Monitoring the Future, 170, 182n5
Moore, R. Laurence, 103–4
morality
American culture and, 135
campaign strategy and tactics and, 410–11
churches and, 174–75
civic integration and, 143–44
cleavages in party coalitions and, 340–41
contemporary political thought on, 110
influence of clergy on politics and, 375–76
legislative politics and, 503–7
media coverage and, 470
overlooking economic policy for, 196
as social issue, 218, 220–27
views of Founding Fathers on, 50–51
voting and, 151–52
morality policy
as analytical tool, 556–57
conclusions on, 561–64
contributors to, 565n6
as field of study, 548–50
interest groups and, 566n15
list of specific, 551–56
reframing, 565n4
“sin” taxes and, 565n3
undergraduate education on, 564n1
Moral Majority, 266, 271–72, 273, 275, 277, 289n14, 308, 464–65, 487
moral politics, 356, 503–4, 548–50
moral reform orientation, 374
Mormons, 484–85
Morone, James A., 103
Morris, Aldon, 373
Mouffe, Chantal, 99
Moyers, Bill, 488–89
Murphy, Andrew, 103
Murphy, Frank, 539n4
Murrin, John, 45, 52
Muskie, Edmund, 484
Muslims
economic policy and, 207
foreign policy and, 249
media coverage of, 457
pluralism in religious interest groups and, 313
political activities of clergy among, 383
National Association of Evangelicals, 13, 33n18, 288n7, 310
National Catholic Welfare Conference, 300
National Council of Churches, 13, 32n9, 33n18, 289n25, 513n3
National Survey of Religion and Politics, 13–15, 254–255
Native Americans, 477, 534
nature, 52–53
neighborhoods, influence on clergy of, 384–85
neopluralism, 302–3
Neuhaus, Richard John, 109
New Christian Right, 271
New Class theory, 145–46
New Deal, 341, 488, 490
New Hampshire Constitution, 59
NGOs, 310–11
Nicholls, Carleton, 532
Nie, Norman, 377
Niebuhr, Reinhold, 107
Niles, David, 488
Nixon, Richard, 484–85, 489
Nunn, Clyde Z., 431
Nussbaum, Martha, 101
Obama, Barack, 488
O'Connor, Sandra Day, 520
Office of Faith-Based and Community Initiatives, 489
Office of Public Liaison, 489
O'Kelly, James, 61–62
Okin, Susan Moller, 101
Olson, Mancur, 302
Onward Christian Soldiers?: The Religious Right in American Politics, 308
orthodoxy, 445–46n6, 446n11, 508
Pacific Institute for Community Organization, 318
Page, Benjamin, 246, 252
Paine, Tom, 49
Palin, Sarah, 488
parents, role in political socialization of, 166–67, 183n11
patriotism, 141–43
peer influence, role in political socialization of, 168
Peltason, Jack, 520
“pelvic politics,” 220–27
Pennsylvania Constitution, 58
Perkins, John, 317
Perry, Michael J., 98, 101
persistence model, 166
Pettigrew, Thomas, 373
(p. 581) Pew Charitable Trusts, 312–13
Pew Research Center for the People and the Press, 246
philanthropy, 134
Phillips, Jonas, 58
Philpott, Daniel, 101
pietists, 74–77, 80–82, 88n9
pluralism. See also neopluralism
contemporary political thought and, 112–13
as political philosophy, 98, 101
presidential selection, staffing, and policy making and, 482
religious interest groups and, 312–13
shift in voting behavior and, 338
polarization, 344–49, 357–58, 364n20
policy agendas, 490–91
policy issues. See also public policy
attitudes toward, 363n16
cleavages in party coalitions and, 339–41
“easy,” 355, 362n11
importance of awareness and salience of, 349–52
judicial decision making and, 523–24
legislative politics and, 498
media coverage of, 453, 469
morality policy and, 557
reframing, 565n4
political participation. See also mobilization
African American churches and, 416n9
analytical approaches to religion and, 400–407
concept and classification of, 395–96
conceptualizing religious affiliation and, 416n7
conclusions on, 415–16
conventional and unconventional modes of, 416n2
economic models of, 407–9
electioneering and mobilization in, 409–15
history of research on religion and, 398–400
overview and history of, 394–95
partisan divisions in religions and, 416n4
research theories on, 396–98
political parties. See also coalitions; Democratic Party; Republican Party
activists in, 344–47, 363n18
alternative and differing approaches to cleavages in, 352–58
conclusions on cleavages in, 358–60
congressional unity and, 497–98
creation of, 87n5
cultural conflict and, 150–52
defining alignment with, 363–64n19
effect of culture on, 155–56
foreign policy and, 250–51
importance of, 323n1
overview of religion and voting and, 331–32
“pelvic politics” and, 226–27
personal contact for mobilization by, 411–12
religious conflict and, 217–18
shift in relationship between religion and, 332–38, 362n9
social movements and, 267–68
surveys conducted on religion and, 362n12–13
political socialization
declining interest in, 182n2
definition and overview of, 164–65
directions for researching, 179–82
effect of religious beliefs on, 183n9
effect on children of, 183n8
history of research on, 165–72
mobilization of Christian Right and, 274
religion and, 172–79
role of parents in, 183n11
role of schools in, 182n1
views on abortion and, 224
political theory
contemporary social theory and, 108–13
effect of religion on, 113–15
history of, 102–8
overview of religion and, 96–101
political tolerance
bodies of literature on, 431–33
bringing together literatures on, 440–42
definition of term, 428–29
fundamentalism and, 445–46n6
future research considerations for, 443–44
intrinsic-extrinsic distinction of religion and, 446n13
measuring, 429–31, 445n2–3
overview of religion and, 427–28
psychological and political variables in, 446n9
religion scholars and, 434–40
role of religion in, 445n4
politicians, strategic, 341–44
politics. See also judicial politics; legislative politics
assessing research on religion and media and, 467–71
cultural, 354–56, 359
cultural differences in American, 144–52
cultural impact on religion in, 152–56
early American religion and, 61–63
effect of religious beliefs on, 20–23
effect of religious belonging, belief, and behavior on, 7–9
history of religion and, 80–84
involvement of clergy in, 371–72
moral, 356
relationship of religion to, 5
and religion in media, 451–52
scholarship on clergy and, 372–75
social movements and, 267–69
poll books, 82, 88n13
Powell, Lewis, 527, 540n21
prayer
in schools, 227–30, 233, 236n20–22, 307
views of Dwight D. Eisenhower on, 479
presidents/presidency. See also specific presidents
conclusions on religion and, 492
overview of religion and, 475–82
(p. 582)
overview of religion and institutional, 482–83
policy agendas of, 490–91
selecting, 483–88
staffing, 488–90
primacy principle, 166
principal-agent framework, 563–67
Pritchett, C. Herman, 523
progressivism, 34n28
prohibition, 300
“prophetic clergy,” 304–5
Protestant-Catholic-Jew, 32n5, 108
Protestant Dissent, 45–46
Protestantism. See also evangelicals
abortion and, 224, 235n9
Americanism and, 88n7
during American Revolution, 48–53
beliefs of mainline, 33n19
born-again experiences amongst, 34n24
change in political activities of clergy in, 388n8
changing views of clergy in, 388n7
church-state litigation and, 532
classification of, 30–31, 439–40
classifying fundamentalist, 513n2, 566n10, 566n16–17, 567n18
Cold-War era views on foreign policy and, 246–47
contemporary attitudes toward economic policy of, 195–201
differing groups in, 32n8
differing views on Bible in, 209n2
economic and partisan divisions in, 416n4
education and, 210n6
foreign policy and, 252
historical view of economic policy and, 194–95
measuring conservative, 513–14n3, 514n4–5
pluralism in religious interest groups and, 313
political activities of clergy in, 381–82
political tolerance and, 445n5
political views of clergy and congregations in, 388n6
religious conflict between Catholicism and, 217–18
shift in voting behavior of, 336–38
social gospel movement and, 209n4
Pryor, William H., Jr., 518–19, 539n1
public policy. See also morality policy
conclusions on, 561–64
decision making and, 565n8, 566n9
faith-based initiatives and, 558–61
interest groups and, 566n15
list of specific, 551–56
overview of religion and, 546–47
reframing, 565n4
study of, 547–50
undergraduate education on, 564n1
Puritan churches, 47
Putnam, Robert, 111, 308
Quebec Act of 1774, 48
Quinley, Harold, 373
race. See also civil rights movement
church attendance and, 33n17
civil rights movement and, 289n18
community organization and, 319
culture conflict and, 154
economic policy and, 204–7
faith-based initiatives and, 558–59
media coverage of, 469
as personal context for clergy, 385
political participation and, 396, 403
political socialization and, 178–79
religious classification and, 12, 32n12
social movements and, 268
Rangel, Charlie, 500
rational choice theory, 408–9, 523–24
Rauschenbusch, Walter, 490
Rawls, John, 95, 96–98, 113
Reagan, Nancy, 135
Reagan, Ronald, 148, 202, 479, 481, 486, 489, 491, 521
Real Whig, 45–48, 52–53 (see also Whig Party)
Reed, Ralph, 275, 487
Rehnquist, William, 529
release time, 535
religion. See also civil religion
in American culture, 132–39
analytical approaches to political participation and, 400–7
assessing research on media and, 467–71
belonging as dimension of, 5–6
civic integration and, 139–44
classification of, 7–9, 24–28, 210n7, 439–40
classifying affiliations with, 9–12, 359–60
cleavages in party coalitions and, 339–52
commitment to, 156n5
conceptualization and measurement of, 499–502
conclusions on legislative politics and, 512–13
Constitution and, 54–61
cultural differences in American politics and, 144–52
cultural impact in politics of, 152–56
decline in participation in, 108–9
definition and dimensions of, 4–5
determining salience of, 23–24, 36n47
diversity of, in America, 112–13, 138–39, 141–42
effect on domestic policy of, 509–10
effect on foreign policy of, 510–11
effect on judicial appointments of, 520–23
effect on political theory of, 113–15
effect on voting patterns in legislative politics of, 508–9
formation of subcultures in, 32n6
full accounting of attitudes on foreign policy and, 253–60
government-sponsored, 138
hard news coverage of, 452–55
(p. 583)
history of politics and, 80–84
history of research on political participation and, 398–400
ideology of revolution and, 44–48
influence on aggregate policy outputs of, 511–12
influence on voting of, 69–70, 72–73
intrinsic-extrinsic distinction of, 445n1, 446n13
judicial decision making and, 524–31
judicial politics and, 518–19
legislative politics and, 497–99
media bias against, 454–59
methods for determining voters,' 77–78, 88n11
morality in legislative politics and, 503–7
overview of American founding and, 44–45
overview of culture and, 129–30
overview of economic policy and, 191–94
overview of foreign policy issues and, 243–45
overview of political parties and voting behavior and, 331–32
overview of presidents and, 475–82
overview of social opinion and, 217–20
political philosophy and, 96–101
political socialization and, 172–79, 183n9
political tolerance and, 431–33
politics and early American, 61–63
politics in media and, 451–52
presidential selection and, 483–88
public attitudes on foreign policy and, 245–46
public policy and, 546–47
public role of, 109–11
rediscovery of, 70–71
relationship of politics to, 5, 355–56, 358–60
researching political socialization and, 179–82
research on economic policy and, 207–9
role in movement mobilization of, 287n1
shift in relationship between political parties and, 332–38
social movements and, 266–67
uses media, 462–67
varying worship styles in, 36n44
voter turnout and, 404–7
religiosity
criticisms of American, 134–35, 156n3
expressions of, 36n46
five dimensions of, 73
of journalists, 459–62
measuring, 24, 446n11
political tolerance and, 432–33, 444, 445n4, 445–46n6
of presidents, 475–82
Religious Freedom Restoration Act, 506–7, 537
religious interest groups
Christian Right and, 307–9
conclusions drawn on, 322–23
growing global agenda of, 314–15
institutional growth of national, 303–4
local community organizing and, 317–19
organizational dynamics of, 309–12, 323n2
overview and history of, 299–301
pluralism and, 312–13
policy agendas and, 491
policy impact of, 319–22
presidential selection and, 487
representation in, 304–6
state lobbying and, 315–17
theories on political science and, 301–3
religious Left
activities of, 282–83
future research on, 285–87
identifying, 289n23
impact of, 283
mapping movement boundaries of, 280–81
nature of, 279–80
operational definitions of, 281–82
overview of, 278–79
policy impact of, 320
scholarly works on, 289n22
source of designation, 289n21
understanding mobilization of, 282, 283–85
views on Bible of, 290n29
religious Right. See Christian Right
religious socialization, 170–72
religious structuring model, 482
Representing God at the Statehouse, 316, 317
republicanism
during American Revolution, 48–53
Christian, 48–50, 62
Constitution and, 55–56
ideology of revolution and, 45–48
Republican Party. See also political parties
Christian Right and, 269–70, 277–78, 285–86
creation of, 75
pietists and, 80–82
political activists and, 344–49
religious identification and, 485–86
role of culture in, 155–56
revival, 46–47, 71, 80
revolution, religion and ideology of, 44–48
Revolutionary War
history of political theory and, 102
religion and politics after, 61–63
religion and politics during, 48–53
religious regulation preceding, 138
Riemer, Neal, 106
Robertson, Pat, 271, 273, 288n4, 288n6, 343, 377, 454, 458, 459, 463, 465, 466, 485, 487, 519
Roe v. Wade, 551–52
Rokeach, Milton, 87n5
Romer v. Evans, 221
Romney, George, 484
Romney, Mitt, 148, 151, 236n18, 484–85
Roosevelt, Franklin D., 84, 488, 522
Roosevelt, Theodore, 481, 490
Roper, Elmo, 70–71
Rorty, Richard, 98, 99
Rosenblum, Nancy, 100
Rosenstone, Steven, 377
Rouner, Leroy, 142
(p. 584) Rove, Karl, 489
Rush, Benjamin, 49
Rutherford, Joseph Franklin, 532
Ryerson, Egerton, 53
The Sacred Canopy, 108
salience, of religion, 23–24, 36n47
same-sex marriage, 222–23, 235n6, 277, 289n16
Sandel, Michael, 97
Saperstein, David, 310
Schiavo, Terry, 453, 458–59
schools. See also education
prayer in, 227–30, 233, 236n20–22
religious interest groups and, 308–9
role in political socialization of, 167–68, 182n1
sex education policies and, 554–55
vouchers for, 236n19
Second Great Awakening, 75
seculars/secularization, 108–9, 113, 136–37, 359, 363n15, 364n22, 459–62
separation of church and state, 50, 56–59, 104, 149, 180–81, 427, 477
September 11 terrorist attacks, 112, 154
Sewall, Joseph, 46
Sewell, William, 130
sex education, 554–55
Sharpton, Al, 179, 454, 459, 466
Shays, Daniel, 55
Sherratt, Timothy, 100
Sherwood, Samuel, 49
Shriver, Sargent, 484
Silk, Mark, 455
“sin” taxes, 565n3
Skocpol, Theda, 303
slavery, 53, 54, 64
Smidt, Corwin, 387n2
Smith, Al, 83, 484
Smith, Alfred E., 83
Smith, Christian, 17, 18, 32n11, 34–35n30–31, 112, 114
Smith, Gary Scott, 476
Smith, Rogers, 105–6, 112
Snowe, Olympia, 498, 500
social background theory, 524
social gospel movement, 194, 209n4
social issues/social opinion
attitudes toward, 363n16
directions for researching, 232–34
education as, 227–32
foreign policy and, 250
overview of religion and, 217–20
“pelvic politics” as, 220–27
surveys on, 234n2
social justice orientation, 374
social movements
Christian Right and, 269–78
politics and, 267–69
religion and, 266–67
social theology, 21, 374, 379–81, 388n5
Sojourners, 281, 282, 289n24, 310
Sorenson, Theodore, 484
Southern Baptist Convention, 288n7
spatial preference theories, 408
Spalding, Elizabeth Edwards, 477–78
spillover model, 400
Spinner-Halev, Jeff, 98
Stamp Act, 47
Stark, Rodney, 4, 32n8, 87n5, 373
state government, religious interest groups and, 315–17
stem cell research, 225–26, 236n17, 507
stereotypes, of religion in media, 455–56
Stewart, Potter, 525
Story, Joseph, 59, 60–61
Stouffer, Samuel, 429–30, 431, 445n3
Stout, Jeffrey, 98
“strange bedfellow” coalitions, 312
strategic behavior, 524
strategic politicians, 341–44
strategy, in presidential campaigns, 409–11
structuring principle, 166
substantive approach, 4, 32n2
suicide, 553
Sullivan, John, 430, 431–32
Sullivan, William, 109
Sunday, Billy, 106
Sundquist, James, 342
Sununu, John, 500
Supreme Court. See judicial politics
Swaine, Lucas, 98
Swidler, Ann, 109, 132
tactics, in presidential campaigns, 409–11
Taney, Roger, 522
Tatalovich, Raymond, 565n6
Taylor, Charles, 97, 113
temperance movement, 82
Ten Commandments, 156n3, 228, 229, 230, 237n23, 519
Tennet, Gilbert, 46
terrorism, 112, 154
theological restructuring perspective. See also culture war theory
approaches to religious beliefs and, 21
as explanation of link between religion and politics, 5, 6–7, 28–29
religious classification and, 24–28
voting behavior and, 332–33
theology, influence on clergy of, 374, 379–81, 388n5
Thompson, William Hale, 83
Tinder, Glenn, 99
Tinky Winky, 451, 471n1
Tipton, Steven, 109
tobacco, 565n3
Tocqueville, Alexis de, 71, 104–5, 107, 132–33, 140–41, 371–72, 497
(p. 585) tolerance/toleration, 96 (see also political tolerance)
traditionalism
approaches to religious beliefs and, 20–21
definition of term, 8
measuring beliefs of, 36n43, 37n55, 362–63n14, 363–64n19
political behavior and, 26
versus progressivism, 34n28
as religious movement, 17
variation in impact of, 364n20
views on Bible and, 28
traditionalism-modernism
1960s elections and, 334–36
approaches to religious beliefs and, 21
belief items correlated with, 25–26
cleavages in party coalitions and, 341, 350–52, 357–58
conclusions on cleavages in party coalitions and, 358–60
political activists and, 344–45
presidential voting and, 28
religious restructuring and, 6–7
traditions
changes in religious, 32n9
classifying adherents through, 10–11
evangelism and, 32n10
identifying religious affiliation through, 12–15
Protestant denominations classified into, 30–31
religious classification and, 32–33n13
Truman, David, 301–2
Truman, Harry, 477–78, 488, 490, 540n10
Turner, Frederick Jackson, 70
tyranny, 48–49, 51
Udall, Morris, 485
values, 72–73
Verba, Sidney, 377
Viguerie, Richard, 343
violence, 139–40
virtue, 48–51
voluntarism, 62–63
voting/voters
during 1960s elections, 333–38
Catholic economic liberalism and, 202–3
Christian Right and, 275–77, 308
church attendance and, 336, 361n5, 361n7, 400, 404–7, 416n5
cleavages in party coalitions and, 339–41
criticism of ethnoreligious interpretation and, 85–87
cultural conflict and, 150–52
effect of values and culture on, 72–73
effect on religion of congressional, 501
electoral coalitions and, 485–88
ethnoreligious perspective and, 5–6
GSS classification and, 32–33n13
history of political participation and, 394–95
history of religion and, 80–84
influence of clergy on, 383
influence of religion on, 69–70, 133, 401
legislative politics and general patterns in, 508–9
link between religion and, 26
liturgical-pietist continuum and, 74–77
measurement problems in classifying, 77–80
measuring turnout in, 416n1, 418n12
mobilization and demobilization in, 155
morality in legislative politics and, 506
over reporting in, 418n13
overview of political parties and, 331–32
rediscovery of religion and, 70–71
religious media and, 465
role of churches in mobilizing, 177–78
terrorism and, 154
Wallis, Jim, 197, 282, 310, 311
Walter, Nathaniel, 46
Walzer, Michael, 97, 106
Walz v. Tax Commission, 528
Warren, Rick, 466
Washington, George, 49, 50–51, 57, 476–77
Wead, Doug, 489
Weber, Max, 5, 95, 113, 136, 195
Weissberg, Robert, 445n2
Weld, Theodore Dwight, 80
welfare. See economic policy
Welfare Reform Act, 558
Wesley, John, 53
West, Cornel, 98–99
West, John G., Jr., 104
West, Samuel, 49
Weyrich, Paul, 343
What's Fair?, 209n1
Whig Party, 74, 75, 80–81 (see also Real Whig)
White, Byron R., 527, 529
Whitefield, George, 46–47
Whitman, Christine Todd, 156
Wilcox, Melissa, 112
Wildavsky, Aaron, 147
Wilentz, Sean, 84
Wilkes, John, 49
Williams, Roger, 57
Wills, Garry, 106, 458, 459–60
Wilson, James, 49, 107
Wilson, John F., 56–57
Wilson, Woodrow, 480, 490
Wise, John, 45
Witherspoon, John, 49, 50, 371
Witte, John, 104
Wolfe, Alan, 110, 444
Wolin, Sheldon, 105
Wolterstorff, Nicholas, 99
women
abortion and, 225, 236n13
as clergy, 385, 388n10
feminist movement and, 289n18
(p. 586)
judicial decision making and, 526–27
Pat Robertson on movement of, 288n4
social issues and, 218
Wood, Gordon, 44, 53, 55, 102
Wood, Richard, 318
Woodiwiss, Ashley, 100
World War II, 44
worship services
attendance in, 134, 235n11
differing styles of, 36n44
inflating attendance in, 136, 156n4
measuring traditionalism through attendance in, 362–63n14
voting behavior and attendance in, 336, 361n5, 361n7, 400, 404–7, 416n5
youth attendance at, 171
Wright, James, 84
Wright, Jeremiah, 488
Wuthnow, Robert, 7, 110
Yankee Party. See Whig Party
Yinger, J. Milton, 87n5
Zeidman, Jerry, 489
Zelman v. Simmons-Harris, 236n19
Zorach v. Clauson, 228, 535
Zuckert, Michael, 107