Show Summary Details

Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD HANDBOOKS ONLINE (www.oxfordhandbooks.com). © Oxford University Press, 2018. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Handbooks Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 03 August 2020

Constitutional Perspectives

Constitutional Perspectives

Religion Clauses

Antieu, Chester James, Arthur L. Downey, and Edward C. Roberts. Freedom from Federal Establishment: Formation and Early History of the First Amendment Religions Clauses. Milwaukee, WI: Bruce Publishing, 1964.Find this resource:

Berg, Thomas C. “Religion Clause Anti-Theories.” Notre Dame Law Review 72 (1997): 693.Find this resource:

Berman, Harold. “Religion and Law: The First Amendment in Historical Perspective.” Emory Law Journal 35 (1986): 777.Find this resource:

Berns, Walter. The First Amendment and the Future of American Democracy. New York: Basic Books, 1976.Find this resource:

Bradley, Gerald v. “The No Religious Test Clause and the Constitution of Religious Liberty: A Mahine That Has Gone of Itself.” Case Western Reserve Law Review 37 (1987): 674.Find this resource:

Brownstein, Alan. “Protecting Religious Liberty: The False Messiahs of the Free Speech Doctrine and Formal Neutrality.” Journal of Law and Policy 18 (2002): 119.Find this resource:

Carmella, Angela C. “State Constitutional Protection of Religious Exercise: An Emerging Post Smith Jurisprudence.” Brigham Young University Law Review (1993): 275.Find this resource:

Choper, Jesse H. “The Religion Clauses of the First Amendment: Reconciling the Conflict.” University of Pittsburgh Law Review 41 (Spring 1980): 673.Find this resource:

Cookson, Catherine. Regulating Religion: The Courts and Free Exercise. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.Find this resource:

Curtis, Michael Kent. “Conceived in Liberty: The Fourteenth Amendment and the Bill of Rights.” North Carolina Law Review 65 (1987): 889.Find this resource:

Dreisbach, Daniel L. “The Constitution’s Forgotten Religion Clause: Reflections on the Article VI Religious Test Ban,” Journal of Church and State 38 (1996): 263.Find this resource:

(p. 529) Esbeck, Carl H. “The Establishment Clause as a Structural Restraint on Governmental Power.” Iowa Law Review 84 (1998):1.Find this resource:

Evans, Bette Novit. Interpreting the Free Exercise of Religion. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1997.Find this resource:

Feldman, Noah. “The Intellectual Origins of the Establishment Clause.” New York University Law Review 77 (2002): 346.Find this resource:

Freedman Howard. “Rethinking Free Exercise: Rediscovering Religious Community and Ritual.” Seton Hall Law Review 24 (1994): 1800.Find this resource:

Garfield, Alan E. “A Positive Rights Interpretation of the Establishment Clause.” Temple Law Review 76 (2003): 281.Find this resource:

Gedicks, Frederick Mark. “Toward a Defensible Free Exercise Doctrine.” George Washington Law Review 68 (2000): 925.Find this resource:

Glendon, Mary Ann and Raul F. Yanes. “Structural Free Exercise,” Michigan Law Review 90 (1991): 477Find this resource:

Glenn, Gary D. “Forgotten Purposes of the First Amendment Religion Clauses.” Review of Politics 49 (1987): 340.Find this resource:

Greenawalt, Kent. “Quo Vadis: The Status and Prospects of ‘Tests’ under the Religion Clauses.” 1995 Supreme Court Review (1995): 323.Find this resource:

Hunter, James D. and Os Guinness, eds. Articles of Faith, Articles of Peace: The Religious Liberty Clauses and the American Public Philosophy. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 1990.Find this resource:

Jeffries, John C., Jr., and James E. Ryan. “A Political History of the Establishment Clause.” Michigan Law Review 100 (2001): 279.Find this resource:

Katz, Wilbur. “Radiations from Church Tax Exemption.” Supreme Court Review, 1970.Find this resource:

Kurland, Philip B. “The Origins of the Religion Clauses of the Constitution.” William and Mary Law Review 27 (Special Issue, 1985–1986): 839.Find this resource:

Lash, Kurt T. “The Second Adoption of the Free Exercise Clause: Religious Exemptions under the Fourteenth Amendment.” Northwestern University Law Review 88 (1994): 1106.Find this resource:

Lash, Kurt T. “The Second Adoption of the Establishment Clause: The Rise of the Nonestablishment Principle.” Arizona State Law Journal 27 (1995): 1085.Find this resource:

Laycock, Douglas. “Formal, Substantive, and Disaggregated Neutrality Toward Religion,” DePaul Law Review 39 (1990): 993.Find this resource:

Laycock, Douglas. “Non-Coercive’ Support for Religion: Another False Claim About the Establishment Clause.” Valparaiso University Law Review 26 (1991): 37.Find this resource:

Laycock, Douglas. “Text, Intent, and the Religion Clauses,” Notre Dame Journal of Law Ethics and Public Policy 4 (1990): 683.Find this resource:

Laycock, Douglas. “Toward A General Theory of the Religion Clauses: The Case of Church Labor Relations and the Right to Church Autonomy,” Columbia Law Review 81 (1981): 1378.Find this resource:

Laycock, Douglas. “The Benefits of the Establishment Clause,” DePaul Law Review 42 (1992): 373.Find this resource:

Laycock, Douglas. “The Remnants of Free Exercise,” Supreme Court Review (1991): 1.Find this resource:

Laycock, Douglas. “Toward a General Theory of the Religion Clauses: The Case of Church Labor Relations and the Right to Church Autonomy,” Columbia Law Review 81 (1981): 1373.Find this resource:

Lee, Francis Graham. All Imaginable Liberty: The Religious Liberty Clauses of the First Amendment. Lanham, MD: University Press of America 1995.Find this resource:

Levy, Leonard W. The Establishment Clause: Religion and the First Amendment. New York: Macmillan, 1986.Find this resource:

Leonard W. Original Intent and the Framers’ Constitution. New York: Macmillan, 1988.Find this resource:

(p. 530) Leonard W. “The Original Meaning of the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment.” In Religion and the State: Essays in Honor of Leo Pfeffer, ed. James E. Wood, Jr. Waco, TX: Baylor University Press, 1985.Find this resource:

Lupu, Ira C. “Reconstructing the Establishment Clause: The Case Against Discretionary Accommodation of Religion.” University of Pennsylvania Law Review 140 (1991): 555.Find this resource:

Lupu, Ira C. “Where Rights Begin: The Problem of Burdens on the Free Exercise of Religion,” Harvard Law Review 102 (1989): 933.Find this resource:

Marnell, William H. The First Amendment: The History of Religious Freedom in America. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1964.Find this resource:

Marshall, William P. “Solving the Free Exercise Dilemma: Free Exercise as Expression.” Minnesota Law Review 67 (1983): 545.Find this resource:

McConnell, Michael W. “Free Exercise Revisionism and the Smith Decision.” University of Chicago Law Review 57 (1990): 1109.Find this resource:

McConnell, Michael W. “Accommodation of Religion.” Supreme Court Review, 1985.Find this resource:

McConnell, Michael W. “Neutrality Under the Religion Clauses.” Northwestern Law Review 81 (1986): 146.Find this resource:

McConnell, Michael W. “The Origins and Historical Understanding of the Free Exercise of Religion.” Harvard Law Review 103 (1990): 1409.Find this resource:

McConnell, Michael W. “The Origins and Historical Understanding of Free Exercise of Religion.” Harvard Law Review 111 (1997): 153.Find this resource:

Moehlman, Conrad H. The Wall of Separation between Church and State: An Historical Study of Recent Criticism of the Religious Clauses of the First Amendment. Boston: Beacon Press, 1951.Find this resource:

Moore, John Norton. “The Supreme Court and the Relationship between the ‘Establishment’ and ‘Free Exercise’ Clauses.” Texas Law Review 42 (1963): 149.Find this resource:

Poppel, Stuart D. “Federalism, Fundamental Fairness, and the Religion Clauses.” Cumberland Law Review 25 (1995): 247.Find this resource:

Reynolds, Laurie. “Zoning the Church: The Police Power Versus the First Amendment.” Boston University Law Review 64 (1985): 767.Find this resource:

Schwarz, Alan. “No Imposition of Religion: The Establishment Clause Value.” Yale Law Journal 77 (1968): 692.Find this resource:

Serr, Brian J. “A Not-so-Neutral ‘Neutrality’: An Essay on the State of the Religion Clauses on the Brink of the Third Millennium.” Baylor Law Review 51 (1999): 319.Find this resource:

Simson, Gary J. “The Establishment Clause in the Supreme Court: Rethinking the Court’s Approach.” Cornell Law Review 72 (1987): 905.Find this resource:

Tushnet, Mark. “The Origins of the Establishment Clause.” Georgetown Law Journal 75 (April 1987): 1509.Find this resource:

Tushnet, Mark. “The Redundant Free Exercise Clause.” Loyola University Chicago Law Journal 33 (2001): 71.Find this resource:

Van Patten, Jonathan K. “In the End Is the Beginning: An Inquiry Into the Meaning of the Religion Clauses.” Saint Louis University Law Journal 27 (February 1983): 1.Find this resource:

Wallace, J. Clifford. “The Framers’ Establishment Clause: How High the Wall?” Brigham Young University Law Review (2001): 755.Find this resource:

Way, Frank and Barbara Burt. “Religious Marginality and the Free Exercise Clause.” American Political Science Review 77 (1983): 654.Find this resource:

Wood, James E., Jr. “‘No Religious Test Shall Ever Be Required’: Reflections on the Bicentennial of the U.S. Constitution.” Journal of Church and State 29 (Spring 1987): 199.Find this resource:

General Works

Adams, Arlin and Charles Emmerich. A Nation Dedicated to Religious Liberty: The Constitutional Heritage of the Religious Clauses. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1990.Find this resource:

Alley, Robert, ed. The Constitution and Religion: Leading Cases on Church and State. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 1999.Find this resource:

Ariens, Michael S. and Robert A. Destro. Religious Liberty in a Pluralistic Society. Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press, 1996.Find this resource:

Bassett, William. Religious Organizations and the Law. 2 vols. St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co., 1997–2007.Find this resource:

Berg, Thomas C. “The Constitutional Future of Religious Freedom Legislation.” University of Arkansas Law Journal 20 (1998): 715.Find this resource:

Beth, Loren P. The American Theory of Church and State. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida Press, 1958.Find this resource:

Blakely, William Addison. American State Papers on Freedom of Religion. 3rd rev. ed. Washington, DC: Review and Herald, 1943.Find this resource:

Blakeman, John. The Bible in the Park: Federal District Courts, Religious Speech, and the Public Forum. Akron, OH: The University of Akron Press, 2005.Find this resource:

Bradley, Gerard v. Church-State Relationships in America. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1987.Find this resource:

Carmella, Angela. “A Theological Critique of Free Exercise Jurisprudence.” George Washington Law Review 60 (1992): 782.Find this resource:

Carmella, Angela. “Houses of Worship and Religious Liberty: Constitutional Limits on Landmark Preservation and Architectural Review.” Villanova Law Review 36 (1991): 401.Find this resource:

Carter, Stephen L. “Reflections on the Separation of Church and State.” Arizona Law Review 44 (2002): 293.Find this resource:

Carter, Stephen L. “The Resurrection of Religious Freedom?” Harvard Law Review 107 (1993): 118.Find this resource:

Choper, Jesse H. “A Century of Religious Freedom.” California Law Review 88 (December 2000): 1709.Find this resource:

Choper, Jesse H. Securing Religious Liberty. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995.Find this resource:

Chopko, Mark. “Religious Access to Public Programs and Governmental Funding.” George Washington Law Review 60 (1992): 645.Find this resource:

Clinton, Robert Lowry. God & Man in the Law: The Foundations of Anglo-American Constitutionalism. Lawrence, KS: University of Kansas Press, 1997.Find this resource:

Conkle, Daniel O. “Congressional Alternatives in the Wake of City of Boerne v. Flores: The (Limited) Role of Congress in Protecting Religious Freedom from State and Local Infringement.” University of Arkansas Law Journal 20 (1998): 633.Find this resource:

Cookson, Catharine, ed. Encyclopedia of Religious Freedom. New York: Routledge, 2003.Find this resource:

Curry, Thomas J. Farewell to Christendom: The Future of Church and State in America. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.Find this resource:

Davis, Derek H. “A Commentary on the Supreme Court’s ‘Equal Treatment’ Doctrine as the New Constitutional Paradigm for Protecting Religious Liberty.” Journal of Church and State 46 (Autumn 2004): 717.Find this resource:

Davis, Derek H. “Completing the Constitution: Enforcing the Religion Clauses under the Fourteenth Amendment,” Journal of Church and State 42 (Summer 2000): 437.Find this resource:

Davis, Derek H. “Mitchell v. Helms and the Modern Cultural Assault on the Separation of Church and State,” Boston College Law Review, Volume XLIII, No. 5, September 2002, pp. 1035.Find this resource:

(p. 532) Davis, Derek H. Religion and the Continental Congress, 1774–1789: Contributions to Original Intent. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2000.Find this resource:

Davis, Derek H. “The Supreme Court and the Constitutional Definition of Religion: A History and Critique.” In The Role of Government in Monitoring and Regulating Religion in Public Life, eds. James E. Wood, Jr. and Derek Davis. Waco, TX: J.M. Dawson Institute of Church-State Studies, 1992.Find this resource:

Davis, Derek H. “Resolving Not to Resolve the Tension between the Establishment and Free Exercise Clauses.” Journal of Church and State 38 (Spring 1996): 245.Find this resource:

Davis, Derek H. Original Intent: Chief Justice Rehnquist and the Course of American Church/State Relations. Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books, 1991.Find this resource:

Davis, Derek H. “The Dark Side to a Just War: The USA Patriot Act and Counterterrorism’s Potential Threat to Religious Freedom,” Journal of Church and State 44 (Winter 2002): 5.Find this resource:

Davis, Derek H. “Thomas Jefferson and the ‘Wall of Separation’ Metaphor,” Journal of Church and State 44 (Winter 2003): 5.Find this resource:

Davis, Derek H., ed. The Separation of Church and State Defended: Essays in Honor of James E. Wood, Jr. Waco, TX: J.W. Dawson Institute of Church-State Studies, 1995.Find this resource:

Dawson, Joseph M. America’s Way in Church, State, and Society. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1953.Find this resource:

Destro, Robert A. “By What Right?: The Sources and Limits of Federal Court and Congressional Jurisdiction over Matters ‘Touching Religion.’” Indiana Law Review 29 (1995): 1.Find this resource:

Drakeman, Donald L. Church-State Constitutional Issues: Making Sense of the Establishment Clause. New York: Greenwood Press, 1991.Find this resource:

Dreisbach, Daniel L. Real Threat and Mere Shadow: Religious Liberty and the First Amendment. Westchester, IL: Crossway Books, 1997.Find this resource:

Dreisbach, Daniel L. “Thomas Jefferson and the Danbury Baptists Revisited.” William and Mary Quarterly, 3d series, 56, no. 4 (1999): 805.Find this resource:

Drinan, Robert F. “Reflections on the Demise of the Religious Freedom Restoration Act.” George Washington Law Journal 89 (1997): 101.Find this resource:

Drinan, Robert F. Can God & Caesar Coexist? Balancing Religious Freedom and International Law. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2004.Find this resource:

Duncan, Ann W. and Steven L. Jones, eds. Church-State Issues in America. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Co., 2008.Find this resource:

Eastland, Terry. Religious Liberty in the Supreme Court: The Cases That Define the Debate over Church and State. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1993.Find this resource:

Eisgruber, Christopher L. “Why the Religious Freedom Restoration Act is Unconstitutional.” New York University Law Review 69 (1994): 437.Find this resource:

Eisgruber, Christopher and Lawrence Sager. Religious Freedom and the Constitution. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2007.Find this resource:

Eisgruber Christopher L. and Lawrence G. Sager. “The Vulnerability of Conscience: The Constitutional Basis for Protecting Religious Conduct.” University of Chicago Law Review 61 (1994): 1245.Find this resource:

Epps, Garrett. To an Unknown God: Religious Freedom on Trial. New York: St. Martin’s Press. 2001.Find this resource:

Epstein, Steven B. “Rethinking the Constitutionality of Ceremonial Deism.” Columbia Law Review 96 (1996): 2083.Find this resource:

Esbeck, Carl H. “Church Autonomy and Establishments of Religion.” Brigham Young University Law Review (2004): 1385.Find this resource:

(p. 533) Esbeck, Carl H. “Five Views of Church-State Relations in Contemporary American Thought.” Brigham Young University Law Review 86 (1986): 371.Find this resource:

Estep, W. R. Religious Liberty: Heritage and Responsibility. North Newton, KS: Bethel College, 1988.Find this resource:

Feldman, Noah. Divided by God. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2005.Find this resource:

Feldman, Stephen M. Please Don’t Wish Me a Merry Christmas: A Critical History of Separation of Church and State. New York: New York University Press, 1997.Find this resource:

Flowers, Ronald B. That Godless Court? Supreme Court Decisions on Church-State Relationships. 2nd ed. Louisville, KY: Westminster/John Knox Press, 2005.Find this resource:

Flowers, Ronald B. To Defend the Constitution: Religion, Conscientious Objection, Naturalization, and the Supreme Court. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press, 2003.Find this resource:

Flowers, Ronald B., Melissa Rogers, and Steven K. Green. Religious Freedom and the Supreme Court. Waco, TX: Baylor University Press, 2008.Find this resource:

Frankel, Marvin E. Faith and Freedom: Religious Liberty in America. New York: Hill and Wang. 1995.Find this resource:

Freman, George C. “The Misguided Search for a Constitutional Definition of Religion.” Georgetown Law Journal 71 (1983): 1519.Find this resource:

Gaffney, Edward M. “Governmental Definition of Religion: The Rise and Fall of the IRS Regulations of an Integrated Auxiliary of a Church.” Valparaiso University Law Review 25 (1991): 203.Find this resource:

Garry, Patrick M. Wrestling with God: The Courts’ Tortuous Treatment of Religion. Washington, DC: The Catholic University of America Press, 2006.Find this resource:

Gaustad, Edwin S. Proclaim Liberty Throughout All the Land: A History of Church and State in America. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.Find this resource:

Gedicks, Frederick Mark. “Public Life and Hostility to Religion.” Virginia Law Review 78 (1992): 671.Find this resource:

Gedicks, Frederick Mark. The Rhetoric of Church and State: A Critical Analysis of Religion Clause Jurisprudence. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1995.Find this resource:

Gey, Steven G. “Why is Religion Special: Reconsidering the Accommodation of Religion under the Religion Clauses of the First Amendment.” University of Pittsburgh Law Review 52 (1990): 75.Find this resource:

Gregory, David L. “The Role of Religion in the Secular Workplace.” Notre Dame Journal of Law, Ethics, and Public Policy 4 (1990): 65.Find this resource:

Gedicks, Frederick Mark. “Religions, Fragmentations, and Doctrinal Limits.” The William and Mary Bill of Rights Journal 15 (Oct. 2006): 25.Find this resource:

Gedicks, Frederick Mark. “Religious Exemptions, Formal Neutrality, and Laicite.” Indiana Journal of Global Legislative Studies 13 (Summer, 2006): 473.Find this resource:

Gedicks, Frederick Mark. “Toward a Constitutional Jurisprudence of Religious Group Rights.” Wisconsin Law Review 1989 (1989): 99.Find this resource:

Gamwell, Franklin. The Meaning of Religious Freedom. Albany, NY: SUNY Press, 1995.Find this resource:

Glendon, Mary Ann. “Law, Communities, and the Religious Freedom Language of the Constitution.” George Washington Law Review 60 (1992): 672.Find this resource:

Goldwin, Robert A. and Art Kaufman, eds. How Does the Constitution Protect Religious Freedom? Washington, DC: American Enterprise Institute, 1987.Find this resource:

Green, Steven K. The Second Disestablishment: Church and State in the Nineteenth Century. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009.Find this resource:

Greenawalt, Kent. Religion and the Constitution. 2 vols. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2006–2008.Find this resource:

(p. 534) Greenawalt, Kent. “History as Ideology: Phillip Hamburger’s Separation of Church and State.” California Law Review 93 (2005): 367.Find this resource:

Greenawalt, Kent. “Religion as a Concept in Constitutional Law.” California Law Review 72 (1982): 753.Find this resource:

Greenawalt, Kent. Religious Convictions and Political Choice. Oxford University Press, 1991.Find this resource:

Gregory, David L. “The Role of Religion in the Secular Workplace.” Notre Dame Journal of Law, Ethics and Public Policy 4 (1990): 749.Find this resource:

Gunn, Jeremy T. A Standard for Repair: The Establishment Clause, Equality, and Natural Rights. New York: Garland Publishing, 1992.Find this resource:

Hall, Timothy L. “Religion, Equality, and Difference.” Temple Law Review 65 (1992): 1.Find this resource:

Hamburger, Philip A. “A Constitutional Right of Religious Exemption: An Historical Perspective.” George Washington Law Review 60 (1992): 915.Find this resource:

Hamburger, Philip A. Separation of Church and State. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2002.Find this resource:

Hamilton, Marci. God vs. Gavel: Religion and the Rule of Law. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2005.Find this resource:

Hamilton, Marci. “Law and Morality: Constitutional Law: Moral and Religious Convictions as Categories for Special Treatment: The Exemption Strategy.” William and Mary Law Review 48 (April, 2007): 1605.Find this resource:

Hamilton, Marci. “Objections in Conscience to Medical Procedures: Does Religion Make a Difference?” University of Illinois Law Review (2006): 799.Find this resource:

Hamilton, Marci. “The Belief/Conduct Paradigm in the Supreme Court’s Free Exercise Jurisprudence: A Theological Account of the Failure to Protect Religious Conduct.” Ohio State Law Journal 54 (1993): 713.Find this resource:

Hamilton, Marci. “The Religious Freedom Restoration Act: Letting the Fox into the Henhouse Under Cover of Section 5 of the Fourteenth Amendment.” Cardozo Law Review 16 (1994): 357.Find this resource:

Hammar, Richard R. Pastor, Church & Law. Springfield, MO: Gospel Publishing House, 1983.Find this resource:

Hammond, Phillip. With Liberty for all: Freedom of Religion in the United States. Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press, 1998.Find this resource:

Hammond, Phillip E., David W. Machacek, and Eric M. Mazur. Religion on Trial: How Supreme Court Trends Threaten Freedom of Conscience in America. Walnut Creek, CA: Alta Mira Press, 2004.Find this resource:

Handy, Robert T. Undermined Establishment: Church-State Relations in America, 1880–1920. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1991. Undermined Establishment: Church-State Relations in America, 1880–1920. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1991.Find this resource:

Houtman, Roxanne. “Rebuilding the Wall between Church and State.” Syracuse Law Review 55 (2005): 395.Find this resource:

Howe, Mark DeWolfe. Cases on Church and State in the United States. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1952.Find this resource:

Howe, Mark DeWolfe. The Garden and the Wilderness: Religion and Government in American Constitutional History. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1965.Find this resource:

Idleman, Scott C. “The Religious Freedom Restoration Act: Pushing the Limits of Legislative Power.” Texas Law Review 73 (1994): 247.Find this resource:

“James R. Browning Symposium for 1994: The Religious Freedom Restoration Act.” Montana Law Review 56 (1995): 1–324.Find this resource:

Johnson, Alvin N. and F.H. Yost. Separation of Church and State in the United States. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 1948.Find this resource:

(p. 535) Jones, Richard H. “Accommodationist and Separatist Ideals in Supreme Court Establishment Clause Decisions.” Journal of Church and State 28 (1986): 193.Find this resource:

Katz, Wilber G. “Freedom of Religion and State Neutrality.” University of Chicago Law Review 20 (1953): 426.Find this resource:

Kauper, Paul G. “The Constitutionality of Tax Exemptions for Religious Activities.” in The Wall Between Church and State, ed. Dallin H. Oaks. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1963.Find this resource:

Kelsay, John, and Sumner B. Twiss, eds. Religion and Human Rights. New York: The Project on Religion and Human Rights, 1994.Find this resource:

Kramnick, Isaac and R. Laurence Moore. The Godless Constitution: The Case against Religious Correctness. New York: Norton, 1996.Find this resource:

Kurland, Philip. Religion and the Law: Of Church and State and the Supreme Court. Chicago: Aldine, 1962.Find this resource:

Laycock, Douglas. “Formal, Substantive, and Disaggregated Neutrality Toward Religion.” DePaul Law Review 39 (1990): 993.Find this resource:

Laycock, Douglas. “Freedom of Speech That Is Both Religious and Political.” University of California Davis Law Review 29 (1996): 793.Find this resource:

Laycock, Douglas. “‘Nonpreferential’ Aid to Religion: A False Claim About Original Intent.” William and Mary Law Review 27 (Special Issue 1985–1986): 875.Find this resource:

Laycock, Douglas. “Religious Liberty as Liberty.” Journal of Contemporary Legal Studies 7 (1996): 313.Find this resource:

Laycock, Douglas. “Summary and Synthesis: The Crisis in Religious Liberty.” George Washington Law Review 60 (1992): 841.Find this resource:

Lupu, Ira C. “The Failure of RFRA.” University of Arkansas Little Rock Law Journal 20 (1998): 589.Find this resource:

Lupu, Ira C. “The Trouble with Accommodation.” George Washington Law Review (1992): 743.Find this resource:

Marshall, Bill. “The Constitution Under Clinton: A Critical Assessment: The Culture of Belief and the Politics of Religion.” Law & Contemporary Problems 63 (2000): 453.Find this resource:

McConnell, Michael. “Accommodation of Religion.” Supreme Court Review (1985): 1.Find this resource:

McConnell, Michael. “Religious Freedom at a Crossroads.” University of Chicago Law Review 59 (1992): 115.Find this resource:

McConnell, Michael. “Why Is Religious Freedom the ‘First Freedom’?” Cardozo Law Review 21 (2000): 1243.Find this resource:

McConnell, Michael, John Garvey, and Thomas Berg. Religion and the Constitution, 2nd ed. New York: Aspen, 2006.Find this resource:

McConnell, Michael W. and Richard A. Posner. “An Economic Approach to Issues of Religious Freedom.” Chicago Law Review 56 (1989): 1.Find this resource:

Miller, William Lee. The First Liberty: Religion and the American Republic. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1986.Find this resource:

Monsma, Stephen v. Positive Neutrality: Letting Religious Freedom Ring. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1993.Find this resource:

Monsma, Steven V., ed. Church-State Relations in Crisis: Debating Neutrality. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2002.Find this resource:

Monsma, Steven v. and Christopher Soper, eds. Equal Treatment of Religion in a Pluralistic Society. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1998.Find this resource:

Morgan, Edmund S. The Church and the State. New York: Harcourt, Brace and World, 1967.Find this resource:

Morgan, Richard E. The Politics of Religious Conflict: Church and State in America. New York: Pegasus, 1968.Find this resource:

(p. 536) Morgan, Richard E. The Supreme Court and Religion. New York: Free Press, 1972.Find this resource:

Murray, Bruce T. Religious Liberty in America: Navigating the First Amendment in the newsroom and Beyond. Pasadena, CA: Foundation for American Communications, 2005.Find this resource:

Neuhaus, Richard John. “Contending for the Future: Overcoming the Pfefferian Inversion.” Journal of Law and Religion 8 (1990): 115.Find this resource:

Noonan, John. “How Sincere Do You Have to Be to Be Religious?” 1988 University of Illinois Law Review (1988): 1.Find this resource:

Noonan, John T. The Lustre of Our County: The American Experience of Religious Freedom. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press 1998.Find this resource:

O’Dell-Scott, David, ed. Democracy and Religion: Free Exercise and Diverse Visions. Kent, OH: Kent State University Press, 2004.Find this resource:

O’Neill, James M. “Nonpreferential Aid to Religion is not an Establishment of Religion.” Buffalo Law Review 2 (1952): 242.Find this resource:

Paulsen, Mike. “Lemon Is Dead.” Case Western Law Review 43 (1993): 795.Find this resource:

Pepper, Stephen. “Reynolds, Yoder, and Beyond: Alternatives for the Free Exercise Clause.” Utah Law Review (1981): 309.Find this resource:

Picarello, Anthony, Jr. and Roman Storzer. “The Religious Land Use and Institutionalized Persons Act of 2000: A Constitutional Response to Unconstitutional Zoning Practices.” George Mason Law Review 929 9 (2001): 32.Find this resource:

Pfeffer, Leo. Church, State and Freedom, 2nd ed. Boston: Beacon Press, 1967.Find this resource:

Pfeffer, Leo. Religion, State, and the Burger Court. Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books, 1984.Find this resource:

Powell, H. Jefferson. “The Original Understanding of Original Intent.” Harvard Law Review 98 (March 1985): 1317.Find this resource:

Rogers, Melissa. “Federal Funding and Religion-Based Employment Decisions.” In Sanctioning Religion? Politics, Law, and Faith-Based Social Services, eds. David K. Ryden and Jeffrey Polet. Boulder, CO: Lynn Rienner Publishers, 2005.Find this resource:

Sandel, Michael. “Religious Liberty: Freedom of Conscience or Freedom of Choice.” 1989 Utah Law Review (1989): 597.Find this resource:

Sandoz, Ellis. A Government of Laws: Political Theory, Religion, and the American Founding. Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University Press, 1991.Find this resource:

Smith, Michael E. “The Special Place of Religion in the Constitution.” Supreme Court Review (1983): 83.Find this resource:

Smith, Rodney K. Public Prayer and the Constitution: A Case Study in Constitutional Interpretation. Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources, 1987.Find this resource:

Smith, Steven D. Foreordained Failure: The Quest for a Constitutional Principle of Religious Freedom. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.Find this resource:

Smith, Steven D. “The Rise and Fall of Religious Freedom in Constitutional Discourse.” University of Pennsylvania Law Review 140 (1991): 149.Find this resource:

Steinberg, David E. “Religious Exemptions as Affirmative Action.” Emory Law Journal 40 (Winter 1991): 77.Find this resource:

Stokes, Anson Phelps. Church and State in the United States: Historical Development and Contemporary Problems of Religious Freedom under the Constitution. 3 vols. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1950.Find this resource:

Sullivan, Winnifred Fallers. Paying the Words Extra: Religious Discourse in the Supreme Court of the United States. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1994.Find this resource:

Sullivan, Winnifred Fallers. The Impossibility of Religious Freedom. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2005.Find this resource:

(p. 537) Swomley, John M. Religious Liberty and the Secular State. Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books, 1985.Find this resource:

Urofsky, Melvin I. Religious Freedom: Rights and Liberties under the Law. Goleta, CA: ABC Clio, 2002.Find this resource:

Van Alstyne, William. “The Failure of the Religious Freedom Restoration Act Under Section 5 of the Fourteenth Amendment.” Duke Law Journal 46 (1996): 291.Find this resource:

Waldman, Steven. Founding Faith: How Our Founding Fathers Forged a Radical New Approach to Religious Liberty. New York: Random House, 2008.Find this resource:

Walker, J. Brent. Church-State Matters: Fighting for Religious Liberty in Our Nation’s Capital. Macon, GA: Mercer University Press, 2008.Find this resource:

Wilcox, Clyde. “Public Attitudes Toward Church-State Issues: Elite-Mass Differences.” Journal of Church and State 34 (Spring 1992): 259.Find this resource:

Wilson, John F. ed. Church and State in America: A Bibliographic Guide. 2 vols. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1987.Find this resource:

Wilson, John F. and Donald L. Drakeman, eds. Church and State in American History. 3rd ed. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 2003.Find this resource:

Witte, John Jr. Religion and the American Constitution. 2nd ed. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 2005.Find this resource:

Witte, John. “Facts and Fictions About the History of Separation of Church and State.” Journal of Church and State 48 (2006): 15.Find this resource:

Witte, John. “That Serpentine Wall of Separation.” Michigan Law Review 101 (2003): 1869.Find this resource:

Wood, James. E. Jr. “The Secular State.” Journal of Church and State 7 (Spring 1965): 169.Find this resource:

Wood, James E. Jr., ed. Readings on Church and State. Waco, TX: James M. Dawson Institute of Church State Studies, Baylor University, 1989.Find this resource:

Wood, James E. Religion and the State: Essays in Honor of Leo Pfeffer. Waco, TX: Baylor University Press, 1985.Find this resource:

Wood, James E. The First Freedom: Religion and the Bill of Rights. Waco, TX: Baylor University Press, 1990.Find this resource:

Zollman, Carl. “Religious Liberty in the American Law.” Michigan Law Review 17 (1919): 355.Find this resource: