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date: 16 October 2019

(p. 569) Index

(p. 569) Index

Abelard, Peter, 51
abstraction, 493
accident, substance and, 105, 500
accidental change, 89–92, 112n2, 117
accidental compound, 89, 92, 96, 101n21
accidental form, 386 n2
accidental predicate, 380
acquired virtues, 266, 268–70, 295–96. See also specific virtues
cardinal virtues and, 476
infused virtues compared to, 475–76, 483n3, 484nn5–6, 485n19
sin and, 485n11
act and potency, doctrine of, 67–68, 149, 153
action. See also human action
of angels, 179–80
causation and, 108–9
choiceworthiness of, 251, 253n65
generically evil, 259, 259t
generically good, 259, 259t
immanent, 114n43, 235n4, 498
indifferent, 259, 259
law and, 244–47
passion and, 108–9, 420
production and, 279, 331–32, 498
stages of, 333
transient, 235 n4
transitive, 114 n43
of Trinity, 423–25
virtue as principle of, 266–71
action of human being (actio hominis), 199, 228
active power, 106, 113n26
act of being (actus essendi), 153, 155
act of will, 113 n19
actuality
of form, 371
mover in, 128 n24
passive potencies and, 175
actus, of Gifts and virtues, 481–83, 488n49
adjective names, 388 n26
Adoro Te (Aquinas), 20
affirmative precepts, 281
afterlife, 37
agency, 9–10, 199–207
agent
causation and, 105–8
defined, 105
deliberate imagination by, 216
fire, 105, 108
intellect, 315, 493
structure of human action and, 202–3
ultimate end and, 200
aggregates, 360, 367n26
agnosticism, 70–71, 136–37
agreement of proportionality, agreement of proportion and, 500
Albert the Great, 16, 37, 45, 154–55, 256, 421
almsgiving, 298
analogy
artist–artwork, 160–61
of being, 379–85, 389n30
development of thought about, 499–501
in language, 379–85, 389n30, 394–97
Prima Pars and, 396
psychological, 423
Angelic Doctor (Doctor Angelicus)
in Baroque period, 520–23
Neo-Thomists and, 523–26
renaissance of, 518–20
rise to authority, 515–18
angels
action of, 179–80
cognition of, 365
emotions and, 224 n7
prayer to, 474 n7
species of, 358
time of, 181–82
anger, 174, 211, 220–21
animal
emotion, 224 n6
happiness of, 232, 234, 235n7
participation in, 82
sensory powers of, 314
soul of, 357–58
annihilation, 86
anonymous author, erring conscience and, 259–60
Anscombe, Elizabeth, 277
Anselm of Canterbury, 436–41
appetible object, 248–49
appetite
cognition and, 212–16
goodness and, 149
intellective, 212
practical reason and, 277
rational, 248–49
sensitive, 209–17, 219–20, 222
(p. 570) appetitive powers, 210, 328
appetitive soul, 502–3
Aquinas, Thomas. See also Angelic Doctor; Commentary on the Book of Sentences; Common Doctor; Quaestiones disputatae de veritate; Summa contra Gentiles; Summa theologiae
Adoro Te by, 20
on agency, 10, 199–207
Albert the Great and, 16, 37, 45, 154–55, 256, 421
Augustine and, 4, 15, 20, 23, 46–48, 50, 56, 192, 251, 279, 296, 303, 401, 442
Averroës and, 15, 26, 35–37, 39, 42n16, 43n19, 67, 78, 491, 514, 517
Avicenna and, 4, 35, 39, 56, 65–70
on being, 77–82
Boethius and, 48–50, 54n16, 78, 81–82, 138–39, 178–79
canonized as saint, 518
Catena aurea by, 20, 24
on causation, 104–11
change theory of, 85–94, 99–100
Commentary on Aristotle's Ethics by, 279
Compendium theologiae by, 19, 175, 437–39
on conscience, 255–62
Contra doctrinam retrahentium a religione by, 17
Contra impugnantes Dei cultum et religionem by, 17
Contra retrahentes by, 26
De aeternitate mundi by, 26
De ente et essentia by, 17, 80–81, 521
De perfectione spiritualis vitae by, 17, 26
De Potentia by, 24–25, 492, 498
De principiis naturae by, 17, 104–5
De substantiis separatis by, 27, 57–59
De ueritate by, 17–18, 25
De unitate intellectus contra averroistas by, 26
development of thought of, 491–503
Disputed Questions and, 17–18, 24–25, 365n3, 367n22
as Doctor Communis, 511–14
early years, 15–16
eclecticism avoided by, 4
on emotions, 209–23
on evil, 401–12
Expositio libri Boetii De ebdomadibus by, 18
on faith, 337–45
on form, 68, 80, 85–100, 109–10
on freedom, 9–10, 199–207
on God's eternality, 173–84
on God's goodness, 147–55, 165, 168–69
on God's immutability, 173–84, 470–71
on God's impassibility, 173–84
on God's knowledge, 158–70
on God's omnipotence, 187–94
on God's simplicity, 135–43
on happiness, 37, 227–35
on human knowledge, 311–23
on incarnation, 428–33
individuation theory of, 85, 94–100
influence of, 511–26
influences on, 4, 9, 15–16, 20, 40–41
Islamic authors and, 4, 65–72
Jewish authors and, 4, 65–72, 514
on language, 371–86, 390–97
last years of, 27–28
in Latin-Christian tradition, 45–52
on law, 238–51
Lectura super Epistolam Pauli Apostoli ad Hebraeos by, 443
Lectura super Epistolam Pauli Apostoli ad Romanos by, 438
on matter, 68, 80, 85–100
on mind and human nature, 349–65
in Naples, 15–16, 27–28
Neoplatonism and, 34, 55–62
in Orvieto, 19–21
in Paris, 16–18, 25–27
philosophical theology of, 6–7
Plato and, 55–62, 152–53, 325n22
on practical reasoning, 228, 276–83, 334
on prayer, 467–73
on providence, 401–12
Quaestiones disputatae de malo by, 205, 208n22, 272, 492
in Rome, 20–25
on sacraments, 448–56
on saving work of Christ, 436–44
scale of value of, 402–4
scholastic tradition and, 50–51
Scriptum super libros Sententiarum by, 209
Sententia Libri De anima by, 33–35, 37, 365n3
Sententia Libri Ethicorum by, 36–37
Sententia super Metaphysicam by, 37–39
Sententia super Physicam by, 35–36, 38
On Separate Substances by, 27, 57–59
Super Boetium De Trinitate by, 18, 23
Super De Causis by, 27
synthesis by, 45
Thomists and, 515–26
on Trinity, 8, 25, 418–25
on vices, 265–73, 282
voice of, 236n11
Aristotle. See also Metaphysics; Nicomachean Ethics; Posterior Analytics
act and potency doctrine of, 67–68, 149, 153
(p. 571) Augustine and, 46–47
Categories by, 33, 57, 378
Christianity reconciled with, 349
contingency defined by, 67
De anima by, 33–35, 47, 276, 349
Ethics by, 16
On Interpretation by, 33, 376, 386n3
Islamic authors and, 66–67
Organon by, 33–34
Peri Hermeneias by, 469
Physics by, 35–36, 38, 117
Plato correcting, 58–62
revival of, 522, 530n56
semantic triangle of, 373
sententiae on works of, 33–39, 41
Summa theologiae and, 39–40
theology and, 33
on virtues, 266, 273n6, 274n33, 327–34, 475–76, 483n2
on wisdom, 37–39, 329–30
art
Augustine on, 279
defined, 331
as intellectual virtue, 328, 330–32
liberal, 331
mechanical, 331
nature imitated by, 281
as power, 106–7
practical knowledge and, 278
productive, 106
prudence above, 279–80
artifacts, 367 n26
artist–artwork analogy, 160–61
atemporal duration, 178
attitude, 174
Augustine
Aquinas and, 4, 15, 20, 23, 46–48, 50, 56, 192, 251, 279, 296, 303, 401, 442
Aristotle and, 46–47
on art, 279
on evil, 401–2
Exposition on the Psalms by, 441
On the Gift of Perseverance by, 492
in Latin-Christian tradition, 46–47
On the Predestination of the Saints by, 492
sin defined by, 260
authority
Angelic Doctor's rise to, 515–18
epistemic source from, 341
of scripture, 4, 419, 428
autism, 479–80, 483, 487nn39–40
Averroës
Aquinas and, 15, 26, 35–37, 39, 42n16, 43n19, 67, 78, 491, 514, 517
Metaphysics and, 78
aversion, 220–21
Avicenna (Ibn Sina)
Aquinas and, 4, 35, 39, 56, 65–70
contingency defined by, 67
First Philosophy by, 39
al-Shifa by, 66
Bacon, Francis, 523, 530n68
Báñez, Dominic, 522
Baptism, 451–52
bare particular, 90, 92, 101n11
Baroque period, 520–23
beatific vision, 232, 236n19, 237n20, 250
beatitude (beatitudo)
capitalized, 485 n14
community of, 296–97
defined, 476–77
faith and, 343
Fruits, Gifts and, 476–77, 483, 485n18
happiness as, 231–34, 236n15, 237n20, 330
hungering and thirsting for justice as, 476, 485n16
being
act of, 153, 155
analogy of, 379–85, 389n30
Aquinas on, 77–82
as being, 68, 77–78
defined, 77
division and multiplication of, 78–79
existence, essence and, 79–81
form influencing, 110–11
genuine, 360
God giving, 166
goodness and, 154, 344
limits of, 178
matter influencing, 110–11
metaphysics and, 77–78
mobile, 35–36
modes of, 79
participation and, 81–82
sacraments and, 454
believing
of demons, 305 n13
faith and, 289
scientia and, 317
voluntary control over, 346 n11
beneficence, 298–99
benevolence, 221
Benignity, as Fruit, 481, 488n57
Berengar of Tours, 450
biological perspective, in philosophy of mind and human nature, 348–50
Bochenski, I. M., 117
bodies
Body of Christ, 439, 441–44, 445n45
importance of, 363
as objects, 229–30
in philosophy of mind and human nature, 350–51, 354–65
soul related to, 350–51, 354–65, 368n33, 497
bodily defects, 430–31
bodily pleasures, 234
bodily well-being, 234
(p. 572) Boethius
Aquinas and, 48–50, 54n16, 78, 81–82, 138–39, 178–79
cognition and, 50
De hebdomadibus by, 48–49, 81, 138–39
De Trinitate by, 48–49, 78
on eternity, 178–79
in Latin-Christian tradition, 48–50
metaphysics and, 48–49
Opuscula Sacra by, 48, 50
person defined by, 420, 430
theology and, 48–49
Bonaventure, 46, 187, 256–57, 259–61
In Sent. by, 259, 260t
on Trinity, 418–19, 421–22
Boyle, John F., 21
Boyle, L., 20
bronze statue example
of causation, 104–7, 109
form and, 85–87, 89, 91, 352
matter of, 85–87, 89, 91
Brunet, Eli, 16
Burrell, David, 136
Byzantines, Doctor Communis among, 513–14
Cajetan, Thomas de Vio, 222, 503, 521
The Cambridge Companion to Aquinas (Stump and Kretzmann), 8–9
Capreolus, John, 519
cardinal virtues, 236n13, 267–72, 329, 476
caritas (friendship with God), 477–81, 484n9, 488n51
categorematic terms, 375–76, 387n12
Categories (Aristotle), 33, 57, 378
Catena aurea (Aquinas), 20, 24
causa, 104
causal determinism, 204–5
causal impassivity, 174–75
causality, instrumental, 453–55
causal love, God's, 287
causal relata, 109–10
causation
action and, 108–9
agents and, 105–8
Aquinas on, 104–11
bronze statue example of, 104–7, 109
causal relata, 109–10
change and, 104–5
contemporary accounts of, 111
contradictions and, 192
counterfactuals and, 111
by creatures, 472
efficient, 105, 109–11, 114n49, 119–20, 454
ends and, 107–8
exemplar, 162
final, 111
First Cause, 206
in Fourth Way, 123
freedom and, 204–7
generic notion of, 110–11
highest good and, 150–51
human action and, 204–7
inclinations and, 107–8, 113n24
instrumental, 453–55
through mechanical impact, 364
passion and, 106, 108–9
patients and, 105–6
powers and, 106–7, 472
prayer and, 471–72
as principle, 110
removal of, 120
sacraments and, 449, 451–56
signification and, 445 n11
transmutation and, 109–10
virtues and, 265
certainty (certitudo), 317, 325n34, 326n42
Champion Argument, 218–19
change
accidental, 89–92, 112n2, 117
Aquinas's theory of, 85–94, 99–100
causation and, 104–5
constitution and, 460
creation and, 86
in creatures, 167
extrinsic, 100n3, 176
form and, 85–94
in God, 167, 176, 183
intrinsic, 100n3, 176
many-one, 94
one-many, 94
one-one, 94
as passion, 106
of past, 192–93
qualitative, 117
quantitative, 117
substantial, 89–92, 112n2
types of, 89–94
charity
acts or effects of, 298–99
connection of, 300
degrees of, 297
faith and, 292–93, 339
as form of virtues, 299
as friendship, 296
joy and, 298–99
loss of, 301
love of, 296–98
making satisfaction and, 439
moral virtues and, 300–301
obeying and, 502
objects of, 296–98
peace and, 298–99
after resurrection, 503
as theological virtue, 287, 295–303, 343
vices opposed to, 298–99
Chastity, as Fruit, 481
Chauvet, L.-M., 453–54
(p. 573) Chenu, Marie-Dominique, 47
choice
actions and, 251, 253n65
freedom of, 163, 166–68, 471–72
morally evil, 168
choiceworthiness, 251, 253n65
Christ. See also incarnation; Son
Body of, 439, 441–44, 445n45
Council of Chalcedon defining, 429
death of, 437–42, 445n46, 503
defects of, 430–31
defined, 429, 431
faith about, 291–92
gift of self from, 440
humanity of, 430–33, 434n22, 438
knowledge possessed by, 430, 493–97, 505n18
perfections of, 431
priesthood of, 442–44, 445nn5960
as sacrament of salvation, 437–38
sacrifice of, 438, 442–44, 447n66
saving work of, 436–44
sorrow of, 173–74
suffering of, 436–37, 440–42, 444n4, 445n45
Christian belief. See faith
Christianity. See also Latin-Christian tradition
Aristotle reconciled with, 349
belief, beyond scope of reason, 126 n3
practice, prayer and, 473
Trinity at heart of, 418
Christology, 24, 302–3
Chrysostom, John, 20
Church, as Body of Christ, 439, 441–44, 445n45
citizen, good, 243
coercion, 205–6, 253n43
cognition
acquisition of, 315–16
of angels, 365
appetite and, 212–16
Boethius and, 50
conscience and, 262
defined, 345 n4
emotion and, 212–17
false, 311
freedom and, 366 n15
Gifts and, 487 n27
God's, 160, 385
innate, 315–16, 325n22
intellective, 212, 223, 493–97
knowledge compared to, 311
natural, 316
perception and, 223, 313, 316
plasticity of, 355
reason related to, 339–40
sensitive, 212–13, 222
sensory, 321, 493–97, 506n24
wisdom and, 37–38
cognitive power, 215
cognitive voluntarism, 346 n11
command (praecipere, imperare), 333
Commedia (Dante), 512–13
commentaries, attention paid to, 17, 53n3
Commentary on Aristotle's Ethics (Aquinas), 279
Commentary on the Book of Sentences (Aquinas)
development of thought and, 492, 494–95, 497, 499–502, 507n29
writing of, 16, 18–22, 45, 51
Common Doctor (Doctor Communis)
among Byzantines, 513–14
among people, 512–13
among rabbis, 514
common good
of community, 238–44
defined, 238–44
intrinsic and extrinsic, 246
law and, 238–44, 246, 251, 254n77
perfections and, 246
will and, 242–43
common sense, 359
communia, 36
communion, 443
community
of beatitude, 296–97
common good of, 238–44
compassion, 170
Compendium theologiae (CT) (Aquinas), 19, 175, 437–39
complete good, will attracted by, 343–44
compliance, with law, 244, 253n43
composite theory, 463, 465n12, 465n17
comprehension, 160
concept
categorematic, 375–76, 387n12
defined, 372–73
development of thought about, 498, 505n11
of faith, 337–45
in semantic triangle, 373
syncategorematic, 376, 387n12
universal, intellect forming, 355–56
concrete individual and properties, 88–89
concupiscible emotions, 209, 218–21
conditional necessity, 166
confidence, 220–21
connection, of virtues, 300
conscience
acting against, as evil, 260
Aquinas on, 255–62
cognitive dimension of, 262
fallibility of, 257–58
moral obligation and, 259–62
prudence and, 258
sexual intercourse and, 257–58
synderesis and, 255–62
consensus (consent), 202
conservation, 110, 129n41
consilium (investigation of means by which end may be attained), 202
consolation, suffering and, 409–12, 415n44
(p. 574) Constantinople, 513–14
constitution, 460–61
contemplative life, 330
Continency, as Fruit, 481
contingency, 166–67
defined, 67
of events, knowledge of, 162–63
of facts, 318
God and, 143, 207
possibility and, 190
contradictions, 191–93, 195n14
Contra doctrinam retrahentium a religione (Aquinas), 17
Contra impugnantes Dei cultum et religionem (Aquinas), 17
Contra retrahentes (Aquinas), 26
Conway, David, 122
copula, 376–79, 387n13
Correctorium Fratris Thomae (A Correctory of Brother Thomas) (de la Mare), 516
corruption, 87, 100n5, 121
Council of Chalcedon, 429, 492
Council of Trent, 520, 522
Council of Vienne, 518
Counsel, Gift of, 283, 477–78, 488n53
counterfactuals, causation and, 111
Courage, Gift of, 476–78, 485n14, 485n16, 487n29
Courtesis, George, 513–14
covetous love, 221
creation, 68–72, 162
change and, 86
development of thought about, 502
as efficient causation, 110
God seeing, 163
gratuitous, 169
order of, 166
by Trinity, 423–25
Creator, God as, 469–71
creatures
analogy of being and, 382–85
causal powers of, 472
change in, 167
dueness given to, 170
God similar to, 499–501
God's willing of, 166–68
law and, 244–47
love in, 168
nonrational, 244–47
perfections of, 158–61
words applied to, 394
credibility arguments, 341–42
Crockaert, Peter, 520
Cross, as central event in salvation, 436–37, 439
Cur Deus Homo (Anselm of Canterbury), 438–39, 441
Cydones, Demetrius, 513
Dante Alighieri, 482, 512–13
Darwinism, 125
De aeternitate mundi (Aquinas), 26
De anima (Aristotle), 33–35, 47, 276, 349
death, of Christ, 437–42, 445n46, 503
De diuinis nominibus (Pseudo-Dionysius), 25, 147
De ente et essentia (DEE) (Aquinas), 17, 80–81, 521
De fallaciis, 16
De hebdomadibus (Boethius), 48–49, 81, 138–39
de la Mare, William, 516
deliberation, 333
delight, 220–21
demon possession, 59–60
demons, believing of, 305 n13
denominating form, 387 n15
De Nys, Martin, 122
De Oratione (Origen), 471
dependence
existential, 99, 102n29
origins and, 102 n36
De perfectione spiritualis vitae (Aquinas), 17, 26
De Potentia (Aquinas), 24–25, 492, 498
De principiis naturae (Aquinas), 17, 104–5
De propositionibus modalibus, 16
Descartes, René, 229, 235n10, 351–52, 522–23
designated matter, 95–96
desire
aversion and, 220–21
for happiness, 229
natural law and, 250–51
despair
hope and, 220–21, 294
as vice, 294
De substantiis separatis (Aquinas), 27, 57–59
determinate dimensions, 96–99, 103n37, 459
determinism, 204–6
De Trinitate (Boethius), 48–49, 78
De ueritate (Aquinas), 17–18, 25
De unitate intellectus contra averroistas (Aquinas), 26
De Wulf, Maurice, 47
difference, principle of, 94–95
dimensive quantities, 96
diminishing qualifications, 389 n28
Dionysian Corpus, 55–56
Dionysius, 55, 58–59, 61
Disputed Question on the Soul (QDA) (Aquinas), 365n3, 367n22
Disputed Questions (disputare), 17–18, 24–25, 365n3, 367n22
distress, 220–21
distributive justice, 170
divine illumination, in Summa theologiae, 46
divine immutability. See immutability
divine law, 245, 260, 260t, 501
divine names, 158
(p. 575) The Divine Names (Dionysius), 55, 58–59
divine perfection
knowledge as, 158–61
will as, 158, 164–66
divine person
missions of, 425
as subsistent relation, 419–21, 434n7
divine science, 78
divine simplicity
doctrine of, 135–43
God's knowledge and, 160
quantum metaphysics and, 139–41
divine testimony, faith and, 341–43
division, of being, 78–79
Doctor Angelicus. See Angelic Doctor
Doctor Communis. See Common Doctor
doctrine of divine immutability (DDI), 177, 181, 183
doctrine of mean, 272
documentation, concern for, 16
Dominicans. See Order of Preachers
Donagan, Alan, 203
dualism, 348, 350, 462
dueness, given to creatures, 170
Duns Scotus, John, 312, 334
duration, 178, 185n36, 302–3
earthly goods, 231
Eastern Church, 526 n7
efficient causation, 105, 109–11, 114n49, 454
creation as, 110
way from, 119–20
Elders, Leo, 136
electio, 202
electrons, inclination of, 107–8
Elements of Theology (Proclus), 55–56, 58–59, 491
emotions (passiones animae). See also specific emotions
angels and, 224 n7
animal, 224 n6
Aquinas on, 209–23
cognition and, 212–17
concupiscible, 209, 218–21
contemporary theories of, 222–23
defined, 210
God and, 224 n7
irascible, 209, 218–21, 225n25
as motion, 211–12
nature of, 210–12
as objectual, 215
passivity of, 211
perceptions and, 223
in Quaestiones disputatae de veritate, 209
in Scriptum super libros Sententiarum, 209
in Summa theologiae, 209, 221
taxonomy of, 218–22
types of, 209
volition and, 212–17
ends, causation and, 107–8
enemy, love of charity and, 297
entitative perfections, 158
enuntiabile, 378–80
envy, 299
epistemic labor, division of, 345
epistemic rationality, 344
equivocal/equivocally, 393–94
Erasmus, Desiderius, 529 n54
erring conscience, 259–62, 259t–261t
esse, 137–43, 144n16, 149, 151–55. See also existence
Báñez on, 522
knowledge, will and, 151, 160, 162, 165–66, 169
in procession doctrine, 420
essence
being and, 79–81
defined, 367n27, 430
as definition of something, 429–30
existence distinct from, 67–68, 79–81
goodness and, 151–52
in Summa contra Gentiles, 81
eternal law, 245–51, 253n43
eternity
Boethius on, 178–79
defined, 178
doctrine of, 141–42
God and, 141–42, 173–84
in Summa contra Gentiles, 183, 186n80
in Summa theologiae, 178–79
Ethics (Aristotle), 16
euboulia, 333–34
Eucharist
as sacrament, 443–44, 447n66, 450–51
Word in, 444
evil
acting against conscience as, 260
Aquinas on, 401–12
Augustine on, 401–2
G. E. Moore shift and, 416 n52
generically evil action, 259, 259t
law and, 250–51
morally evil choices, 168
proneness to, 406
providence and, 401–12
sensible, 219–20, 224n18
sorrow and, 173–74
suffering from, 402–12
executive power, 217
exemplar causes, 162
existence
being and, 79–81
defined, 82
essence distinct from, 67–68, 79–81
(p. 576) existential dependence, 99, 102n29
Expositio libri Boetii De ebdomadibus (Aquinas), 18
Exposition on the Psalms (Augustine), 441
expositions, 33
exterior act, of faith, 338–39
external senses, 359
extrinsic changes, 100n3, 176
extrinsic common good, 246
extrinsic good, 239
faith
as acceptance, 428
affirmation by, 290–92
Aquinas's conception of, 337–45
beatitude and, 343
believing and, 289
charity and, 292–93, 339
about Christ, 291–92
cognitive voluntarism and, 346 n11
complete good and, 343–44
connection of, 300
defined, 337
divine testimony and, 341–43
exterior act of, 338–39
formed, 292–93, 301
as Fruit, 481
happiness and, 337–38
interior act of, 338–39
loss of, 301–2
object of, 337–39, 346nn6–7
person of, 405, 414n22
rationality of, 341–44
reason related to, 337–45
revelation and, 418
science dealing with, 317, 340–41
as theological virtue, 287–93, 300–303, 339–40, 343–45
Trinity at heart of, 418
unformed, 292–93, 301
will related to, 340, 343–44
false cognition, 311
false worship, 449
fame, 234
al-Farabi, 65–68
Father, properties and names of, 421–23. See also Trinity
fear, 213–17
confidence and, 220–21
filial, 487 n30
Gift of, 477–78, 487n30
of opposite, 317–20
servile, 487 n30
felicitas, 231–33
felicity, 330
Fifth Way, 124–25
filial fear, 487 n30
filiation, 421
final causation, 111
fire, as agent, 105, 108
First Cause, 206
first-personal habitus, 480
First Philosophy (Avicenna), 39
First Way, 116–20, 175–76
Five Ways
defined, 115–16
Fifth, 124–25
Fourth, 123–24
Second, 119–20, 122, 129n36
Summa contra Gentiles and, 116
Third, 121–22, 180
flourishing, of human beings, 403, 405–7, 412, 413n15
flow, of now, 181–82
Flying Man, 35
forgiveness, 440, 443
form. See also substantial form
accidental, 386 n2
actuality of, 371
Aquinas on, 68, 80, 85–100, 109–10
being influenced by, 110–11
bronze statue example of, 85–87, 89, 91, 352
change and, 85–94
charity as form of virtues, 299
defined, 351–52, 386n2
denominating, 387 n15
human, 352
of human beings, 352
individualized, 371–72
individuation and, 85–100
inherence of, 377
matter and, 68, 80, 85–100, 112n2, 351, 366n9, 459
soul as, 353, 361–62, 367n22, 458–60
types of, 89–94
formed faith, 292–93, 301
Fourth Way, 123–24
Fox, Rory, 179–80, 185n36
fraternal correction, 298
freedom
agency and, 9–10, 199–207
Aquinas on, 9–10, 199–207
of choice, 163, 166–68, 471–72
cognition and, 366 n15
determinism incompatible with, 204–6
hell and, 403
human action and, 204–7
law and, 247–51
necessitation, causation and, 204–7
prayer and, 471–72
friendly love, 221
friendship
charity as, 296
with God, 477–81, 484n9, 488n51
fruitio (enjoyment), 202–3, 208n10
Fruits, of Holy Spirit
Beatitudes and, 476–77, 483, 485n18
capitalized, 485 n14
defined, 476–77, 480–81
Gifts and, 476–83, 485n18
habitus and, 481
future contingent events, knowledge of, 162–63
G. E. Moore shift, 416 n52
Geach, Peter, 118–19, 396, 526
generation, 87, 100n5, 121
generically evil action, 259, 259t
generically good action, 259, 259t
generic notion of causation, 110–11
Gennadius II Scholarius, 514
genuine being, 360
gifts. See also specific gifts
actus of, 481–83, 488n49
Beatitudes and, 476–77, 483, 485n18
capitalization of, 485 n14
cognition and, 487 n27
defined, 476–77
Fruits and, 476–83, 485n18
function of, 477–78, 482–83, 486n26
of Holy Spirit, 269, 272, 274n33, 329–30, 423, 475–83
intellectual virtues as, 483 n4
movement based on, 477–79
Original Sin and, 368 n34
salvation and, 270, 477
of self, from Christ, 440
virtues distinguished from, 269, 329–30
Giles of Rome, 491
Gilson, Étienne, 47, 83n2, 525
giving, will as, 165
glory, 234
gnome, 333
God. See also Trinity
agnosticism about, 136–37
analogy of being and, 382–85
attributes of, 115
being given by, 166
causation by, 206–7, 287, 468–69, 486n25
changes in, 167, 176, 183
cognition of, 160, 385
contingency and, 143, 207
creation seen by, 163
as Creator, 469–71
creatures similar to, 499–501
emotions and, 224 n7
essence of, 135–39, 151–53, 392
eternal law and, 248
eternity and, 141–42, 173–84
existence of, 116–25, 136–43, 144n16, 192, 383–84, 392
friendship with, 477–81, 484n9, 488n51
goodness of, 147–55, 165, 168–69
human terms used in speaking of, 39–40
immutability of, 173–84, 470–71
impassibility of, 173–84
joy in, 168–69
justice of, 169–70
knowledge about, 62, 140–41, 321, 391–92
knowledge of, 158–70
language and, 391–97
love in, 168–69, 174
mercy of, 169–70
nature of, prayer and, 468–69
as object of faith, 337–39, 346nn6–7
omnipotent, 187–94
omnipresent, 409–10
perfections and, 71–72, 151, 158–61, 164–66
simplicity of, 135–43
strength of, 187–88
theological virtues and, 287–304
timelessness of, 180–84
Treatise on, 115
union with, 232, 406–7, 414n25, 441, 483
uniqueness of, 69
good. See also common good
complete, will attracted by, 343–44
extrinsic, 239
generically good action, 259, 259t
greatest, 403
highest, 150–51
intrinsic, 239
sensible, 219–20, 224n18
of sufferer, 404–5
goodness
appetite and, 149
Aquinas on, 147–55, 165, 168–69
being and, 154, 344
defined, 147–50, 153
essence and, 151–52
as Fruit, 481
happiness and, 227
perfection and, 149
Quaestiones disputatae de veritate on, 149–50, 153–54
Summa theologiae on, 147–55
will and, 165
governance, way from, 124–25
grace
development of thought about, 501–2, 509n46
life of, 424
necessity of, 501–2
sacraments causing, 454
gradation, way from, 123–24
greatest good, 403
Gregory the Great, 15, 20
grief, 212, 216
growth, 210
Guide of the Perplexed (Maimonides), 68, 514
(p. 578) habitual knowledge, 257
habitus
first-personal, 480
Fruit and, 481
second-personal, 480–81, 483
virtues as, 265–66, 269–72, 273n2
happiness
of animals, 232, 234, 235n7
Aquinas on, 37, 227–35
as beatitudo, 231–34, 236n15, 237n20, 330
defined, 37, 227, 229, 231
desire for, 229
faith and, 337–38
as felicitas, 231–33
goodness and, 227
human action and, 228–29
imperfect, 37
pleasure and, 229, 234, 235n7
ultimate, 233–34, 237n20
virtues and, 236n13, 268
hate, 220–21, 299
Hause, Jeffrey, 204, 476, 485n10
healing, 408
heaven
outermost, 182
traffic from hell to, 413 n13
Heidegger, Martin, 453–54
hell, 413 n9
freedom and, 403
traffic from heaven to, 413 n13
Henry of Ghent, 312
Henry of Gorkum, 519
heresy, 293
highest good, 150–51
Hillgarth, Jocelyn, 520
history, of philosophy, 57–58
Hobbes, Thomas, 524
Hobson, Peter, 479
Holy Spirit. See also Fruits, of Holy Spirit; Trinity
Eastern Church on, 526n7
Gifts of, 269, 272, 274n33, 329–30, 423, 475–83
missions of, 424–25
properties and names of, 421–23
in Summa theologiae, 422
honors, 234
hope
connection of, 300
despair and, 220–21, 294
loss of, 301
objects of, 294, 302–3
as theological virtue, 287, 293–95, 300–304, 343
Hugh of St.-Victor, 51
human action (actus humanus)
action of human being contrasted with, 199, 228
causation and, 204–7
defined, 199, 228
end of, 199–202
freedom and, 204–7
happiness and, 228–29
intellectualism and, 203–4
necessitation and, 204–7
structure of, 202–3
voluntarism and, 203–4
human beings
action of, 199, 228
flourishing, 403, 405–7, 412, 413n15
form of, 352
as material composite, 463, 465n12
substance of, 360–62
humanism, 521–22
humanity
of Christ, 430–33, 434n22, 438
defined, 101 n12
justice and mercy of, 169
of Socrates, 432, 434n20
zygotehood and, 91, 93
humanizing nature, 432–33
human knowledge
acquisition of, 313–16
Aquinas on, 311–23
about God, 62, 140–41, 321, 391–92
limits of, 320–23
Metaphysics and, 313
perfection and, 319
questions about, 311, 322
human law, 246–47, 251
human terms, in speaking of God, 39–40
Hume, David, 524
hylomorphic view, 85–88, 229, 351–52, 363, 497
Ibn Sina. See Avicenna
identity, 460–61
id quod est, 137–41, 143
Ignatius of Loyola, 522
ignorance, of moral law, 261
ill-will, 221
Image, 422
imagination
deliberate, 216–17
power of, 359
immanent action, 114n43, 235n4, 498
immaterial objects, matter and, 89
immutability
DDI, 177, 181, 183
impassibility
causal impassivity and, 174–75
God's, 173–84
impassivity, causal, 174–75
impeccability, 193–94
imperium (intellect's command), 202–3, 280
imposition, in theory of language, 372–76
impotence, 224 n22
impulsion, principle of, 420
(p. 579) incarnation
Aquinas on, 428–33
basic claims about, 429–31
Christ's humanity and, 430–33
as properly theological problem, 428–29
sacraments linked to, 456
inclinations
causation and, 107–8, 113n24
natural law and, 250
powers distinct from, 113 n26
Summa theologiae and, 107–8
will as, 205–6
incontinent, 283
Independent Operation Premise (IOP), 353–56, 358
indeterminate dimensions, 459
indifferent action, 259, 259t
individuality, 97–99
individualized forms, 371–72
individuation
Aquinas's theory of, 85, 94–100
form and, 85–100
individuality and, 97–99
matter and, 85–100, 101n17, 101n21, 102n29, 102n36
quantity and, 97–99
inferential knowledge, 161
inferior reason, 258, 263n18
infused virtues, 266, 268–70, 340. See also specific virtues
acquired virtues compared to, 475–76, 483n3, 484nn5–6, 485n19
caritas infusing together, 484n9
importance of, 485n11
inherence theory, 366–77
innascibility, 421–22
innate cognition, 315–16, 325n22
innateness, arguments against, 315–16, 325n22
Commentaria in quatuor libros sententiarum (Bonaventure), 259, 260t
instrumental causality, 453–55
intellect
actualized, 506 n24
agent, 315, 493
command of, 202–3, 280
defined, 324 n21
importance of, 349
judgment and, 77
operations of, 77
powers of, 359
in production of act, 279
ratio in, 374
reason contrasted with, 276–77
sensation and, 313–15, 367n16
structure of human action and, 203–4
of Trinity, 413 n7
universal concepts formed by, 355–56
veracity of, 323
will and, 203–4, 413n12
intellective appetite, 212
intellective cognition, 212, 223, 493–97
intellective soul, 210
intellectualism, 203–4
intellectual virtues
Aristotle on, 327–34
defined, 328
as Gifts, 483 n4
habits compared to, 328
in Metaphysics, 329–31
moral virtues contrasted with, 271
in Nicomachean Ethics, 327, 329–30
prudence, 327–34
reason perfected by, 328
science, 328, 330
understanding, 256, 328, 331
wisdom, 328–30
intentio, 202–3, 214–15, 224n18
intention, 333
Interference Argument, 218
interior act, of faith, 338–39
interminable life, 178
internal senses, 359, 364
interpersonal resonance, 482–83
intrinsic change, 100n3, 176
intrinsic common good, 246
intrinsic good, 239
invisible mission, 425
involuntary simpliciter, 405–6
irascible emotions, 209, 218–21, 225n25
Islamic authors. See also Avicenna
Aquinas and, 4, 65–72
Aristotle and, 66–67
contributions of, 65
al-Farabi, 65–68
initial philosophical theology of, 66
Metaphysics and, 66–67
Plato and, 66
iudicium (judgment of best means), 202–4
Jerome, 255
Jesuits, 522
Jesus. See Christ
Jewish authors. See also Maimonides, Moses
Aquinas and, 4, 65–72, 514
Doctor Communis among, 514
Job, 407
John Damascene, 279, 438
John of Freiburg, 512
(p. 580) John of St. Thomas, 522
joint attention, 478–79
joy
charity and, 298–99
as Fruit, 481
God's, 168–69
passion, 168
judges, 242, 254n77
judgment, intellect and, 77
justice
acquired, 483 n4
distributive, 170
God's, 169–70
of humanity, 169
hungering and thirsting for, 476, 485n16
infused, 483 n4
restoration of order of, 439–40
as virtue, 328
will and, 169–70
justification, 406–7
Kanner, Leo, 480
Kant, Immanuel, 262
Kenny, Anthony, 344–45, 526
Kent, Bonnie, 476
Kerr, Fergus, 525
Kilwardby, Robert, 46, 516
Knapwell, Richard, 517
Knasas, John, 525
knowledge. See also human knowledge
Christ's, 430, 493–97, 505n18
cognition compared to, 311
of contingent facts, 318
defined, 159, 170n5
as divine ideas of created things, 162
as divine perfection, 158–61
esse and, 151, 160, 162, 165–66, 169
of future contingent events, 162–63
Gift of, 477–78
about God, 62, 140–41, 321, 391–92
God's, 158–70
habitual, 257
inferential, 161
as mental state, 311
observational, 176
as operative perfection, 158
practical, 277–79
science and, 311–12, 317–20
speculative, 278
in Summa theologiae, 159–60
of Trinity, 322
Kretzmann, Norman, 8–9, 174
language, theory of
analogy in, 379–85, 389n30, 394–97
Aquinas on, 371–86, 390–97
concepts in, 372–73
copula in, 376–79, 387n13
enuntiabile in, 378–80
God and, 391–97
imposition in, 372–76
limits of, 390–97
mental content in, 373–74
perfection and, 394–95
predication in, 371–84
ratio in, 373–75, 386n9
rejected answers and, 392–93
signification in, 372–76, 381
tensed, 391
univocal and equivocal use of words in, 393–94
large-scale suffering, 412
Latin-Christian tradition
Aquinas in, 45–52
Augustine in, 46–47
Boethius in, 48–50
law. See also natural law
action and, 244–47
Aquinas on, 238–51
common good and, 238–44, 246, 251, 254n77
compliance with, 244, 253n43
defined, 244
divine, 245, 260, 260t, 501
eternal, 245–51, 253n43
evil and, 250–51
freedom and, 247–51
human, 246–47, 251
judges and, 242, 254n77
moral, 261
nonrational creatures and, 244–47
Old Law, 450
will and, 238, 249–50
lawfulness, 244
learning, teaching and, 108–9, 113n30
Lectura super Epistolam Pauli Apostoli ad Hebraeos (In Heb) (Aquinas), 443
Lectura super Epistolam Pauli Apostoli ad Romanos (In Rom) (Aquinas), 438
legal directives, externally imposed, 247
Leibniz, Gottfried, 523–24
Leonine Commission, 531 n78
liberal arts, 331
Liber de causis, 55–59, 62
libertarians, 206, 348
light, 137, 140, 145n36
local motion, 117
Locke, John, 524
logical connectives, 376
logical participation, 82
Lombard, Peter, 16, 45, 51, 191, 266, 303, 519
Long-suffering, as Fruit, 476, 481
Lord's Supper, 442–44
love
causal, 287
of charity, 296–98
covetous, 221
in creatures, 168
(p. 581) friendly, 221
in God, 168–69, 174
hate and, 220–21, 299
of relatives, 298
self-love, 268
will and, 168–69, 174
Word and, 419–20, 422–23
Luther, Martin, 295, 521
MacDonald, Scott, 116–17, 201
magic, 59–60
Maimonides, Moses, 4, 68–72, 491
agnosticism and, 137
Guide of the Perplexed by, 68, 514
revelation and, 68
many-one change, 94
Maritain, Jacques, 525
marriage, 456 n24
Master Martin, 15
Masters, 17–18, 33–35
material composite, human being as, 463, 465n12
materialism, 348, 352
materiality, of matter, 459
matter. See also prime matter
Aquinas on, 68, 80, 85–100
being influenced by, 110–11
bronze statue example of, 85–87, 89, 91
change and, 85–94
designated, 95–96
form and, 68, 80, 85–100, 112n2, 351, 366n9, 459
immaterial objects and, 89
individuation and, 85–100, 101n17, 101n21, 102n29, 102n36
materiality of, 459
types of, 89–94
uses of, 112 n2
Maximus Planudes, 513
McCabe, Herbert, 230, 236n11, 397n8
McInerny, Ralph, 50
mean, doctrine of, 272
means, deliberation about, 280
mechanical arts, 331
Medina, Bartholomew of, 522
Meekness, as Fruit, 481
memory, 359, 465n11
mental content, 373–74
mental events, 375
mental prayer, 470
mental representation, theory of, 357
mental words, 497–98
mercy
charity and, 298
God's, 169–70
of humanity, 169
metaphysics
basic topics of, 9
being and, 77–78
Boethius and, 48–49
natural theology subordinate to, 5
participation and, 81–82
quantum, 139–41
theology distinguished from, 49
Metaphysics (Aristotle), 5, 36–39, 49
Averroës and, 78
being and, 78
Fourth Way and, 124
human knowledge and, 313
intellectual virtues in, 329–31
Islamic authors and, 66–67
mind and human nature, philosophy of
Aquinas and, 349–65
biological perspective, 348–50
body in, 350–51, 354–65
human substance in, 360–62
hylomorphism in, 351–52, 363
IOP in, 353–56, 358
soul in, 349–60
in Summa theologiae, 350
theological perspective, 348–50
Treatise on Human Nature and, 350, 352, 354, 365n3
miracles, 189, 342
missions, doctrine of, 424–25
mobile being, 35–36
Modesty, as Fruit, 481
Molina, Luis de, 522
Moltmann, J., 437
moods, 215, 224n22
moral law, 261
morally evil choices, 168
moral obligation, 259–62
moral perfection, 194
moral science, 37, 279
moral theology, 23–24
moral truths, 279
moral virtues
charity and, 300–301
intellectual virtues contrasted with, 271
means, end and, 333
prudence as, 278, 328, 333–34
unity of, 484 n9
motion
emotions as, 211–12
local, 117
meaning of, 116
potency and, 176–77
of sensitive appetite, 219
time reduced to, 182–84
types of, 219
way from, 116–19, 175
motive power. See executive power
mover
in actuality, 128 n24
ultimate end as, 201
unmoved, 118, 128n31, 437
movetur (is moved), 116–17, 127n18
multiplication, of being, 78–79
(p. 582) names
adjective, 388 n26
divine, 158
substantive, 388 n26
of Trinity, 421–23
Naples, Aquinas in, 15–16, 27–28
natural cognition, 316
naturalism, 348
natural law, 246–51, 449
desire and, 250–51
inclinations and, 250
prudence linked to, 334
synderesis connected to, 256
natural philosophy, 210
natural theology, 4–7
natural worship, 449
nature
approach, 153
art imitating, 281
defined, 429–30
of emotions, 210–12
of God, 468–69
humanizing, 432–33
pre-rational, 248
rational, 248
supposit-supporting, 432–33, 434n22
of Trinity, 435 n24
necessitation, 204–7
necessity
of coercion, 205–6
conditional, 166
of grace, 501–2
of past, 193
way from, 121–22, 130n37
negative precepts, 281
Neo-Augustinianism, 47
Neoplatonism, 34, 55–62, 491
Neo-Thomists, 523–26
New Covenant, 449, 451
Nicomachean Ethics (Aristotle)
sententia on, 36–37
structure of, 476, 485n12
virtues in, 273n6, 327, 329–30, 475–76
Nizolius, Marius, 522
noncontradiction, 191–93
nondiminishing qualifications, 389 n28
nonrational creatures, law and, 244–47
now, flow of, 181–82
nutrition, 210, 359
object
appetible, 248–49
bodies as, 229–30
of charity, 296–98
of faith, 337–39, 346nn6–7
of hope, 294, 302–3
immaterial, 89
proper, 214–15, 224n17
ratio in, 374
of thought, 375
wisdom, 330
observational knowledge, 176
Ockham, William, 334, 518
Old Covenant, 449, 451
Old Law, 450
omnipotence
Aquinas on, 187–94
defined, 188–91
God's, 187–94
impeccability and, 193–94
noncontradiction and, 191–93
in scriptural texts, 187
sin and, 194
strength and, 187–88
in Summa contra Gentiles, 189–90, 193
in Summa theologiae, 188, 193
omnipresence, 409–10
one-many change, 94
one-one change, 94
On Interpretation (Aristotle), 33, 376, 386n3
On the Gift of Perseverance (De dono perseverantiae) (Augustine), 492
On the Predestination of the Saints (De praedestinatione sanctorum) (Augustine), 492
ontological participation, 82
operations, 77, 174, 468. See also Independent Operation Premise
operative perfections, 158
opposite, fear of, 317–20
Opuscula Sacra (Theological Treatises) (Boethius), 48, 50
order
of creation, 166
of justice, 439–40
of parts, 239–40
ordered series, 119–20
Order of Preachers, 15–16
ordo disciplinae, 51
Organon (Aristotle), 33–34
Origen of Alexandria, 471
Original Sin, 368 n34
origins, dependence and, 102 n36
Orvieto, 19–21
outermost heaven, 182
pain, 227, 235n1, 502
Paradiso (Dante), 482
Paris, Aquinas in, 16–18, 25–27
Parmenides, 79
participated likeness (participativa similitudo), 478
participation, 81–82, 152–54
particular reason, 215
parts (p. 583)
order of, 239–40
wholes and, 238–44
passion
action and, 108–9, 420
causation and, 106, 108–9
as change, 106
concupiscible, 221
God's impassibility and, 173–84
irascible, 221
of love and joy, 168
mercy as, 170
reason shaping, 267
passive potency, 173–76, 211
passive power, 106
past, changing, 192–93
paternity, 40, 420–21
Patience, as Fruit, 476, 481
patients, causation and, 105–6
peace
charity and, 298–99
as Fruit, 481
penance, sacrament of, 439, 445n21
perception, 210, 212
cognition and, 223, 313, 316
emotions and, 223
theories, 222–23
perfections
Christ's, 431
common good and, 246
creaturely, 158–61
entitative, 158
in Fourth Way, 124
goodness and, 149
human knowledge and, 319
language and, 394–95
moral, 194
operative, 158
scope of, 131 n61
virtues as, 266–69
of wholes, 239
will as, 158, 164–66
Peri Hermeneias (Aristotle), 469
per se notum (known through itself), 331
person
defined, 420, 430
divine, 419–21, 425, 434n7
of faith, 405, 414n22
interaction with, 454
as subsistent relation, 419–21, 434n7
Trinity and, 419–21, 425
personal relationships, 403, 416n51, 421
Peter of Ireland, 15
Peter of Spain, 387 n12
petitionary prayer, 467, 470–71, 474n10, 474n20
phantasm, 364, 493
philosophical theology
of Aquinas, 6–7
defined, 6
Islamic authors’, 66
revealed propositions explained by, 8
topics, 10
philosophy. See also mind and human nature, philosophy of
errors of, 58, 313
natural, 210
Plato's place in, 57–58
philosophy of language. See language, theory of
physical processes, 230
Physicists, 58
Physics (Aristotle), 35–36, 38, 117
Piety, Gift of, 477–78, 487n28
Plantinga, Alvin, 138–39, 141
plasticity, cognitive, 355
Plato, 4, 34, 47, 351
Aquinas and, 55–62, 152–53, 325n22
Aristotle corrected by, 58–62
in history of philosophy, 57–58
Islamic authors and, 66
“real me” of, 229
Republic by, 66, 218
separated soul of, 459–60
pleasure, 229, 234, 235n7
Plotinus, 68
political virtues, 270–71
Porter, Jean, 201, 476, 484n7
possibility
contingency and, 190
PAP, 206
way from, 121–22, 130n37
Posterior Analytics (Aristotle), 33, 311, 317, 319, 330
highest rationality conditions in, 340
title of, 326n41
potency
act and, 67–68, 149, 153
motion and, 175–77
passive, 173–75, 211
powers. See also omnipotence
active, 106, 113n26
appetitive, 210, 328
art as, 106–7
causation and, 106–7, 472
cognitive, 215
executive, 217
imagination, 359
inclinations distinct from, 113 n26
intellectual, 359
rational, 359
sensory, 313–14, 359
soul's, 357–60
ultimate happiness and, 234
practical knowledge, 277–79
practical reasoning
appetite and, 277
Aquinas on, 228, 276–83, 334
practical knowledge and, 277–79
prayer and, 469–70
(p. 584) principles, precepts, and structure of, 279–81
prudence and, 282–83
in Secunda Secundae, 279
sin and, 280
speculative reason and, 276–77
syllogism and error, 281–83
practical wisdom, 332
prayer (oratio)
to angels, 474 n7
Aquinas on, 467–73
causality of, 471–72
Christian practice and, 473
confusion about, 467
defined, 467, 474n5
freedom and, 471–72
mental, 470
nature of God and, 468–69
objections to, 470–73
petitionary, 467, 470–71, 474n10, 474n20
practical reason and, 469–70
to saints, 474 n7
in Summa theologiae, 467
predicaments, 79
predication
accidental, 380
substantive names and, 388 n26
suppositum in, 381–82
theory of, 376–77
in theory of language, 371–84
way of, 38–41
pre-rational nature, 248
presumption, 294
priesthood, of Christ, 442–44, 445nn5960
Prima Pars, 21, 35, 37
analogy and, 396
Neoplatonic aspects of, 61
on speculative knowledge, 278
primary precepts, 281
Prima Secundae, 21–22, 265, 273, 329
prime matter
defined, 90, 112n2
development of thought about, 502
form and, 351, 459
individuation and, 90–93, 95–99, 101n17, 101n21, 102n29, 102n36
primum cognitum, 385
principle, cause as, 110
Principle of Alternative Possibilities (PAP), 206
principle of impulsion, 420
private language, 375
privation, 380–81, 401
processions
defined, 420
Trinity and, 419–21
Proclus, 55–62, 491
production, action and, 279, 331–32, 498
productive arts, 106
proof, of tenets beyond scope of reason, 126 n3
proper object, 214–15, 224n17
proportion, agreement of, 500
proportionality, agreement of, 500
providence
Aquinas on, 401–12
flourishing of human beings and, 403, 405–7, 412, 413n15
problem of evil and, 401–12
prudence
art subordinated to, 279–80
conscience and, 258
defined, 327
infused, 484 n7
as intellectual virtue, 327–34
limitations of, 334
as moral virtue, 278, 328, 333–34
natural law linked to, 334
practical knowledge and, 278
practical reasoning and, 282–83
types of, 271
Pseudo-Dionysius, 4, 16, 25, 147
psychological activity, 212
psychological analogy, 423
psychology, 210
punishment, 439
Quaestiones disputatae de malo (QDM) (Aquinas), 205, 208n22, 272, 492
Quaestiones disputatae de veritate (QDV) (Aquinas)
development of thought and, 492, 498–99, 501–2
on emotions, 209
on goodness, 149–50, 153–54
qualitative change, 117
quantitative change, 117
quantity, 420, 461
quantum metaphysics, 139–41
quid est, 137, 139, 143
Qur’an, 66–67, 69
rabbis, Doctor Communis among, 514
Rahner, Karl, 531 n89
rancor, 221
ratio
in intellect, 374
in language theory, 373–75, 386n9
in procession doctrine, 420
rational appetite, 248–49
rationality
epistemic, 344
of faith, 341–44
highest conditions, 340
rational nature, 248
(p. 585) rational powers, 359
reactions, 211
“real me,” 229
real participation, 82
reason. See also practical reasoning
belief beyond scope of, 126 n3
cognition related to, 339–40
defined, 339
faith related to, 337–45
inferior, 258, 263n18
intellect contrasted with, 276–77
intellectual virtues perfecting, 328
irascible emotions close to, 225 n25
particular, 215
passions shaped by, 267
speculative, 276–77
superior, 258, 263n18
theoretical, 256
reassembly, 464
reconstitution, 464
Reformation, 521–22
relations, Trinity and, 419–21
relatives, love of, 298
removetur (removing), 117
reproduction, 210
Republic (Plato), 66, 218
resonance, 482–83, 488nn56–57
resurrection
charity after, 503
composite theory and, 465 n17
reassembly and, 464
reconstitution and, 464
soul and, 458–64
revealed theology
incarnation and, 429
natural theology compared to, 6–7
as science, 7–8
revelation
faith in Trinity depending on, 418
Maimonides and, 68
via mediators, 346 n13
sacraments as, 453
revenge, 174
riches, 233–34
Rome, Aquinas in, 20–25
Romulus and Remus example, 94–99, 102n29, 102n36, 103n37
Rowe, William, 416 n52
sacra doctrina. See revealed theology
sacraments
Aquinas on, 448–56
Baptism, 451–52
being and, 454
as causes, 449, 451–56
cultural framework of, 449
defined, 448, 450
Eucharist, 443–44, 447n66, 450–51
incarnation linked to, 456
of penance, 439, 445n21
as revelation, 453
sacrifice related to, 455
of salvation, Christ as, 437–38
as signs, 449–53
in Summa theologiae, 449
as worship, 448–49
sacred doctrine, 330, 345
sacrifice
of Christ, 438, 442–44, 447n66
sacraments related to, 455
saints
Aquinas canonized as, 518
prayer to, 474 n7
salvation
Body of Christ in, 439, 441–44, 445n45
Christ as sacrament of, 437–38
Cross in, 436–37, 439
through death of Christ, 438–41, 445n46, 503
Gifts essential to, 270, 477
God willing, 167, 429
priesthood of Christ and, 442–44, 445nn5960
as sacrifice, 438, 442–44, 447n66
through saving work of Christ, 436–44
in Summa contra Gentiles, 438–42, 444n4
theory of satisfaction, 436–44
sameness, principle of, 94–95, 98, 102n24
sanctification
suffering and, 407
by Trinity, 423–25
satisfaction, theory of, 436–44
saving work, of Christ, 436–44
scale of value, 402–4
scandal, 299
Schillebeeckx, E., 436–37, 440
scholastic tradition, Aquinas and, 50–51
Schopenhauer, Arthur, 235 n8
science (scientia)
believing and, 317
divine, 78
explanations from, 468
dealing with faith, 317, 340–41
as intellectual virtue, 328, 330
knowledge and, 311–12, 317–20
moral, 37, 279
theology as, 7–8, 50–51
theoretical, 78
of truth, 5–6
Scriptum super libros Sententiarum (Super Sent.) (Aquinas), 209
scripture
authority of, 4, 419, 428
omnipotence in, 187
theological virtues in, 288–90, 295
secondary precepts, 281
second-personal habitus, 480–81, 483
Second Vatican Council, 525
Secunda Pars, 22, 27, 36–37, 265
Secunda Secundae, 21–22, 265, 271–72, 329
practical reasoning in, 279
theological virtues in, 289, 292
self-love, 268
self-movement, 210
semantic relations, 371
semantic triangle, 373
seminal reasons, 46
sensations, 235 n10
intellect and, 313–15, 367n16
phantasms and, 364, 493
senses
external, 359
internal, 359, 364
sensible good/evil, 219–20, 224n18
sensitive appetite, 209–17, 219–20, 222
sensitive cognition, 212–13, 222
sensitive soul, 210
sensory images, 321, 493–97, 506n24
sensory powers, 313–14, 359
Sentences (Lombard), 16, 45, 191, 303, 519. See also Commentary on the Book of Sentences
sententiae, 204
on Aristotle's works, 33–39, 41
on De anima, 33–35
defined, 33
Sententia Libri De anima (In DA) (Aquinas), 33–35, 37, 365n3
Sententia Libri Ethicorum (In NE) (Aquinas), 36–37
Sententia super Metaphysicam (In Meta) (Aquinas), 37–39
Sententia super Physicam (In Phy) (Aquinas), 35–36, 38
separation
defined, 78
of soul, 458–64, 493–97
understanding of, 83 n5
servile fear, 487 n30
sexual intercourse, dictates of conscience and, 257–58
al-Shifa (Avicenna), 66
sight, as passive potency, 211
signification
causation and, 445 n11
immediate, 375
mode of signifying disparate with, 384
of sacraments, 450
in theory of language, 372–76, 381
ultimate, 375–76
significative utterance, 372
signifying, mode of, 384
signs
sacraments as, 449–53
words as, 373
similitude, 420
simpliciter, 361, 382, 405–6
simplicity, of God, 135–43
simultaneity, 129 n39
sin
acquired virtues and, 485 n11
Augustine defining, 260
avoidance of, 501
destructive effect of, 301
omnipotence and, 194
Original, 368 n34
practical reasoning and, 280
responsibility for, 248
skeptical theism, 410–11, 417n55
skepticism, 312–13, 410–11, 417n55
sloth, 299
Socrates, 159, 327, 332
humanity of, 432, 434n20
separated soul of, 459–64
Son. See also Trinity
mission of, 424–25
properties and names of, 421–23
sorrow, 173–74
soteriology, 436–44
soul (anima), 34–35, 41n5
animal, 357–58
appetitive, 502–3
body related to, 350–51, 354–65, 368n33, 497
constitution and, 460–61
defined, 349–50, 353–54
as form, 353, 361–62, 367n22, 458–60
identity and, 460–61
independence of, 354–57
intellective, 210
modes of existing, 495–96
in philosophy of mind and human nature, 349–60
powers of, 357–60
resurrection and, 458–64
sensitive, 210
separated, 458–64, 493–97
as subsistent, 366n12, 367n22
as substantial form, 353, 361–62, 458–60
types of, 210
speculative knowledge, 278
speculative reason, 276–77
speculative Trinitarian theology, 418–19
spiration, 420–21
spirits, gifts as, 269
strength, of God, 187–88
strong DDI, 177
Stump, Eleonore, 8–9, 200, 203
Suárez, Francisco, 522
subalternation-idea, 347 n22
Submission Argument, 218–19
subsistent relations, 419–21, 434n7
substance, 68, 79, 101n21, 289
accidents and, 105, 500
human, 360–62
substantial change, 89–92, 112n2
(p. 587) substantial form, 90, 93, 96–98, 386n2
causal relata and, 109
prime matter and, 459
soul as, 353, 361–62, 458–60
substantial unity, 362
substantive names, 388 n26
suffering
of Christ, 436–37, 440–42, 444n4, 445n45
consolation and, 409–12, 415n44
from evil, 402–12
good of sufferer, 404–5
as involuntary simpliciter, 405–6
large-scale, 412
as medicinal, 408, 415n37
mysteriousness of, 410–12
in providing best thing, 408–9
role of, 407–9, 411
sanctification and, 407
in warding off worst thing, 407–8
Summa confessorum (John of Freiburg), 512
Summa contra Gentiles (SCG) (Aquinas)
in Baroque period, 521
credibility arguments in, 341–42
date of, 19
development of thought and, 498, 521
essence in, 81
eternity in, 183, 186n80
Five Ways and, 116
importance of, 492
natural theology developed in, 4–5
Neoplatonic aspects of, 60–61
omnipotence and, 189–90, 193
procession doctrine in, 420
purpose of, 5, 19, 116
salvation in, 438–42, 444n4
scope of, 3
structure of, 19, 21–22
Summa theologiae (ST) (Aquinas). See also Five Ways
Aristotle and, 39–40
in Baroque period, 521–22
Body of Christ in, 441
dates of, 21
development of thought and, 494–95, 498, 501–3
divine illumination in, 46
emotions in, 209, 221
end of human action in, 199–201
erring conscience in, 259–62, 259t, 261t
eternity in, 178–79
God's simplicity in, 136
on goodness, 147–55
in Greek, 513
Henry of Gorkum on, 519
Holy Spirit in, 422
importance of, 492
inclinations and, 107–8
knowledge in, 159–60
making satisfaction in, 438
moral theology in, 23–24
Neoplatonic aspects of, 60–62
omnipotence in, 188, 193
as philosophical theology paradigm, 6
philosophy of mind and human nature in, 350
prayer in, 467
Prima Pars of, 21, 35, 37, 61, 278, 396
Prima Secundae of, 21–22, 265, 273, 329
sacraments in, 449
sacred doctrine in, 345
scope of, 3
Secunda Pars, 22, 27, 36–37, 265
Secunda Secundae, 21–22, 265, 271–72, 279, 289, 292, 329
Sententia Libri De anima and, 34–35
Sententia Libri Ethicorum and, 36–37
structure of, 19, 51, 72
synderesis in, 256
Tertia Pars, 21–22, 27
Treatise on Human Nature in, 350, 352, 354, 365n3
Trinity in, 8, 419
writing of, 21–23
Super Boetium De Trinitate (Aquinas), 18, 23
Super De Causis (Aquinas), 27
superior reason, 258, 263n18
supposit-supporting nature, 432–33, 434n22
suppositum, 381–82
Sutton, Thomas, 517
Swinburne, Richard, 459–60
syllogism, practical, 281–83
syncategorematic terms, 376, 387n12
synderesis (infallible moral awareness)
conscience and, 255–62
defined, 255–56, 281
Jerome on, 255
natural law connected to, 256
in Summa theologiae, 256
synesis, 333
taxes, 243–44
taxonomy, of emotion, 218–22
teaching, learning and, 108–9, 113n30
temperance, 270, 485n10, 485n19
Tempier, Étienne, 516
Tertia Pars, 21–22, 27
testimony, divine, 341–43
theological perspective, in philosophy of mind and human nature, 348–50
theological virtues
charity, 287, 295–303, 343
connection of, 300
defined, 287–89
duration, 302–3
God and, 287–304
happiness and, 236 n13
loss of, 300–302
political virtues and, 270–71
in scripture, 288–90, 295
in Secunda Secundae, 289, 292
sources, 303–4
theology. See also philosophical theology
Aristotle and, 33
Boethius and, 48–49
incarnation as problem of, 428–29
metaphysics distinguished from, 49
moral, 23–24
natural, 4–7
in philosophy of mind and human nature, 348–50
revealed, 6–8, 429
as science, 7–8, 50–51
scope and philosophical character of, 3
speculative Trinitarian, 418–19
theoretical reason, 256
theoretical science, 78
theoretical wisdom, 327
things, in semantic triangle, 373
Third Way, 121–22, 180
Thomists, Aquinas and, 515–26
time
of angels, 181–82
defined, 181
motion and, 182–84
timelessness, 180–84
Torrell, Jean-Pierre, 9
transcendentals, doctrine of, 147
transient action, 235 n4
transitive action, 114 n43
transmutation, 109–10
Treatise on God, 115
Treatise on Human Nature, 350, 352, 354, 365n3
Trinity
Aquinas on, 8, 25, 418–25
Bonaventure on, 418–19, 421–22
contemporary criticism of, 425
creative action of, 423–25
Disputed Questions and, 25
in exposition of speculative Trinitarian theology, 418–19
at heart of Christian faith, 418
id quod est and, 138–39
intellect of, 413 n7
knowledge of, 322
nature of, 435 n24
persons and, 419–21, 425
processions and, 419–21
proofs of, 126 n3
properties and names of, 421–23
relations and, 419–21
sanctifying action of, 423–25
in Summa theologiae, 8, 419
will of, 413 n7
Word in, 419–20, 422, 498
truth, science of, 5–6
Tugwell, Simon, 467
ultimate end, 199–202
ultimate happiness, 233–34, 237n20
ultimate signification, 375–76
unbelief, 292–93
understanding
Gift of, 477–78, 486n26, 487n32
as intellectual virtue, 256, 328, 331
of separation, 83 n5
unformed faith, 292–93, 301
union, with God, 232, 406–7, 414n25, 441, 483
universal concepts, intellect forming, 355–56
universal entities, 373
University of Paris, 3, 45, 515
univocal/univocally, 393–94
unmoved mover, 118, 128n31, 437
Urban, Linwood, 123
Urban IV (pope), 20
usus (making use), 202
value, scale of, 402–4
Vasquez, Gabriel, 522
verb, 376–81
Viaticum, 443
vices
Aquinas on, 265–73, 282
opposed to charity, 298–99
despair, 294
presumption, 294
unbelief as, 293
vicious, 283
virtues. See also specific virtues
actus of, 481–83, 488n49
Aristotle on, 266, 273n6, 274n33, 327–34, 475–76, 483n2
cardinal, 236n13, 267–72, 329, 476
causation and, 265
charity as form of, 299
Christ's death as, 437
connection of, 300
defined, 231, 266, 475, 483n2, 484n5
gifts distinguished from, 269, 329–30
as habitus, 265–66, 269–72, 273n2
happiness and, 236n13, 268
justice as, 328
loss of, 300–302
(p. 589)
in Nicomachean Ethics, 273n6, 327, 329–30, 475–76
as normative ideals, 272–73
as perfections, 266–69
political, 270–71
as principle of action, 266–71
in Summa theologiae, 265, 270–71, 288–89, 292, 304n1, 475–77, 480–81, 483
unity of, 484 n9
will shaped by, 268
as wisdom, 327
visible missions, 424–25
Vitoria, Francisco de, 520–21
volition, 212–17
voluntarism, 203–4, 503
voluntas, 202, 208n8
way. See also Five Ways
from efficient causation, 119–20
from governance, 124–25
from gradation, 123–24
from motion, 116–19, 175
from possibility and necessity, 121–22, 130n37
of predication, 38–41
weak DDI, 177
Weisheipl, James, 523–24
Westberg, Daniel, 280
wholes
parts and, 238–44
perfection of, 239
will
act of, 113 n19
cancer of, 406
common good and, 242–43
complete good attracting, 343–44
defined, 164
electio and, 202
esse and, 151, 160, 162, 165–66, 169
faith related to, 340, 343–44
as giving, 165
goodness and, 165
as inclination, 205–6
intellect and, 203–4, 413n12
intentio and, 202–3, 214, 224n18
joy and, 168–69
justice and, 169–70
law and, 238, 249–50
liberty of, 253 n62
love and, 168–69, 174
mercy and, 169–70
moved, 486 n25
as perfection, 158, 164–66
sensitive appetite subordinate to, 217
of Trinity, 413 n7
virtues shaping, 268
voluntas and, 202, 208n8
William of Moerbeke, 491
willing, of creatures, 166–68
Wippel, John, 116–17, 124, 128n20
wisdom
Aristotle on, 37–39, 329–30
cognition and, 37–38
Gift of, 477–78
as intellectual virtue, 328–30
object of, 330
practical, 332
theoretical, 327
virtues as, 327
Wittgenstein, Ludwig, 230, 236n11
Word
in Eucharist, 444
Love and, 419–20, 422–23
in Trinity, 419–20, 422, 498
words
applied to creatures, 394
mental, 497–98
in semantic triangle, 373
as signs, 373
univocal and equivocal use of, 393–94
worship, sacraments as, 448–49
wrath, 221
zygotehood, 91, 93