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date: 21 June 2021

Abstract and Keywords

This article focuses on naturalism. It makes one terminological distinction: between methodological naturalism and ontological naturalism. The methodological naturalist assumes there is a fairly definite set of rules, maxims, or prescriptions at work in the “natural” sciences, such as physics, chemistry, and molecular biology, this constituting “scientific method.” There is no algorithm which tells one in all cases how to apply this method; nonetheless, there is a body of workers—the scientific community—who generally agree on whether the method is applied correctly or not. Whatever the method is, exactly—such virtues as simplicity, elegance, familiarity, scope, and fecundity appear in many accounts—it centrally involves an appeal to observation and experiment. Correct applications of the method have enormously increased our knowledge, understanding, and control of the world around us to an extent which would scarcely be imaginable to generations living prior to the age of modern science.

Keywords: naturalism, methodological naturalism, ontological naturalism, scientific method, observation and experiment, modern science

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