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date: 03 August 2020

(p. 563) Index

(p. 563) Index

Abingdon Township v. Schempp (1963), 108, 109, 110, 114, 124n.128, 124n.129, 125n.145, 257, 336, 374, 459, 503
abolitionism, 323
abortion, 320, 321, 323, 459
Roe v. Wade (1973), 111–112, 337, 341, 459
Act for Better Child Care, 377
Adams, John, 6, 7, 8, 46, 280, 404–405
Adams, John Quincy, 85
Adams, Judge Arlin, 151
Adams, Samuel, 6, 50
Adventism, 78
Adventists, 355, 432. See also Seventh-day Adventists
Africa, Frank, 145
agnostics, 11
Agostini v. Felton (1997), 255, 415
Aguilar v. Felton (1985), 125n.147, 126n.148, 255
Ahlstrom, Sidney, 100, 101, 102, 117n.18
airports, Hare Krishna, 199
Alabama, 143
Aleksii II, Russian Orthodox Church, 229
Alison, Hugh, 49, 51
Alito, Justice Samuel, 466
Allen, Douglas, 358
Alliance Defense Fund, 114, 387, 389, 397–398
Al Sistani, Ayatollah, 464
American Bible Society, 77
American Center for Law and Justice, 397
American Civil Liberties Union, 109, 114, 219
American colonization, 331–334
American Council of Christian Churches, 103
American Enlightenment, 12
American flag, 284
American Founders, 503
American Indian Religious Freedom Act, 239, 414
American Jewish Committee, 101–102, 106, 113, 115, 118n.25
American Jewish Congress, 101, 102, 106, 109, 113
American Orthodox Church, 260
American Reformed Protestants, 49
American religion, 455–457
American Revolution, 486
American Sunday School Union, 77
Americans United for Separation of Church and State, 195, 377, 388, 389
American Temperance Society, 77
American Tract Society, 77
American values, 230
Amish, 169, 170, 252, 317, 443
Anabaptists, 192, 212–213, 221n.18, 252
Anastasius I, 208
Anglican Loyalist pastors, 51–52
Anglicans, 5, 49, 332, 458
animal sacrifices, 160, 238–239
animists, 144
Annuit Coeptis, 281, 283, 491
Ansonia Board of Education v. Philbrook (1986), 200
antebellum spiritual hothouse, 78
anti-Catholicism, 25, 83, 219, 254
Anti-Defamation League, 101, 102, 106, 124n.127, 124n.128, 128–129n.183, 130n.204
antidiscrimination laws, 157
Antifederalists, 30, 31, 34, 35–36
Aquinas, St. Thomas, 313
Arians, 47
Aristotle, 484
Arminians, 47
Article I, 28, 29, 34, 35
Article II, 28
Article III, 28
Article IV, 28, 29
Article V, 28
Article VI, 7, 28, 311
Article VII, 28, 29
Articles of Confederation, 21, 28, 33
Arver v. United States (1918), 413
Ashcroft, John, 378, 466, 467
Ashwander v. TVA (1936), 184
Askew, Thomas, 103
Assemblies of God, 195, 427, 432
astrology, 10
atheists, 6, 9, 11, 253, 318
Atwater, Jeremiah, 48
Augustine, 51, 207, 208, 313
Aum Shinrikyo, 355
Australia, 355
Awakening, 9
Baby Blaines, 372
Backus, Isaac, 253
Bader, Veit, 230, 232
Bahais, 411
Baird, Robert, 76–77
Ballard, Guy, 148–149
Baptist Joint Committee, 113, 114, 115, 116, 377
(p. 564) Baptists, 5, 9, 11, 25, 26, 47, 56, 57, 76, 249, 253, 262, 286, 315, 355, 427, 429, 430
conscientious objector, 190–191, 192
ministers, 49, 51
schools, 82, 85
Bauer, Gary, 395
Beecher, Henry Ward, 286
Beecher, Lyman, 77
behavior, religion, 150–153
beliefs, religion, 144–149
Bellah, Robert N., 12, 13, 480, 509
benefits, denial of, 160–161
Berger, Peter, 321
Beyer, Peter, 227
Bible, authority, 319
Bible reading, 81–84, 372, 373–374, 489–490
biblical criticism, 488
Bill of Rights, 8, 21, 23, 33–36, 55, 141, 168
Bin Laden, Osama, 464
Black, Justice Hugo L., 210, 219
Blackmun, Justice Harry, 160, 165, 171, 240, 297, 337, 338–340
Blackstone, William, 79
Blaine, James G., 83, 372
Blaine Amendment, 83–84, 254, 255, 262, 372–374
Bland, Marie Averil, 191, 192
Blavatsky, Helena, 10
Blue laws, 77, 462
B’nai B’rith, 102, 124n.127, 124n.128, 128–129n.183
Board of Education of Kiryas Joel Village School District v. Grumet (1994), 257, 263
Board of Indian Commissioners, 87
Bob Jones University v. United States (1983), 112, 127n.164, 127n.165, 197
Bodhisattva, 231
Boudinot, Elias, 45
Bowen v. Kendrick (1988), 125n.147, 126n.148
Bowen v. Roy (1986), 259, 414
Bowers v. Hardwick (1986), 331, 337–340, 341–342
Bradfield v. Roberts (1899), 189
Bradley, Justice Joseph, 91
brainwashing, 360, 364
Branch Davidians, 354, 360
Brandeis, Justice Louis, 184
Braunfeld v. Brown (1961), 256
Brazil, Unification Church, 355
Brennan, Justice William, 171, 240, 290, 297, 338
Breschel, Edward, 354
Breyer, Justice Stephen, 277, 294
Bromley, David, 354
Brownists, 6
Bryan, William Jennings, 103
Buchanan, Patrick, 395
Buddhist Churches of America, 231, 243n.40
Buddhists, 10, 11, 76, 144, 233, 234, 249, 253, 254, 381, 432, 433, 439, 443, 470
Bureau of Catholic Indian Missions, 87
Bureau of Indian Affairs, 86–87
Burger, Chief Justice Warren E., 161, 295, 338
Burgh, James, 214, 215
Bush, George H. W., 483, 489
Butler, Jon, 78
Byzantine Emperor Anastasius I, 208
Calabresi, Guido, 230, 231, 240
California, religion and secular law, 157
Calvin, John, 52, 208, 313
Calvinists, 5, 6, 81, 286
Campus Crusade for Christ, 427
canopy model, 321–322
Cantwell v. Connecticut (1940), 75, 122n.84, 236, 237, 256
capital punishment, 321
Cardozo, Judge Benjamin N., 220
Carter, Jimmy, 464, 483
Carter, Stephen L., 217
Casanova, Jose, 322
Catholic Church, 157, 323, 357, 360, 427
Catholics, 5, 6, 9, 11, 43, 58, 76, 101, 108, 249–250, 262, 470
Christmas, 286, 289
immigration, 78, 81, 117n.14
office-holding, 25, 26, 45
schooling, 81–85, 372
Center for Law and Policy, 397
Center for Law and Religious Freedom, 112
centrality concept, 154–155
ceremonial deism, 290–291, 305n.74
Champion, Judah, 52
charitable choice, 378–379, 467, 506
charitable contributions, 197–198
Chase, Salmon P., 282
checks and balances, 466
Chestnut, Andrew, 438
Chicago Catholic school system, 156–157
Child Care and Development Block Grant, 377
Children of God, 361
child saver movement, 356–357
Chi-Rho cross, 284
choice, education and welfare, 376–378
Christian Coalition, 113–114, 389–390, 391, 393, 394, 395, 396, 463, 508
Christianity, 3, 11, 51, 144, 147, 231, 284–289
Christianization, Native Americans, 84–87
Christian Legal Society, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 375, 377, 393
Christian nation, 4, 188–190
Christian Reconstruction Movement, 11
Christian Right, 14, 15, 314, 387–390
courts and Constitution, 396–398
lobbying government, 394–395
mobilization, 112–116
(p. 565) one nation under God, 398–399
parties and elections, 395–396
Christian Scientists, 9, 155–156, 357, 361–362, 459
Christian Voice, 374
Christmas, 284–289, 295–297, 375, 391
holiday display, 294–297
trees, 284, 285, 287, 289, 295–297, 304n.53
A Christmas Carol, 284, 287, 288
church. See also church-state separation
Christianity, 3
definition, 211–212
disestablishment, 77
separation of, and state, 500–503
Church Board, 86
Church of Body Modification, 470, 471
Church of England, 24, 25, 213, 331–332, 431, 485
Church of God in Christ, 432
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. See Mormons
Church of Lukumi Babalu Aye v. City of Hialeah (1993), 238–239
Church of Marijuana, 152
Church of Rome, 58
Church of Satan, 229
Church of Scientology, 145, 148–149, 197–198, 261, 355
Church of the Brethren, 192
Church of the Holy Trinity v. United States (1893), 189
church-state, 3, 22, 75
church-state separation, 462–463, 500–503
America, 209–210
Constitution, 215–218
cultural vs. structural, 460–462
intolerance, 218–220
principle, 13
promises and perils, 210–211
church subsidies, 427–428
Cincinnati, Ohio, schooling, 81–83
Citizens for Excellence in Education, 389, 391
City of Boca Raton v. Warner, 143, 173–174n.5
City of Boerne v. Flores (1997), 172, 244n.59, 255, 260, 382, 435, 470
City of Grand Rapids v. Ball (1985), 125n.147, 125–126n.148, 255
Civil and Religious Liberty, 42
Civiletti, Benjamin, 356
Civilization Fund, 85
civil millennialism, 486
civil religion, 12, 455, 461, 480–483
accommodation, 509–512
America, 485–489
background, 484–485
civil rights, 107–112, 323
Civil Rights Act of 1964, 108, 156, 168, 197, 199
Civil War, 85, 89, 100, 188, 192, 282, 334, 380, 433, 486, 491
Clark, Jonas, 50
Clark, Justice Tom, 503
clergy, 23, 242–243n.33
Clinton, Bill, 113
Clinton, Hillary, 390
Coalition for the Free Exercise of Religion, 172
Cochran v. Louisiana Board of Education (1930), 186
codes, 149–150
Cold War, 279, 489, 490
colonial deregulation, 428–433
colonies, 5–6, 22, 23–27
Colorado for Family Values, 397
commands, 149–150
commercialization, Christmas, 288
Commission on Law and Social Action, 106
Committee for Public Education & Religious Liberty v. Nyquist (1973), 125n.147, 125n.148
commonality, religion, 250
communion, 147
compelling interest test, 436–438
compelling state interest, 382
Concerned Women for America, 114, 374, 389, 394
Confessions, Augustine, 51
Congregationalists, 5, 6, 8, 9, 25, 26, 249, 429, 430, 458
Congress, 142–143
conscientious objection, 146
establishment boundaries, 371–379
First Amendment, 370–371
free exercise, 379–383
congressional testimony, 138
Congress of Georgia, 49
Connecticut, 8, 10, 26, 45, 52, 57, 76, 209, 430, 458
conscience, 149–150, 176n.34
conscientious objection, 104, 146, 190–194, 380
Constantine, 212, 285
Constitution, 7, 27–29, 311. See also First Amendment
Amendments XIV and XIII, 29
Christian Right, 396–398
First Amendment, 215–218, 454
freedom of religion, 440
ratification, 30–34
religion in, 60–61n.25
religious liberty, 8
religious policy in draft, 22
Constitutional Convention, 7, 10
Constitutionalism, 334–335
consumerism, Christmas, 288
Continental Congress, 6, 21, 27–29, 45, 280–281
contraceptives, Catholic Church, 157
Cooley, Thomas M., 80
cooperation, sacred and secular, 503–507
Corporation of the Presiding Bishop v. Amos (1987), 126–127n.156, 157, 258, 415
(p. 566) County of Allegheny v. ACLU of Pittsburgh (1989), 296–297
creationism, 317, 318, 320
Cruz v. Beto (1972), 254
culture war, 14–15, 302n.25, 321–322, 456
currency, In God We Trust, 283, 290
custody battles, 361
Cutter v. Wilkinson (2005), 173
Danbury Baptist Association, 214, 215, 236
Daoism, 11
Darrow, Clarence, 103
Darwinian evolution, 488
Davis, Derek, 358
Davis v. Beason (1890), 91, 144, 258
Dawson, J. M., 104
D.C. Choice Initiative Act, 378
Deane and Polyak v. Conaway (2007), 345
Declaration of Independence, 7, 29, 280
Declaration of Religious Freedom (1963), 108
Declaration of Rights, 55, 56
Defense of Marriage Act, 345, 467
deference test, 415
deism, 43, 76, 487–488
Delaware, 5, 8, 23, 27, 45, 56
DeMille, Cecil B., 284
democracy, church-state separation, 15
democratic faith, 482
Democratic Party, 313
Deo Favente, 281
deregulation, 426, 428–433, 438–440
Dewey, John, 9, 482
Dickens, Charles, 284, 287, 288
Dickinson, John, 45
dietary accommodation, prison, 151
DiIulio, John J., Jr., 226
Disciples of Christ, 249, 432
discrimination, 157, 256
disestablishment, 77, 333
disunity, religious, 250
diversity
religious, 226–227, 249
unity, 13–14
Divine Science, 10
Dobson, James, 114, 323, 390, 397
Dolan, Jay, 108
Dominion of New England (1686), 54
Douay Bible, 82
Douglas, Justice William, 148, 282, 295, 502, 509
Drake, Wiley, 387
driver’s license picture, 180n.101
Duché, Jacob, 280
Due Process Clause, 337, 338
Dunkers, 5
Dunn, James, 377
Durkheim, Emile, 151, 485, 511
eagles, 281, 283–284
Easter, 285, 391
Eastern Orthodox, 9
Edmunds Act (1882), 90, 91
Edmunds–Tucker Act (1887), 90, 91
education
choice, 376–378
school question, 81–84
Edwards, Jonathan, 49, 483
Eisenhower, Dwight D., 282, 459, 483, 489, 490
Eisenstadt v. Baird (1972), 337, 341
elections, Christian Right, 395–396
election sermons, 48, 52, 67n.102
electoral politics, religion and, 462–465
Elementary and Secondary Education Act, 109–110, 194
Elk Grove Unified School District v. Newdow (2004), 196, 253
Ellsworth, Oliver, 48
Employment Division of Oregon v. Smith (1990), 116, 159–160, 161, 164, 165–166, 168, 186, 237, 238, 239, 251, 258, 260, 382, 414, 434–435, 442–443, 469
aftermath, 169–173
Religious Freedom Restoration Act, 435–438
Engel v. Vitale (1962), 108–109, 110, 114, 124n.127, 257, 373–374, 459, 491
English Act of Toleration (1689), 6
Enlightenment, 44, 231, 233, 250, 487, 510, 511
Episcopal Church, 25
Episcopalians, 9, 85, 188, 191, 249
E Pluribus Unum, 7, 9, 281, 283, 491
Epperson v. Arkansas (1968), 109, 124n.130, 124n.134
Equal Access Act, 375
Equal Protection Guarantee, 167
Equal Rights Amendment, 112
Erastian, term, 25, 39n.13
Ericsson, Sam, 377
Establishment Clause, 87, 115, 141, 166, 258, 262, 291–293, 295–297, 299, 312, 324, 370, 405, 435, 503, 504, 511–512
battles, 105–107
exceptionalism, 458–460
issues, 390–392
litigation, 109–111
establishment of religion, 222–223n.36
Ethical Humanists, 234
Ethics and Religious Liberty Commission, 114
European Court of Human Rights, 262
evangelicals, 76–77, 333
Everson v. Board of Education (1947), 75, 105, 106, 121n.76, 122n.79, 210, 216, 217, 219, 412, 504
evolution, 317, 318, 320, 391, 488
Scopes trial, 103
exemptions, religious, 167–169
exercise of religion, 153
expression, religious, 279–282
(p. 567) faith-based organizations, 378–379, 467
Falwell, Jerry, 112, 113–114, 390, 396, 463
The Family, 361
Family Research Council, 114, 397
Federal Council of Churches, 100, 102, 117n.18
The Federalist Papers, 30, 35, 40n.31, 334
Federal Marriage Amendment, 467
Federal Maternity Act of 1921, 194
Fellowship of Legislative Chaplains, Inc., 114
Finke, Roger, 433, 440
First Amendment, 7, 31, 34, 36, 37–38, 56, 62n.37, 76, 99, 405, 454
Congress, 142–143, 370–371
Constitution, 215–218, 454
Establishment Clause, 87, 105–107, 115
establishment exceptionalism, 458–460
Free Exercise Clause, 105, 115–116
misinterpretation, 457
no law prohibiting, 158–160, 163–164
religion, 143–144
Fisher, Louis, 379, 381
flag, 480
desecration, 491–492
pledge of allegiance, 196–197, 376
Flag Day, 490
Flast v. Cohen (1968), 194, 195, 196, 200
Florida, 5, 156, 238–239, 313
Focus on the Family, 114, 323, 397
folk religion, 481
Food and Drug Administration (FDA), 356
founding, America, 331–334
Founding Fathers, 4
Fourteenth Amendment, 105, 143, 185–187, 191, 254, 256, 258, 337, 382, 459, 470
Fowler, Robert Booth, 12
Fox, Jonathan, 455
Frankfurter, Justice Felix, 210, 220
Franklin, Benjamin, 7, 10, 12, 81, 281
Fraternal Order of Eagles, 283–284, 293, 294
Fraternal Order of Police Newark Lodge No. 12 v. City of Newark (1999), 259
freedom, 3–4, 53–56
Freedom from Religion Foundation, 195–196
freedom of conscience, 176n.34
free exercise
Congress and, 379–383
religion, 153
Free Exercise Clause, 145, 155, 165–167, 298, 312, 370, 405, 458, 503, 508
Bob Jones University, 197
First Amendment, 105, 115–116
issues, 392–393
Jehovah’s Witnesses, 256
meaning, 142
free exercise decision, 468–472
Freeman, George, 471
Free Speech Clause, 298
free will v. determinism, 313–314
French Enlightenment, 484
French Revolution, 49–50, 76
Fried, Justice Charles, 330–331, 338
Friendly, Judge Henry Jacob, 146
Friends Committee on National Legislation, 104
Froese, Paul, 439
Frost, Robert, 210, 211, 215, 218, 223n.41
Frothingham v. Mellon (1923), 194, 195
Fuller, Chief Justice Melville, 87
Fundamentalist Latter-day Saints, 362–363, 364
fundamentalists, 102–103
fundamental rights, 347n.26
Gabriel, Ralph H., 487
Gallagher v. Crown Kosher Super Marker of Massachusetts (1961), 257
Gamwell, Franklin, 145
Gandhi, Indira, 457
Gandhi, Mahatma, 457
gays and lesbians, 391–392
public opinion, 315–317, 320
rights, 343–345, 346n.3
Gedicks, Frederick, 168–169
General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church, 115
General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists, 104, 105, 107, 111, 113, 115, 121n.76
General Court (1645), 48
General Union for the Promotion of the Christian Sabbath (GUPCS), 77, 78
George, Robert P., 343
Georgia, 8, 45, 49
sodomy, 337–339
German traditions, Christmas, 285
Germany, 78, 355
Gerry, Elbridge, 6
Ghost dance, 87
Gibson, John, 284, 294
Gill, Anthony, 438
Gillette v. United States (1971), 193
Girard, Stephen, 188–189
Girouard, James Louis, 191–192
Girouard v. United States (1946), 191–192, 261
Glebe rights, 445n.22
Goesele v. Bimeler (1853), 187
Golden Rule, 231
Goldman v. Weinberger (1986), 257
Goldsboro Christian Schools, 112
Gonzales v. Archbishop (1929), 188
Gonzales v. O Centro Espirita Beneficente União do Vegetal (2006), 186, 239
Good News Club v. Milford Central School (2001), 415
Goodrich, Samuel, 286
Goodridge v. Department of Public Health (2004), 345
government, religious expression, 279–282
government benefits, denial of, 160–161
Graham, Billy, 489
Granger, General Gideon, 78
(p. 568) Grant, Ulysses S., 83, 85–86, 372
Great Awakenings, 24, 425, 428, 429, 431, 486
Great Migration to America, 332
Great Seal of the United States, 281
Greek Orthodox, 250
Green, John, 103
Greenawalt, Kent, 107, 147
Gregorian calendar, 29
Gregory, David, 358
Grim, Brian J., 440
Griswold v. Connecticut (1965), 336–337, 340
Grund, Francis, 428
Hadden, Jeffrey, 358
Halakha, 43
Hamburger, Philip, 215, 218–219
Hamilton, Alexander, 30
Hamilton v. Regents of the University of California (1934), 191
Hammond, Phillip, 150
Hancock, John, 50
Hand, Judge Brevard, 143
Handy, Robert, 9, 77
Hardison, Trans World Airlines, 199–200
Hare Krishna, 198–199
Harmony Society, 187
Harris, William Torrey, 84
Haskins, George, 50
Heaven’s Gate suicides, 354
Heffron v. International Society for Krishna Consciousness (1981), 198, 258
Hein v. Freedom from Religion Foundation (2007), 196
Hemmenway, Moses, 57
Hempton, David, 431
Henry, Patrick, 32
Herberg, Will, 230, 232, 481
Hernandez v. Commissioner of Internal Revenue (1989), 197, 261
Hertzke, Allen, 103–104
Hindu American Foundation, 235
Hinduism, 11, 144, 231, 262, 456, 470
Krishna Consciousness, 257–258
Hindus, 10, 249, 250, 432, 433, 470
Hobbie v. Unemployment Commission (1987), 161, 163
holiday displays, 294–297, 307n.106
Christmas, 284–289
Holiness Churches, 155
Holmes, Justice Oliver Wendell, 338, 417
holy experiment, Penn, 332
Holy Ghost, 45, 51
Holy Scripture, 53
Holy Spirit, 44, 49
Holy Trinity Church v. United States (1892), 233–234
homosexuality, 321–322, 391–392
Bowers v. Hardwick (1986), 337–340
Lawrence v. Texas (2003), 340–343
Hooker, Richard, 213, 215
Howard, John, 355
Howard, Simeon, 49
Hubbard, L. Ron, 261
Huckabee, Mike, 392
Hughes, Chief Justice Charles E., 192
Hughes, Richard, 12, 510
Huguenots, 5
humanists, 11, 43
human rights, 411
Huntington, Samuel, 454
Hutchison, John, 100
Idaho, territorial law, 91
Illinois, 9, 88
immigration, 446n.36
Catholics, 78, 81, 117n.14
Immigration and Nationality Act, 432
Immigration and Naturalization Service, 356, 359
inculturation, term, 178n.61
Indian Civil Rights Act (1968), 381
Indian Problem, 85–87
indicators, religion, 150–153
In God We Trust, 282, 283, 290, 295, 305–306n.76, 461, 490, 491, 500, 512
In Search of Truth, 361
intelligent design, 318, 391
Internal Revenue Service (IRS), 112, 356, 387, 463
indicators, 152–153
tax deductions, 197–198
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (1966), 406–408, 411–412
International Religious Freedom Act, 263, 383, 418, 468
International Society for Krishna Consciousness v. Lee (1992), 199, 258
Intolerable Acts, 52
intolerance, church-state separation, 218–220
Ireland, Catholic immigration, 78
Islam, 10, 11, 144, 259, 355, 393, 456
Island Pond Messianic Community, 361
Istook, Ernest, 375–376
Italy, Catholic immigration, 78
Ivers, Gregg, 110
Jackson, Andrew, 501
Jackson, Justice Robert H., 336
Japan, 355, 439
Jay, John, 30, 45
Jefferson, Thomas, 6, 7, 8, 24, 37, 42, 46, 56, 57, 76, 457
church-state separation, 209–210
Danbury Baptist Association, 214, 215
schooling, 81
Jehovah’s Witnesses, 9, 156, 162, 192, 249, 255–256, 262, 357, 358, 411, 492
(p. 569) Jehovah’s Witnesses v. King County Hospital (1968), 413
Jesus Christ, 50, 207, 231, 232
birth of, 284–289
Jewish advocacy, 110–111
Jewish Americans, wartime issues, 117n.18
Jews, 5, 9, 11, 58, 76, 147, 155, 156, 249, 250, 256–257, 262, 318, 443, 470
Air Force, 381
Anti-Defamation League, 101, 102
menorah, 297
office-holding, 25
Orthodox, 166
Johansen, Robin, 359
Johnson, Lyndon B., 110
Johnson, Richard M., 79
Jones, Donald, 481
Jones v. Wolf (1979), 415
Judaism, 106, 118n.26, 144, 456
Judeo-Christian tradition, 488
judicial review, 347n.26
Kallen, Horace, 9
kashrut laws, 147
Kedroff v. St. Nicholas Cathedral of Russian Orthodox Church in North America (1952), 260
Kelley, Dean, 357–358
Kennedy, James, 390
Kennedy, John F., 483, 509
Kennedy, Justice Anthony, 13, 165, 172, 239, 292, 297, 335, 340–341, 345, 436
Kent, Chief Justice James, 46
Kentucky, 188, 291–293
Kerry, John, 464
Keyes, Alan, 395
Khoumeini, Ayatollah, 464
King, Martin Luther, Jr., 457, 480
“Know Nothing” party, 9, 82, 219
Knox, Henry, 85
Kopelev, Lev, 229
Krishna, 231, 257–258
Ku Klux Klan, 219
LaHaye, Beverly, 114
Lakota Ghost dance, 87
Lamb’s Chapel v. Center Moriches Union Free School District (1993), 115, 130n.204
Larson, Carin, 323
Late Corporation of Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints v. United States, 91
Latter-day Saints. See Mormons
Laurens, Henry, 45
law
holiday displays, 294–297
religious principles, 79
secularization, 80
statutes, 132–137
Supreme Court cases, 132, 182–183
Lawrence v. Texas (2003), 331, 340–343, 343–345
lazy monopoly, 322
Lee v. Weisman (1992), 13, 114, 115, 129n.193, 129n.194, 375
Lemon test, 295, 296, 416
Lemon v. Kurtzman (1971), 255
lesbians. See gays and lesbians
liberal theory, 334–335
liberty, 335–337. See also religious liberty
eighteenth century, 47–50
restricting, 440–442
spiritual, 50–53
Liberty Council, 397
Lincoln, Abraham, 483, 486, 490
Linder, Robert, 483
Lochner v. New York, 338–339
Locke, John, 208, 250
Lu, Yungfeng, 439
Luther, Martin, 51, 208, 313
Lutherans, 5, 11, 249, 443
Lynch v. Donnelly (1984), 294–297
Lyng v. Northwest Indian Cemetery Protective Association (1988), 150, 154–155, 162–163, 238, 260, 414
McCollum v. Board of Education (1947), 106, 107, 122n.95, 122n.101, 122n.91, 122n.93, 122n.98, 122n.99, 125n.145, 210, 253, 412
McConnell, Michael, 166–167, 435
McCreary County v. ACLU of Kentucky (2005), 292–293, 295
McDaniel v. Paty (1978), 415, 508
McGarvie, Mark, 500–501
McGowan v. Maryland (1961), 235
McGuffey’s Eclectic Readers, 487, 488
Macintosh, Douglas Clyde, 190–191, 192
McKinley, William, 280
McLoughlin, William G., 487
McManus, Father William, 105
Madison, James, 7, 24, 27–28, 30, 32, 45–46, 56, 57, 82, 149, 233, 253, 280, 281, 334–335, 371
Bill of Rights, 34–36, 37
mail delivery, Sunday, 78, 79
Maine, 430
Malcolm X, 457
Malnak v. Yogi (1979), 151
managed pluralism
American theories, 229–233
courts, 233–240
defining, 227–229
Mann, Horace, 81
marijuana, 149, 152
market model, religion, 315
Marriage Protection Amendment, 467
Marshall, Chief Justice John, 32, 184, 297, 338
Marshall, Justice Thurgood, 171
Marsh v. Chambers (1983), 235, 296
Marty, Martin E., 12, 482
Marxist socialism, 488
(p. 570) Maryland, 5, 8, 23, 25, 32, 45, 56, 144, 458
Maryland’s Act of Toleration (1649), 6
Massa, Mark, 101
Massachusetts, 8, 23, 25, 26, 45, 55, 77, 286, 430, 458, 469
draft Constitution, 31–32
May, Henry, 44
Mayflower, 226, 485
Mayflower Compact, 286
Mead, Sidney, 481
Meek v. Pittenger (1975), 504
Memorial and Remonstrance, Madison, 24, 149, 233, 253
memorialists, New York, 78
Mennonites, 5, 192
Menorah, 297, 391
Merin, Yuval, 344
Methodists, 9, 47, 57, 85, 191, 249, 427, 429, 430, 431–432, 443
Mexican–American War, 379, 380
Middlebury College, 48
Mill, John Stuart, 314, 335
Miller, Perry, 54
Millerites, 333
ministry lands, 445n.22
Minnesota, 198, 283
minorities, religious, 251–261
missionaries, 276
Missouri, 9, 88
Mitchell v. Helms (2000), 415, 505
monitoring, 354–357, 359–363
Monroe, James, 32
moral diversity, 334–335
moral good, 330–331, 333, 336
morality conflict, 335–337
Moral Majority, 113–114, 374, 387, 389, 391, 392, 394, 463
Moravians, 5, 84–85
Morgan, Thomas J., 86
Mormons, 9, 43, 58, 78, 159, 249, 250, 258–259, 333, 357, 411, 427, 443, 460
Davis v. Beason (1890), 144
right to be president, 311
Morrill Act, 89–90
Mosaic law, 43, 51, 283
Mueller v. Allen (1983), 255, 505
Murray, John Courtney, 108
Muslims, 10, 58, 155, 156, 166, 249, 250, 259, 318, 411, 432, 433, 443, 463, 470
Nachtrieb, Joshua, 187
Nader, Ralph, 312
National Association of Evangelicals, 103–104, 114
National Baptist Convention, 104
National Catholic Education Association, 118n.24
National Catholic War Council, 101
National Center for Education, 391
National Council of Catholic Bishops, 108
National Council of Catholic Men, 105
National Council of Catholic Women, 105
National Council of Churches, 107, 111, 113
national holidays, 480
National Jewish Commission on Law and Public Affairs (COLPA), 110–111
National Labor Relations Board v. Catholic Bishop of Chicago (1973), 156–157
National Labor Relations Board v. Catholic Bishop of Chicago (1979), 200, 415
national mission, 486
National Prayer Breakfast, 489
nationhood, unity and, 7–9
Native American sacred lands, 150, 237–238
Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act, 381
Native Americans, 144, 232, 249, 373, 393
Christianization of, 84–87
faiths, 259–260
peyote in church ceremony, 159, 259
practices, 155, 156, 240
religions, 10, 262, 381
Nativists, 9
Nauvoo episode, Mormons, 88–89
Neuhaus, Richard, 277, 321
neutrality, religion and, 164–167
New American Church, 149
Newdow, Michael, 196–197, 462
New England, 332, 430, 431
disestablishment, 77
doctrine of toleration, 54
Federal Constitution, 48–49
religion and government, 25–26
New England Baptists, 214
New Hampshire, 8, 23, 26, 45, 430, 458
New Jersey, 8, 23, 27, 45
New Religious Movements, 355, 356, 357
monitoring, 359–363
New Thought metaphysical churches, 10
New v. United States (1917), 175n.26
New York, 5, 8, 9, 27, 45, 82
Niebuhr, Reinhold, 483
Niles, Nathaniel, 52
Nixon, Richard M., 483, 489, 509
Nobles, Gregory, 56
Noelle–Neuman, Elisabeth, 314
North Carolina, 8, 23, 24, 32, 45, 283
Northern Baptist Convention, 104
Northwest Indian Cemetery Protective Association v. Peterson (1988), 260
Northwest Ordinance, 371
Novus Ordo Seclorum, 281, 283
“nursing father” metaphor, 222n.23
Oakes, Urian, 54
oath, higher power, 29
(p. 571) Obama, Barack, 277, 318, 387, 390, 465, 483, 489, 507
objection, conscientious, 146, 190–194
Occasional Reverberator, 55
occult religions, 10
O’Connor, Justice Sandra Day, 154, 162, 165, 171, 290, 297, 435, 437, 505
office-holders, 29, 45
Ohio, 9, 81–83, 88, 187, 227
O’Lone v. Estate of Shabazz (1987), 259
O’Neill, J. M., 210
one nation under God, 282–283, 398–399, 461, 462, 482
Operation Sojourner, 359
Order of St. Benedict v. Steinhauser (1914), 187–188
Oregon, 159–160, 170
original sin, 49–50, 51, 64n.56
Orthodox, 76, 260
O’Sullivan, John L., 486
pacifists, 104, 380
Paine, Thomas, 6
paintings, 291
Palmer, Susan, 361
Papist, 6
parental choice, 377–378
parochial schools, 81–84, 372
Patel, Eboo, 277
Payson, Phillips, 50
Peace Policy, 86–87
penalties, religious acts, 159–160
Penn, William, 332
Pennsylvania, 5, 8, 23, 45, 79, 145, 189, 249, 332
constitution, 27, 31
Pennsylvania Journal, 55
Pentecostals, 319, 355, 432, 439, 443
personal assets, 187–188
Pfeffer, Leo, 106, 107, 109
Philadelphia Convention, 22–23, 27–29, 30, 34
Pierard, Richard, 103, 483
Pierce v. Society of Sisters (1925), 185, 255
Pietists, 5
Pilgrims, 485
Plato, 484
pledge of allegiance, 283, 461, 490, 491, 512
flag, 196–197, 376, 480
under God, 233, 290–291, 373, 376
politics, 335
integration of religion and, 507–509
religion and electoral, 462–465
polytheists, 144
Pope Gelasius I, 207–208
Pope John Paul II, 457
Powers, Peter, 48
practices, religion, 155–158
prayer in school, 150, 317, 374–375, 376, 489–490
prayer proclamations, 280–281
Pray for Peace, 283
Presbyterians, 5, 6, 9, 11, 26, 47, 85, 115, 188, 249, 286
prescription drug coverage, 157
Presidential Prayer Breakfast, 282, 489
Prince v. Massachusetts (1944), 413
Prison Fellowship Ministries, 427
Progressive Unitarians, 57
prohibiting, no law, 158–160
Prohibition, 103, 238, 323
Pro-Life Movement, 459
Promise Keepers, 427
Protestants, 5, 8, 9, 11, 23, 26, 43, 44–47, 51, 76, 208, 249–250, 333, 470, 482
alternatives, 102–105
American standard, 230–231
school question, 81–84
proto-denominations, 33
public, 12, 278, 298–299
public accessibility, 318–320
public places, Hare Krishna, 198–199
public religion, 12
public schools, 81–84, 254–255, 276, 278, 291
Amish community, 317–318
Bible in, 372
public square, religion in, 276–279
Purcell, Kathleen, 359
Puritans, 5, 6, 8, 12, 47, 53, 54, 249, 280, 282, 286, 332, 485–487, 510
purpose-effect-entanglement test, 295, 296, 416
Putin, Vladimir, 228, 229
Quakers, 5, 26, 29, 85, 104, 192, 332, 380, 509
Quick Bear v. Leupp (1908), 86
Randolph, Governor, 32, 40n.34
Rapp, George, 187
ratification, conventions, 32–33
Rawls, John, 251, 330–331, 335
Reagan, Ronald, 113, 323, 374, 395–396, 483, 486
Reconstructionism, 11, 389
Reed, Ralph, 391, 393, 394, 463
Reformation, 286
Reformed, 47, 49
Rehnquist, Justice William H., 165, 292, 297
Reichley, A. James, 321
Reincarnation, 10
religion, 27, 143–144, 153, 157, 250, 276, 315, 455–457
behavioral indicators, 150–153
beliefs, 7–8, 34, 144–149
centrality, 154–155
codes, commands, conscience, 149–150
deregulation, 428–433
electoral politics, 462–465
integration with politics, 507–509
neutrality, 164–167
politics of states, 465–468
public place, 198–199, 276–279
range of practices, 155–158
ratification of Constitution, 30–33
religious liberty and public, 320–324
schooling, 81–84
workplace, 199–200
Religious Action Center for Reform Judaism (RAC), 107–108
religious acts, 159–160, 162–163
religious conscience, 43, 53–56, 149–150
religious exemptions, 167–169
religious expression, 279–282, 298–299
religious freedom, 434–435, 458
Religious Freedom Amendment of 1998, 376
Religious Freedom Restoration Act of 1993, 116, 158, 172, 186–187, 239, 252, 255, 260, 382, 413, 435–438, 442, 469
Religious Identification Survey, 10–11
Religious Land Use and Incarcerated Persons Act, 252
Religious Land Use and Institutionalized Persons Act of 2000, 116, 172, 254, 298, 383, 413, 470
religious liberty, 8, 31, 434
eighteenth century, 42–47
international framework, 406–411
public religion, 320–324
self-governance, 312–320
Religious Liberty Protection Act, 116, 382
religious minorities, 251–261
religious nationalism, 482
religious pluralism, 4–5, 249–251
colonials, 5–6
expansion of, 9–11, 76
responses to, 11–13
Religious Science, 10
Religious Society of Friends, 104
Republicans, 6, 83, 89, 218, 323, 372, 394, 395–396, 398, 465, 467
Revere, Paul, 50
Revolutionary New Divinity, 52
Revolutionary period, 25, 46
Reynolds, George, 90
Reynolds v. United States (1878), 236–237, 240, 256, 258, 336
Reynolds v. United States (1987), 159
Rhode Island, 5, 8, 26, 33, 45, 54, 209, 213, 249
holiday display in Pawtucket, 294–296
Richards, David A. J., 335, 343
Richardson, James T., 360–362
Richey, Russell, 481
rights talk, 312
Roberts, Chief Justice John, 398, 466
Robertson, Pat, 113–114, 390, 393, 395, 395–396, 397, 463
Roe v. Wade (1973), 111–112, 337, 341, 459
Roman Catholic Church, 219, 439
Roman Catholics, 25, 26, 254–255, 319, 430
Romer v. Evans (1996), 335, 344
Romney, Mitt, 226–227, 229–230, 311
Roosevelt, Franklin D., 280, 406, 489
Roosevelt, Theodore, 282
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques, 232, 484–485
Rove, Karl, 464
Ruegemer, Judge E. J., 283, 284
Rush, Benjamin, 44, 81
Rushdoony, Rousas, 11
Russia, monitoring, 356
Russian Orthodox Church, 228–229, 250, 260
Rutherford Institute, 114, 129–130n.200, 130n.204, 397–398
Rutledge, Justice Wiley, 503
sabbatarians, 160–161, 199–200
Sabbath, 46, 79
sacred, cooperation between secular and, 503–507
sacred canopy model, 321–322
sacred lands, Native Americans, 150, 237–238
St. Francis of Assisi, 285
St. Nicholas, 285, 287–289
Sallman, Warner, 291
same-sex marriage, 316, 317, 319, 320, 323, 331, 342, 344–345, 397, 466–467
Sanctuary Movement, 357
Sandel, Michael, 149–150
Santa Claus, 284, 287–289, 295–296
Santa Fe Independent School District v. Doe (2000), 255, 259, 263, 413, 462
Santeria faith, 238–239, 393
Satan, 9, 51, 229
Scalia, Justice Anthony, 154, 159, 164, 165, 168, 171, 251, 292–293, 297, 342–343
Scandinavia, Christmas, 285, 287, 289
Schmitt, Carl, 53
school prayer, 113, 150, 317, 374–376, 489–490
school question, 81–84
schools, 46, 86–87, 189, 254–255, 257
Schwimmer, Rosika, 190, 191–192
Scientology, 11, 197–198, 261, 262, 411
Scopes, John, 103
Scrooge, Ebenezer, 287, 288
Second Great Awakening, 9, 76, 333, 431, 487
secular, cooperation between sacred and, 503–507
secular humanism, 253
secularists, 11
secularization, 80, 322
Seigler, Gretchen, 361
Selective Service Act, 146–147
Selective Training and Service Act, 120–121n.66
(p. 573) self-determination, 313–314, 316–317, 320
self-governance, liberty and, 312–320
separation. See church-state separation
Separatists, 5, 6
Serbian Orthodox Diocese v. Milivojevich (1976), 415
Seventh-day Adventists, 9, 104, 105, 107, 111, 113, 115, 121n.76, 200, 249, 261, 447n.43
conscientious objector, 191–192
Saturday work, 160–161
Seventh-day Baptists, 200
sexual behavior, 331
sexuality, politics, 335–337
sexual orientation, 316–317
Shakers, 9, 78
Sherbert test, 243n.48, 447n.43
Sherbert v. Verner (1963), 158, 161, 162–163, 164, 168, 170, 172, 259, 261, 413, 414, 434–435
Shinto, 439
Sikhism, 11, 156
Simons, Menno, 212–213, 215
Simpson v. Chesterfield County, 235
sin, 49–50, 51, 64n.56
sincerely held religious beliefs, 469
slavery, constitution and, 29
Smith, Joseph, 88–89, 379
Smith, Steven, 143
Smith, William Jr., 55
social capital, 316
social critic, religion as, 323–324
Social Gospel, 100, 102, 117n.11
social security tax, Amish, 252
Society of Friends, 192
Society of Separatists of Zoar, 187
Socinians, 47
sodomy
Georgia statute, 337–339
Texas, 340–343
Solar Temple suicides, 354
Souter, Justice David, 165
South Carolina, 8, 23, 45, 49, 458
South Dakota, 87
Southern Baptist Convention, 104, 114
Soviet Union, 103
Spiritualism, 10, 11
spiritual liberty, 50–53
standing, 194–197
Stanton, Elizabeth Cady, 286
Stark, Rodney, 433
Star of David, 284
Star-Spangled Banner, 282, 491
state, definition, 211–212
states, 23–27, 45, 465–468
statutes, 132–137, 206, 310
Steinhauser, Albert, 187–188
Stevens, Justice John Paul, 290, 297, 338
Stiles, Ezra, 55
Stone v. Graham (1980), 291–292, 306n.80
Storer, Judge Bellamy, 82
Story, Justice Joseph, 46
strict scrutiny, 347n.26, 382, 413–414
Strong, Cyprian, 57
subsidies, 427–428
Sullivan, Andrew, 343
Sullivan, Winnifred Fallers, 143, 145
Sun dance, 87
Sunday closing laws, 166, 256–257
Sunday mail delivery, 78, 79
Sundblom, Haddon, 288
supply-side religious change, 426–428
suppression, 427–428
Supreme Court. See U.S. Supreme Court
surveillance, 354–356
Swift, Zephaniah, 8
Synagogue Council of America, 106
Taft, Judge Alphonso, 82–83
Taoism, 144, 253
taxes, 197–198, 207
taxpayer suits, standing, 194–196
Ten Commandments, 291–294, 375, 391, 462, 480, 499–500, 511
monuments, 280, 283–284, 291, 303n.32
Texas, 144–145, 293
Branch Davidians, 354, 360
Fundamentalist Latter-day Saints, 362–363
Lawrence v. Texas (2003), 340–343
theocracy, 11–12
theological liberalism, 488
theosophy, 10
Thomas, David, 51
Thomas, Justice Clarence, 143, 165, 292
Thomas v. Review Board (1981), 161, 163
Thompson, William, 357
Thomson, Charles, 45
Thwing, Charles Franklin, 231
Tillich, Paul, 145–146
Tilton v. Richardson (1971), 125n.148, 255
Title VII, Civil Rights Act, 108, 111, 168, 199
Tocqueville, Alexis de, 230, 314, 315, 321, 333, 434
Todd, Jonathan, 52
toleration, 6, 9, 54, 332, 429
Torcaso v. Watkins (1961), 144, 146, 253, 413
transcendentalism, 9, 78, 151
transcendent universal religion, 481–482
Trans World Airlines v. Hardison (1977), 199–200
Treaty with Tripoli (1797), 28
trees, Christmas, 284, 285, 287, 289
Trinitarian Christian, 45
Troeltsch, Ernst, 53
true virtue, definition, 49
Truman, Harry S., 280, 282, 489
Tushnet, Mark, 44
Unification Church, 355, 411
Union of American Hebrew Congregations, 113
Unitarians, 6, 9, 144–145, 231
(p. 574) United Nations, 104
United Nations Declaration (1981), 406, 408–409, 412, 441
United States
Christian nation, 4, 188–190
monitoring religion, 356–357
one nation under God, 282–283
religious pluralism, 4–5, 249–251
statutes, 132–137
United States Catholic Conference, 114–115
United States Catholic Conference, 108
United States v. Ballard (1944), 148–149, 234, 502
United States v. Bland (1931), 191, 192
United States v. Jakobson (1963), 146
United States v. Kauten (1943), 146
United States v. Kuch (1968), 149
United States v. Lee (1982), 252
United States v. Macintosh (1931), 190–191, 192, 234
United States v. Meyers (1995), 145, 152
United States v. Schwimmer (1929), 190, 191
United States v. Seeger (1965), 120–121n.66, 146–147, 192–193, 234–235, 469
United States v. Welsh (1970), 413
United States v. Welsh (1972), 147
unity, 7–9, 13–14
Unity School of Christianity, 10
Universal Declaration of Human Rights Charter (1948), 456
Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948, 405–406
Universalism, 78
Universal Military Training and Service Act, 233
U.S. Supreme Court, 13, 15, 80, 227, 500, 503–506
Indian affairs, 86–87
managed pluralism, 233–240
polygamy, 89–91
Ten Commandments cases, 291–294
utopian societies, 78
Vaino, Sharon, 358
Valley Forge Christian College, 195
Van Buren, Martin, 79
Van Orden v. Perry (2005), 143, 292–293
Van Schaick v. Church of Scientology (1982), 148–149, 175n.28
Vatican, 104, 138
Vedanta Society, 257
Vermont, 11, 23, 26, 45, 48, 430, 458
Vidal, Francois, 189
Vidal v. Girard’s Executors (1844), 188–189
Vienna Concluding Document (1989), 407, 409–410, 412
Vietnam war, 144, 146, 150, 193, 314, 323, 381, 469, 471, 481, 488, 492
Virginia, 8–9, 23, 24, 25, 27, 32, 33, 56, 81
Vishnu, 231
Volstead Act, 238, 240
vouchers, education, 377–378
Waite, Chief Justice Morrison R., 90
Wallace v. Jaffree (1985), 128n.174, 128n.175, 128n.177, 375, 459
wall of separation, 210–215, 218, 390. See also church-state separation
Walz v. Tax Commission (1970), 156, 508
Warburton, William, 45
War for Independence, 45, 53, 56, 380
War of 1812, 380
War of Independence (1783), 24, 192
Warren, Rick, 489
Washington, George, 42, 85, 216, 232, 253, 280, 281, 483, 486
Watchtower Bible and Tract and Tract Society v. Village of Stratton (2002), 415
Watchtower Bible and Tract Society, 255
Watson v. Jones (1871), 227, 415
Watson v. Jones (1872), 13, 188, 502
Webster, Noah, 81
Weithorn, Stanley, 358
welfare, choice, 376–378
Welsh v. United States (1970), 193, 469
Wesley, John, 431
Western Christendom, 54
Westminster Confession, 43
Westside Board of Education v. Mergens (1990), 375
West Virginia State Board of Education v. Barnette (1943), 336, 413
White, Justice Byron Raymond, 165, 297, 338
Whitefield, George, 429–430
White House Office of Faith-Based and Community Initiatives, 195
Wiccan leader, 235
Widmar v. Vincent (1981), 128–129n.183, 414–415
Wilcox, Clyde, 323
Williams, Abraham, 53
Williams, Elisha, 54
Williams, J. Paul, 482
Williams, Robin, 12
Williams, Roger, 209, 213, 215, 253
Wilson, Woodrow, 280, 486
Winthrop, John, 47–48, 49, 286, 486
Wirth, Father Augustin, 187–188
Wisconsin v. Yoder (1972), 170, 172, 252, 259, 261, 317, 413, 414
Witte, John, 208
Wolcott, Oliver, 6
Wood, James E., Jr., 358
Woodruff, Wilford, 91
Woodward, Israel, 50
workplace, religion, 199–200
World War I, 101, 102, 380, 488
(p. 575) World War II, 102, 103, 104, 106, 280, 380, 439
Worldwide Church of God, 200
worship activities, 155–158
Wounded Knee Massacre (1890), 87
Wright, Stuart, 362
Wuthnow, Robert, 461
Wybraniec, John, 434
Wyneken, Friedrich, 432
Yahweh, 484
Yinger, Milton, 151
Young, Brigham, 90, 379
Zelman v. Simmons-Harris (2002), 415, 506
Zobrest v. Catalina Hills (1993), 255, 505
Zorach v. Clauson (1952), 107, 234, 235
Zubly, John, 49