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date: 19 February 2020

(p. 645) Index

(p. 645) Index

Abraham
Isaac and, 67
quandary of, 86–89
Absolutism
in moral judgments, 262
rejection of, 242–44
Abstraction, 572
Act consequentialism (AC), 22, 424
decision making and, 23
reasons and, 447
theories, 429
Action. See also Acts; Right action
correctness of, 267
defining, 642–43n5
Hume's theory of, 274–75
judgment and, 275
moral requirements of, 348
neo-Humean theories of, 266–68
norm specification and, 632
supererogatory, 71
virtue theory and, 636–37
Action-guides
humanity formula as, 490
Kant's formulas as, 482
virtue theory as, 637
Acts. See also Action
benevolence and, 221
deontic modalities of, 462
malicious, 43
motives and, 455n15
supererogatory, 448
Act-tokens, 73
Act-types, 73
Adams, Robert, 69, 116n24
on goodness, 77–78
Admiration, 234
Affect, 274
Agent causation, 69–70
Agent-neutral theories, 426–28
Agents
empathy and, 234
free rational, 312
good of, 27
virtuous, 517, 637
Aggregation, 438
Akedah, 64, 66, 85, 86–89
divine command formulation and, 69
Akrasia, 315n28
Alston, William P., 74–75
on God's ethical goodness, 76–77
Altruism, 11. See also Biological altruism
benefits of, 178
empathy and, 227
human, 168
naturalism and, 111–12
psychological, 166–70
reciprocal, 167
self-referential, 382, 399–400, 407, 415–16
The Altruism Question (Batson), 227
Amusement, 205
An Anatomy of Values (Fried), 230
Andrew of Neufchateau, 67
Anger, 538
Animal suffering, 375
Annas, Julia, 18
virtue ethics and, 20, 29–30
Anscombe, G.E.M., 71–72, 149
Antirealism, 12–13
truth and, 49–50
Antistructuralism, 576
Antitheorists, 576
Applied ethics, 4
Approval, 223
Arbitrariness objection, 74
Aristotelian theory, 16
Aristotelianism
evolution and, 164–65
expressivism and, 158
Aristotle
hedonism and, 359
virtue ethics and, 29, 158, 515
Aspiration, 523
neglecting, 531–32
“Assertion” (Geach), 155–56
(p. 646) Associations
interpersonal, 410–11
morally imperfect, 419n18
Associative behavior, 169
Associative duties, 398–401
concerns about, 401
impartiality and, 406–7
personal identity and, 402–5
rationale for, 405–6
Atheism
divine command theory and, 7
morality and, 92
naturalism and, 108
Atomism, 583
Attitudes
expressivism and, 151–52
forming, 199
projectivism and, 200
Augustine, 67
Authority, 308–10
default, 273
Autonomy
freedom v., 301
Kant on, 302
Autonomy formulas, 494–97
interpreting, 497–98
Axiological domain, 71
Axiology, 77–78
Ayer, A. J., 148–49
Baier, Annette, 539–40, 543
Balancing, 627, 630–31
Rossian, 636
Barrow, Isaac, 624
Barry, Brian, 539
Batson, C. D., 227
Beauty, 47
perception of, 186–87
Belief
action and, 274
evaluative judgments and, 200
expression of, 40
introspective, 609
intuition and, 608–9
intuitions as, 620n10
intuitive, 599, 613
intuitive v. moral, 619n8
prayer and, 65
reflective equilibrium and, 617
revision of, 612
withholding, 618
Benedict, Ruth, 263n9
Beneficence, 504–5n2
Benevolence, 221
Bentham, Jeremy, 78–81, 224
hedonism and, 359
on natural rights, 460
Bernard of Clairvaux, 67
Bible, 66
Biblical exegesis, 66
Bioethics, 592n5, 626
Biological altruism, 166–70
Biology, 163
metaethics and, 175–81
Blackburn, Simon, 10–12, 117n25
on attitudes, 199
evolution and, 165
on justification, 211
McDowell on, 205
particularism and, 635
projectivism and, 235
quasi-realism, 198
on semantics, 156–57
Blum, Larry, 556
Bok, Hilary, 331–32
Book of the Dead, 173
Boyd, Richard, 114n9, 125
Brandom, Robert, 138
deduction and, 629
Brave New World (Huxley), 361
perfectionism and, 389–90
Brink, David, 26–27
Broad, C. D., 114n5, 399–400
on ethical theory, 624–25
self-referential altruism and, 382
Bubeck, Diemut, 545
justice and, 547
Business ethics, 626
Butler, Joseph, 91, 222
Capital punishment, 12
Care. See also Ethics of care
activities of, 558–60
culture and, 552–54
definition of, 544–46
empathic, 228, 232
justice and, 546–49
as public concern, 550
religion and, 552–54
virtue ethics v., 225
Care (Nodding), 560
Caring (Nodding), 224
Casuistry, 627, 633–34
particularism v., 635
(p. 647) Categorical Imperative (CI) test, 28–29, 436, 455n27
aspects of, 285–87
first formula of, 481
humanity formula and, 489
of principles, 571
Causal determinism, 18–19, 349–51
free will and, 321–24
Kantian approach to, 331–33
PAP and, 334–41
Causal immediacy, 230–31
Causation, 100–101
Character, 418n1
Children
empathy and, 228, 235
pain and, 374
Chodorow, Nancy, 238
Christian theism, 63
theological voluntarism and, 64–68
Christianity, 65
Circular elucidations, 207
Circularity, 233
Claim-rights, 26
Claims, 462
interpersonal, 464–65
of moral theory, 626–27
Coalition game, 169, 183n15
Coercion, 317n53
Cognition, 276
Cognitivism, 53–54
Cognitivist functionalism, 33n6
Coherentism, 211
Color, 188
projectivism and, 200
Common sense, 442
Common-sense morality (CSM), 427–28
Comparison, aggregation and, 367–71
Compensation, 403
Compliance
egoism and, 409
interest theory and, 463–64
Conative state, 10, 267
Concepts, 620–21n20
Conflation problem, 197–200
Conflict, moral rights and, 466
Conflict of the Faculties (Kant), 88
Conflicts, virtue and, 638
Confucian ethics, 552–53
Connectedness, 27–28
deliberative, 405
psychological, 403
Consequences
best, 47
calculating, 79
Consequentialism, 20, 380, 428–31. See also Act consequentialism; Rule consequentialism; Simple consequentialism; Sophisticated consequentialism; Utilitarianism; Virtue consequentialism
agent-neutral, 417, 431
agent-relative, 26–27
aggregation and, 438
classification of, 430 t
criticism of, 441
direct, 386–88
duties of special relationship and, 24
egoistic, 407–8
forms of, 23–24
humanity formula and, 491
indirect, 387, 627–28
maximizing, 386
maximizing v. rule, 417
mentalism v., 612
Moore and, 95
motive, 429–30
nonconsequentionalism v., 21
prospect, 414–17
rule, 23
scalar, 383
self-effacing, 445
sophisticated, 429, 443
special relationships and, 442–46
structure, 381–84
torture and, 25
value theory and, 357
varieties, 381–84
virtue ethics and, 453–54, 528–29, 533
wrongness and, 195
Considerability, 396
Considerations, 579
Consistency, 31
Constitution, 586
Constrained maximizers, 17
Constraints, 24, 395, 466
absolute, 453
agent-relative theories and, 427
associative duties, 398–401
correlative, 475n9
deontic, 26
deontology and, 425, 448–53
for helping, 486
impersonal, 395–96
(p. 648)
intuition and, 451
justification of, 449
rejection of, 25
Rossian principles as, 25–26
Constructivism, 41
Constructivist theories, 16
Content-neutrality, 392
Contents, contexts v., 251
Contexts, 567
contents v., 251
holism and, 582
Contextualist principalism, 575
Contingent existence, 67
Continuity, 27–28
psychological, 403
Contractarian moral theory, 16–17
Contractarianism
justice and, 474
moral facts and, 41
Contractualism
deontology v., 437–38
virtue theory v., 637
Contractualist proposal, 29
Cooperation, 166
perfectionist egoism and, 411
Copp, David, 344–49, 431
Courage, 47
flourishing and, 522–23
Creation, 67
Crisp, Roger
on lying, 582
Critique of Practical Reason (Kant)
application of, 486
The Critique of Practical Reason (Kant), 284
Cruelty, 198
Cudworth, Ralph
akedah and, 81–82, 88–89
Cults, 65
Cultural transmission, 179
Cultures
care and, 552–54
morality and, 255–56
Dancy, Jonathan, 9
on consideration, 579
metaphysical holism and, 584
particularism and, 635
on principles, 568
sensibility theory and, 191
Daniels, Norman, 602–3
D'Arms, Justin, 13
Darwall, Stephen, 17–18, 548
Darwin, Charles, 164
Decalogue, 66
Decision
procedure, 23
virtue and, 516
Declarative sentences, 48–49
Deduction, 627, 628–29
Default egoism, 295–96
Defaults, 590–91
Deliberation, 324–33
Deliberativism, 405–6
Deontic properties, 6
Deontological theory, 21
Deontology
agent-neutral theories, 426–28
agent-relative theories, 426–28
alternative foundations for, 435–41
common sense and, 442
concepts of, 70
consequentialism and, 381
constraints and, 25, 425, 448–53
contractualism v., 437–38
defending, 441–54
definition of, 229
divine command theory of, 68–73
features of, 425–26
Kantian theories and, 26
options and, 425–26, 446–48
rationalism and, 226
Rossian, 24, 432–33, 435, 445
SC v., 424
wrongness and, 195
DePaul, Michael, 31
Desire
affect and, 274
motivations and, 111
motive and, 274
practical reason and, 311–13
theories, 22, 361–64
Desire-satisfaction theory, 389
Desperation, 176
Determinism, 322–23. See also Causal determinism
Pereboom on, 342
responsibility and, 253
Devotional practice, 68
Dialectical equilibrium, 393
In a Different Voice (Gilligan), 224, 559
Dignity, 305
autonomy and, 509n35
(p. 649)
Kant on, 489
respect and, 490
value of, 509n36
Disability, 462
Disaffection, 216n41
Disagreement, 107–10
argument, 15, 260
Dispositionalism, 189, 190 t, 200–204
Distributivism, 401–2
Diversity
perfectionist egoism and, 411
Rossian deontology and, 435
of species, 376
Divine command theory, 6–7
axiology and, 77–78
Bentham and, 78–81
Euthyphro Objection and, 6–7, 74–75
formulation, 69
Frankena and, 78–81
God's nature and, 81–82
history of, 63
judgment internalism and, 15
Mackie and, 118n34
of moral deontology, 68–73
of morality, 72–73
of obligation, 63–64, 77–78
wrongness and, 32n1
Divine inspiration, 41
Divine law, 72
Divine sovereignty, 67–68
theological voluntarism and, 83–84
Domain, compossible rights and, 469
Dominant enforceability, 466
Donagan, Alan, 28
on humanity formula, 490–91
Double-counting, 440
Dreier, James, 14
Duties, 462. See also Associative duties; Obligation
happiness and, 510n52
maxims and, 487–88, 506n12
positive, 488
of special relationship, 24
Duty-conflicts, 468
Dworkin, Gerald, 4–5, 31
Dworkin, Ronald, 466
Economists, desire theories and, 363
Efficiency
of moral theory, 641
norms of, 269
Egoism
consequentialism v., 415
ethical, 16, 27–28, 407
flourishing and, 522
hedonistic, 388
Hobbesian, 219
perfectionist, 410–11, 417
self-concern and, 410
strategic, 408–10
Ekstrom, Laura, 342
Embeddedness, 531–32
Emotional responses, 194–97
Emotions
accountability and, 291
cross-cultural homologues, 206
dispositionalism and, 201–2
evaluative concepts and, 194
morality and, 538–39
sentimentalism and, 188
Emotivism, 148–49, 198
Empathic concern, 13–14
Empathy
agents and, 234
for children, 235
distinctions in, 237
normative sentimentalism and, 226–33
practical reason and, 276
sympathy v., 227
Empathy and Moral Development (Hoffman), 227
Empiricism, 109
Enquiry into the Principles of Morals (Hume), 222
Environmentalism
diversity and, 376
ethics, 626
Epicurus, 359
Epistemic defaults, 585
Epistemology
causation and, 100–101
ethics of care and, 538
of intuitions, 597–98
metaphysical holism and, 584
moral, 103
naturalism and, 105–6
reflective equilibrium and, 607
sensibility-based, 209
Equality, human, 503
Equivocation, 156
Error
dispositionalism and, 201
expressivism and, 152–55
(p. 650) Error theory, 9–10
judgment internalism and, 15
moral antirealism and, 41–42
moral facts and, 60n4
realism v., 53–54
of value, 197
Esoteric theory, 640–41
Ethical conclusions, 104
Ethical egoism, 16, 27–28, 407
Ethical judgments, 343–49
Ethical knowledge, 102–5
Ethical naturalism, 9, 91
assumptions of, 106
definition of, 92–93
God's will and, 113n1
motives and, 110–13
nonreductive naturalism v., 98–99
reasons and, 110–13
Ethical nonnaturalism, 122–23
Ethical perfections, 83
Ethical properties
causal role of, 115n10
natural properties v., 92
Ethical relativism, 92–93
Ethical terms, 158
reductive definitions for, 102
Ethical theory
Broad on, 624–25
Williams on, 625
Ethical thought, 107
Ethics. See also Applied ethics
morality v., 4
Ethics: Inventing Right and Wrong (Mackie), 245
Ethics of care, 20, 30–31, 220, 537
conceptions of persons in, 542
Confucian ethics and, 552–53
features of, 538–41
private, 550–51
public, 550–51
in society, 549–51
virtue ethics and, 551–52
virtue theory v., 29
Etiquette, 255
Eudaimonism, 521
mentalism v., 612
Euthanasia, 439
Euthyphro (Plato), 6, 64
Euthyphro Objection, 6–7, 64
formulation of, 73–75
reply to, 81–85
Evaluative concepts
sensibility theory and, 192–93
sentimentalism and, 194
value and, 206–7
variety of, 208
Evaluative judgments, 197–200
beliefs and, 200
Evans, Gareth, 159
Evil. See also Wrongness
pain as, 368
Evolution, 107–8, 164–65
cultural, 174, 184n26
Humean theory and, 278
normative guidance and, 170–74
Exceptionless principles. See Principles
Experiences
gaps and, 328
moral facts and, 55
Explanation, 54–56
best, 248–50
metaphysical holism and, 584
Expressivism, 10, 146–47
criticism of, 155–57
error and, 152–55
minimalism v., 160–61
norm, 198
quasi-realism v., 154
refining, 149–52
rivals of, 157–61
semantic development of, 157
Externalism, 15
Facts
about value, 137
causal, 142
normative, 137, 141
normativity and, 133
Factual discourse, 49
Fairness, 561n3
Family ethics, 550
“Famine, Affluence, and Morality” (Singer), 229
Favors, 500–503
Fear and Trembling (Kierkegaard), 87
Fellow feeling, 165
Feminism
background of, 554–57
ethics of care and, 539–40
expansion of, 554–55
liberal individualism and, 542
in moral theories, 557–61
(p. 651)
moral theory and, 30–31
virtue theory and, 551–52
Feminists Doing Ethics (DesAutels and Waugh), 545
Fichte, Johann Gottlieb, 308
Final end, 530–31
Fischer, John, 18
Fisher, Berenice, 544
Fission cases. See Personal identity
Flourishing, 519–23
refined conception of, 530
Foot, Philippa, 116n17
evolution amd, 164–65
expressivism and, 158
moral precepts and, 177
on reasons, 118n31
on secularism, 117n25
verdictives and, 626
Force, 432–33
Forgiveness, 173
Formula of universal law (FUL), 481. See also Universal Law Formulation
FULN v., 484
Formula of universal law of nature (FULN), 481
FUL v., 484
Foundational normative theory, 33n9
Foundationalism, 104–5
A Fragment on Government (Bentham), 224
Frankena, William K., 78–81
Frankfurt, Harry, 346–47
criticism of, 336–37
PAP and, 334–36
Free will, 18
causal determinism and, 321–24
God and, 67–68
moral responsibility and, 333
Freedom
of action v. choice, 351n6
autonomy v., 301, 310–11
practical reason and, 311–13
Frege, Gottlob, 156
Frege-Geach Argument, 155–57
Fried, Charles, 230
Friendship, 22
consequentialism and, 22
feminism and, 556
loyalty and, 442
MC and, 443
Rossian deontology and, 445–46
rule consequentialism and, 443–44
SC and, 443
Full humanity, 180
Game theory
evolutionary, 166
Gap, the thesis of the, 327–28
Searle and, 327–28
Garfield, Jay, 593
Gauthier, David, 16–17
Geach, Peter, 117n25, 155–57
Generalizations. See also Principles
classical principles and, 571
defeasible, 588–91
exceptionless, 577
explanatory, 589
metaphysical holism and, 584
pro tanto, 102
Generalizing, 568
Genesis, 6, 64
human sacrifice in, 86
Gibbard, Allan, 118n34
biology and, 165
norm expressivism and, 198
on projective sentimentalism, 206
on semantics, 156–57
Gilligan, Carol, 30–31, 224–25
justice and, 546
on moral maturity, 559
relativism and, 238
God
authority of, 309
command of, 32n1, 66
error theory and, 10
ethical dependencies on, 68–69
ethical goodness of, 7, 76–78
ethical naturalism and, 113n1
existence of, 60n7, 84
free will and, 67–68
goal of, 87
love and, 82
metaphysics and, 153
moral properties and, 44
morality and, 6
murder and, 66
nature of, 81–82
(p. 652)
omnipotence of, 88
will of, 7, 63
wrongdoing and, 69
Goetz, Stewart, 339–40
Goldman, Alvin, 609
Good Itself, 77
Goodness
absolutism and, 243
causal role of, 125
conceptions of, 389–92
definition of, 45–46, 160
dependencies of, 84
divine commands and, 83
ethical, 64
God's, 7, 76–78
identifying, 43
judgments of, 147
Moore on, 95–96
as natural property, 125
Open Question Argument and, 129
perfectionism and, 365–66
pleasure as, 368
property of, 45–47
rightness v., 44
substitution test on, 96
types of, 382
Gospel ethics, 68
Groundwork (Kant), 284
application of, 486
chapter III, 302–3
Habituation, 210
sentimentality and, 212
Haji, Ishtiyaque, 343
Hamilton, William, 167
Hammurabi, 174
Happiness, 47
duties and, 510n52
flourishing v., 520
hedonism and, 360–61
maximizing, 44
well-being v., 418n6
Hare, R. M., 114n9
expressivism and, 149
prescriptions and, 159
on semantics, 156
Harman, Gilbert
nihilism and, 245
Observation Argument, 247
Harmfulness, 432
Heat, 143n8
Hedonism, 22, 381
democracy in, 361–62
desire-satisfaction theory v., 389
value theory and, 359–61
Held, Virginia, 20, 30
Helping others, 486–88
illustration regarding, 492
Heredity, 164
Herskovitz, Melville, 263n9
Hill, Thomas E., Jr., 17–18, 28–29
Hoffman, Martin, 227
Hohfeld, Wesley N., 461–62
Hohfeldian derivations, 473
Holism, 579–81
metaphysical, 584–88
objections to, 581–83
Homer, 361
Hominids. See Primates
Honor, 633–34
Hooker, Brad, 82–83
on RC, 431
Hosea, 66–67
Human nature, 112–13
Human sacrifice, 85
in Genesis, 86
Humanity, as end-in-itself, 489–94
Humanity Formulation (FH), 300, 313n2, 489
criticism of, 493–94
interpretation, 489–92
values of, 493
Humans
ethics of care and, 538
perceptual beliefs of, 620n17
status, 503
Hume, David, 223
action theory of, 274–75
biology and, 163–64
expressivism and, 146–47
history of, 265–66
is-ought gap and, 182n1
on naturalism, 110
practical reason theory of, 275–78
sentimentalism and, 221–26
value perception and, 186–87
on virtue ethics, 158
Humean theory, 16
of action, 266–68
criticism of, 278–80
evolution and, 278
internalism and, 296–97
moral judgments and, 51
motivation and, 259
(p. 653)
of practical rationality, 265–66
of practical reason, 268–71
virtue and, 528
Humor, 194–96
amusement and, 205
dispositionalism and, 203
sensibility theory and, 204
Hurka, Thomas, 21–22, 164
moral precepts and, 177
Hutcheson, Francis, 221–26
Huxley, Aldous, 361
perfectionism and, 389–90
Ideal observer theory, 236
moral judgments and, 237
Ideals, virtue ethics and, 525
Identity. See also Personal identity; Property identity
Moore and, 95–99
reductionism and, 140
Idziak, Janine M., 65
Ignorance
dispositionalism and, 201
veil of, 498
Illustrations on the Moral Sense (Hutcheson), 221
Immoralities, of the patriarchs, 67
Impartiality
constraints and, 395–96
egoism and, 408
limits of, 406–7
utilitarianism and, 393–95
Incest, 182n2
Inclinations, law-giving and, 495
Incompatabilism, 253, 324
Indeterminism, 330
Indexicals, 251
Inductive logic, 598
Inference, rules of, 48–49
Inferential justification, 578
Instrumental principal, 293
Instrumentalism, 115n16
global, 271
morality and, 293–95
Interest theory, 463
rights and, 470
Internalism, 51–53
existence, 296, 304
Humean, 296–97
judgment, 14–15
reason, 52
sentimentalism and, 191
Internalism requirement, 298
Internalist Argument, 245
Mackie's use of, 258
for nihilism, 258
for relativism, 259
Interpersonal distribution, 459
Interpretation, 484–86
Intrinsic good, 22
Intuition, 85
as beliefs, 620n10
constraints and, 451
desperation and, 176
disbelief of, 617
epistemology of, 597–98
judgment and, 603–4
limitations of, 97–98
metaphysical holism and, 587
moral, 31
principle testing with, 601
reliability of, 608–15, 614–15
understanding of, 618n2
Intuitionism, 147, 190 t, 192, 595–96
balancing and, 630
criticism of, 619n5
rehabilitation of, 213n3
Inviolability, 396
Isaac, 67
Islam, 65
Is-ought gap, 102–5
Hume on, 182n1
Jackson on, 126
normativity and, 134–36
Issues in morality, 4–5
Jackson, Frank, 123–25
on holism, 581
on is-ought gap, 126
Jacobson, Daniel, 13
Jesus, love and, 65–66
John's Gospel, 66
Judaism, 65
Judgment
action and, 275
common-sense, 261
of deontic morality, 343–44
evaluating, 575
of goodness, 147
intuition and, 603–4
mentalism and, 611
particularism and, 642
response and, 197–98
sympathy and, 223
Judgment internalism, 14–15
(p. 654) Justice
care and, 546–49
causation and, 100
fairness and, 561n3
humane, 548
nonlibertarian theories of, 474
requirements for, 82–83
right and, 466
Justification, 54–56, 211
adjustment of, 58
Kagan, Shelly, 33n9
constraints and, 452
ubiquity thesis and, 635
Kamm, Frances, 471
Kane, Robert, 342
Kant, Immanuel, 282–85
akedah and, 88–89
on autonomy, 302
Categorical Imperative, 455n27
CI test and, 436
deontology and, 436–37
on naturalism, 110
rationalism of, 159
on will, 508n24
writings of, 480–81
Kantian theory, 16, 17–18
Anscombe on, 72
application of, 486–88
applied, 298–313
conceptual claim of, 287–90
deontology and, 26
feminism and, 556, 557
Hill on, 28–29
legislative perspective, 494–504
legislators and, 497–98
modern, 592n3
moral obligations and, 282
practical reasoning and, 331–33
principles in, 570
rational agency and, 20
right action and, 21
second-personal account, 304–11
virtue ethics and, 529
Keller, Jean, 543
Kierkegaard, Søren, 87
Killing
casuistry and, 633
constraints against, 452
defeasible generalization and, 589
God and, 66
of innocents, 450
moral sentimentalism and, 231–32
Kingdom of ends, 494–97
definition of, 510–11n57
virtue ethics and, 529
Kitcher, Philip, 11
Kittay, Eva, 542–43
Knowledge, 47
sensibility theory and, 193
Kohlberg, Lawrence, 559
Korsgaard, Christine, 18, 298–300
on practical reasoning, 331–32
Labor, 544
Lance, Mark, 24
Law-giving, 495
Laws
codes, 173
of freedom, 484
of nature, 323
self-imposed, 496
teleological, 484
Legal ethics, 626
Legislators, 494–96
constraints of, 500
deliberative perspective on, 499
Kantian theory and, 497–98
rational, 495
Leibniz, Gottfried, 83
Leopold, Aldo, 376
Lex orandi, lex credendi, 65
Lex talionis, 173
Lexical priority, 466
Li, Chenyang, 552
Liability, 462
Liberal individualism
criticism of, 542–43
feminism in, 557
Liberty, 475n5
rights v., 467
Little, Margaret, 24
Locke, John, 391
Logical behaviorism, 115n16
Love
Christian ethic of, 553
ethics of, 65–66
God and, 82
Hutcheson on, 221
Loyalty, 442
Luther, Martin, 160
Lying, 632
MacIntyre, Alasdair, 555–56
Mackie, J. L., 9–10, 153
divine command theory and, 118n34
(p. 655)
Internalist Argument and, 245, 258
on naturalism, 110, 112–13
nihilism and, 240
normativity and, 133
objective values and, 93
Queerness Argument, 245
relativity and, 246–47
Mackie, John. See Mackie, J. L.
Magnetic compasses, 215n32
Matthew's Gospel, 65
Maximization, 385–86
intrapersonal, 387
Maxims
conditions for, 507n18
determination of, 496
duty and, 487–88, 506n12
morality of, 484
positive duty and, 488
rationally willed, 485
universal law formulas and, 483
willing, 505–6n9, 507n21
McDowell, John, 114n9, 128, 188
on Blackburn, 205
on ethical terms, 158
on faux virtues, 210–11
on sensibility, 208–9
sensibility theory and, 191, 202–3
McNaughton, David, 24–25
on Hume, 187
on principles, 568
Mentalism, 609–11
Merit schema, 203
Metaethical theory
evaluating, 31
theological voluntarism and, 65
Metaethics, 5–19
biology and, 175–81
Metaphysics
God and, 153
naturalistic, 93
The Metaphysics of Morals (Kant), 486
The Methods of Ethics (Sidgwick), 388
obligations and, 400
Mill, John Stuart
on act consequentialism, 418n2
competent judge and, 390–91
on pleasure, 367
on rights, 315n21
on wrongness, 290
Millgram, Elijah, 580
Minimalism
expressivism v., 160–61
truth and, 49–50
Monadic properties, 14
Monism, 629
Moore, G. E., 45–47, 147. See also Open Question Argument
influence of, 93–95
intuition and, 596
intuitionism and, 192
on naturalism, 129–33
Open Question Argument of, 95–96
organic unities and, 370–71
Principia Ethica, 60n8
problems for, 96–98
Moral accountability, 291
Moral agents, 18, 464
Moral antirealism, 41–43
moral realism v., 56–57
Moral approval, 233–35
Moral authority, 179–81
Moral beliefs, 11–12
Moral claims, 33n5
attitudes v., 48–49
moral realism and, 53
Moral code, 33n13
Moral commitments, 146
expressivism and, 150, 160
Moral common sense, 283
Moral conception, 406–7
Moral considerations, 4
Moral deliberation, 29, 577–78
complexity of, 574
Moral demands, 292
Moral disapprobation, 207
Moral disapproval, 233–35
Moral discourse, 31
factual discourse v., 49
features of, 48–49, 61n9
Moral duty, 288–89
Moral facts, 6, 40–41
cognitivism and, 53
epistemology of, 249
error theory and, 60n4
experiences and, 55
explanation and, 54–55
moral antirealism and, 42
nature of, 43
in nonmoral terms, 43–44
normativity and, 132–33, 140
relative, 250–51
skepticism of, 241
Moral imperatives, 283–84
evolution and, 164
Moral indignation, 538
(p. 656) Moral inquiry, 31, 607–8, 625
analysis of, 614
intuition-driven, 597–98
Moral judge, 605–6
Moral judgment
good, 453
issues about, 5
moral motivation and, 14–15
motivation and, 51–53
normativity of, 9
relativity of, 252
Moral judgments
absolutism in, 262
considered, 620n15
Humean theory and, 51
Kant and, 504n1
moral relativity and, 235–38
moral theory for, 599
motivation and, 14–15, 504n1
reflective equilibrium and, 607
Moral knowledge, 41
moral theory v., 567
obtaining, 175–76
Moral maturity, 559
Moral motivation. See also Motivation
moral judgment and, 14–15
Moral naturalism
judgment internalism and, 15
Moral nihilism
definition of, 240–42
Moral norms
content of, 291
Moral obligations, 18
Kantian theory and, 282
moral responsibility and, 292
responsibility and, 307
Moral oughts, 283–84
Moral perception, 587–88
sensibility theory and, 193
Moral philosophy, 3–5
Barrow on, 624
goals of, 5
Moral practice, 625–26
Moral precepts, 177
Moral predicates, 13
The Moral Problem (Smith), 143n6
Moral progress, 177–79
Moral properties, 11–12
identification of, 44
naturalism and, 127
naturalized metaphysics for, 50
Moral psychology, 220, 534. See also Psychology
Moral realism, 6, 40–41
antirealism v., 12–13
compatibility of, 32n3
error theory v., 53–54
explanation and, 54–56
justification and, 55–56
moral antirealism v., 56–57
moral claims and, 53
moral thought and, 51
motivational internalism and, 51–52
naturalistic v. nonnaturalistic, 8
normative, 59
projects in, 56–59
sentimentalism and, 236
Moral reality
expressivism and, 153
Moral reasoning
purpose of, 642
Moral reflection, 600
Moral relativism. See also Relativism
definition of, 240–42
Moral relativity
moral judgments and, 235–38
Moral responsibility, 18–19, 333–42
concept of, 333–34
Frankfurt on, 346–47
moral obligations and, 292
PAP and, 338–41
second-personal demands and, 284
Strawson on, 334
Moral rights, 26
conflict and, 466
foundational, 472–73
Moral rules
deliberation about, 498–500
Moral schizophrenia, 232–33
Moral sense
Hutcheson on, 221–22
Moral sentimentalism. See also Sentimentalism
history of, 219–21
Moral statuses, 24
Moral terms, 39
Moral theory
categorization of, 20
construction, 605
deduction and, 628–29
definition of, 640
efficiency of, 641
features of, 600–602
feminist insights for, 30–31
interpretation of, 626–28
(p. 657)
for moral judgments, 599
moral knowledge v., 567
moral principles and, 31
self-effacing, 640
testing, 626–27
wide reflective equilibrium and, 602–3
Moral thinking, 39
Moral thought, 59
moral antirealism and, 42
nature of, 50–51
purpose of, 48
Moral understanding, 540
Morality
absolute, 241
analyzing, 285–92
atheism and, 92
codifiability of, 433
cross-cultural, 255–56
deontic, 343–44
disagreements on, 615
divine command theory and, 71
divine law and, 72
emotion and, 538–39
ethics v., 4
God and, 6
monistic, 476n16
motivations for, 17
narrow, 437
by nature, 93
necessity of, 288
non-Kantian alternatives, 293–97
obligation and, 79
pluralistic, 466
practical reason and, 16, 311–13
public v. private, 541
purpose of, 641
rationality and, 18
as reciprocal accountability, 290–92
relativity of, 244
requirements for, 4
rights and, 459–61
rules v., 256
sentiments and, 15
vindicating, 293–313
wide, 440
Mothering, 558
Motivation. See also Moral motivation
desire and, 274
empathy and, 228
expressivism and, 150
Humean conception of, 259
Humean theory and, 279–80
internalism and, 257
moral judgment and, 51–53
reflective equilibrium and, 639
sentimentalism and, 220
Motivational accessibility, 397–98
Motivational consequentialism (MC), 443
Motivational distinctions, 133
Motivational internalism. See Internalism
Motivational state, 10
Motives, 110–13
acts and, 455n15
Mototonicity, 642n1
Multilateral interdependencies, 471
Nagel, Thomas, 158
Natural facts, 141–42
Natural law theory
determinism and, 323
theological voluntarism and, 65
Natural properties
definition of, 109
ethical properties v., 92
goodness as, 125
goodness v., 46
nonethical terms for, 98–99
wrongness as, 125
Naturalism. See also Ethical naturalism
analytic, 125, 127
Aristotelian, 123
criticisms of, 139–40
expressivism and, 159–60
metaphysical, 123
moral properties and, 127
nonanalytic, 125, 127
nonreductive, 98–99
one-term, 127
philosophical, 106–8
philosophical v. ethical, 108
theological, 114n5
varieties of, 123–27
virtue ethics and, 525–26
Naturalistic fallacy, 94
Nature, virtue and, 525–28
Necessity
aspects of, 287
Kantian theory and, 282
volitional, 351–52n10
Needs
meeting, 500–503
responding to, 545–46
Neutrality, 402
New Testament, 65–66
Nietzsche, Friedrich, 173
nihilism and, 240
(p. 658) Nihilism, 240
arguments for, 245–51
internalist argument to, 257–60
moral authority and, 179–80
of relativism, 241
relativism v., 260–62
Noddings, Nel, 224–25, 544
on caring societies, 550
Noncognitivism, 10–11, 48–50
biology and, 175
moral antirealism v., 42
nonnaturalism and, 50
nonsentimental, 214n211
sensibility theory and, 192
types of, 93
value judgments and, 197
Nonconsequentionalism, 21
Nondeontological theory, 428–32, 431–32
Noninstrumental concern for others, 413
Nonmoral facts, 43
Nonnatural properties, 48
Nonnaturalism. See also Open Question Argument
judgment internalism and, 15
Moore on, 129–33
noncognitivism and, 50
Parfit on, 129–33
Nonnormative concepts, 58
Norm specification, 627, 631–33
Normative concepts
nonnormative concepts v., 58
self-correction of, 58–59
Normative considerations, 434
Normative distinctions, 226
Normative ethics, 19–31
Kantian, 480–81
Normative guidance, 170–74
moral authority and, 180
Normative moral theory, 4–5
Normative sentimentalism, 226–33
Normative thought
moral realism and, 57
moral thoughts and, 59
Normativity, 9–10, 123, 133–36
of actions, 267
aspects of, 285–86
Kantian theory and, 282
perfectionism and, 391
self-referential altruism and, 415
Normativity Objection, 132–33
Norms, 272
binding, 289
Plato and, 148
reason-grounding, 298
Nozick, Robert, 26, 361, 389
constraints and, 396
on rights, 26, 466
on utilitarianism of rights, 26, 471
Numbers, 262n5
Nussbaum, Martha, 542
judgment, 575
Objective consequentialism. See Act consequentialism
Objective principle, 482
Objective values, 93
Objectivism, 188, 190 t
humor and, 195
Objectivity, 176–77
Obligation
akedah and, 87
coercion v., 317n53
decision procedure for, 79
deontology and, 70
divine command theory of, 77–78
ethical naturalism and, 92
naturalism and, 111–12
Rossian deontology and, 446
special, 398
Observation Argument, 247
Odyssey (Homer), 361
Ontology of relativism, 241
Open Question Argument, 45–47, 50–51, 96, 129–31, 147
internalism and, 52
noncognitivism and, 48
utilitarianism and, 393
Options, 24, 395
deontology and, 425–26, 446–48
personal, 397–98
RC and, 455n16
without constraints, 452
Orders, 306–7
Organic unities, 371–75
Oshana, Marina, 33n8, 333–34
Other-regarding concern, 411–13
weight of, 414
Ought-Imples-Can maxim, 344–49
Oughts, 313n1
Pain, 163
children and, 374
as evil, 368
(p. 659)
inflicting, 583
intentional, 373–74
Paradox of Deontology, 25–26
Parfit, Derek, 27
on blameless wrongdoing, 454n11
esoteric theory and, 640
on naturalism, 129–33
utilitarianism and, 403
Particularism, 24, 314n7, 433–35, 627, 634–36
deliberative, 576–78
epistemological, 576–78
generalizations in, 568
judgments and, 642
motivations of, 568
pleasure and, 579
Rossian deontology and, 435
Passions, 279
Paternalism, 464
Peace, 549
Perception of value, 186–93
Perceptivism, 13, 189, 190 t
Perceptual immediacy, 230
Pereboom, Derk, 340, 350
on determinism, 342
Perfectionism, 22, 364–67, 389–92
accommodation of, 392–93
reform of, 392–93
scope of concern in, 412
Personal identity, 27–28
defining, 420n22
fission cases, 420n23
utilitarianism and, 402–5
Pettit, Philip, 214n10
on holism, 581
Phenomenalism, 115n16
Philosophical inquiry, 625
Physicalism. See Objectivism
Physics, 114n9
determinism and, 322–23
Piety, 73–74
Plato, 6
Euthyphro and, 6, 64, 73–75, 81–85
hedonism and, 359
on intuition, 596
Norms and, 148
Republic, 100
Platonic Reality, 569–70
Platonism, theistic, 77
Pleasure
democracy in, 361–62
as goodness, 368
goodness v., 46
hedonism and, 359–60
intentional, 373–74
particularism and, 579, 635
theory of higher, 367
Pluralism, 80–81
deduction and, 629
Positive action-guiding principles, 164
Possibilities, 348
Practical identity argument, 299–302
Practical irrationality, 134
Practical rationality, 271–74
Practical reasoning, 15–18
balancing and, 630
deliberation and, 324–33
flourishing and, 531
Hume's theory of, 275–78
neo-Humean theories of, 268–71
normative principles of, 297
in virtue theory, 516–19, 528–29
Practice, 212
Pragmatic property, 116n20
Pragmatism, 155
Prayer, belief and, 65
Predicates, 124–25
Preference, 316n31
goodness and, 46
ideal, 418–19n9
Preference-satisfaction terms, 381–82
Prescriptions, 159
Prichard, H. A., 595
intuitionism and, 192
Primates, 168–69
altruism among, 171
size, 183n21
Principalism, 592n5
Rossian deontology and, 435
Principia Ethica (Moore), 60n8
ethical naturalism and, 94
reasoning and, 303
Principle of Alternative Possibilities (PAP), 334–41, 349
Principles
classical, 569–73, 570–71
deliberative, 570
exceptionless, 101–102, 577
generalizations and, 571
mechanical, 573–76
moral, 568
moral theory and, 31
nature of, 642
normative, 569
(p. 660)
particularism and, 635
purpose of, 641–42
testing, 601, 639
Prisoner's dilemma, 17
biological altruism and, 167–68
Private Language Argument, 300
Privileging, 590
Probabilities, subjective, 316n31
Probability theory, 152
Projectivism, 13, 188–89, 190 t
attitudes and, 200
Blackburn and, 235
color and, 200
contemporary, 197–200
Hume and, 223
sentimentalism and, 196
Promise-keeping, 433–34
deontology and, 442
Properties, 32–33n4, 215n26
ethical v. metaphysical, 94
microphysical, 191
Property identity, 69, 95–99, 140
Propositional knowledge, 104. See also Epistemology
Proto-morality, 173
evolution of, 174
Providence, 67
Psychological reductionism, 403–4
Psychology
feeling and, 276
moral, 220, 534
RC and, 444
virtue ethics and, 519
Pufendorf, Samuel, 309
Pust, Joel, 609
Quasi-realism, 154–55
evaluations and, 198
Queerness Argument, 245
Quine, W. V. O., 116n21
Quinn, Philip, 6–7
Railton, Peter, 16–17
RC and, 424
Rational agency, 20
Rational behavior, 16
Rational choice theory, 269–70
Rational decision theory, 269
Rational intuition, 41
Rationale, 266–67
Rationalism
deontology and, 226
Kantian, 159
sentimentalism v., 13–14, 220, 225–26
Rationality
internalism and, 52
morality and, 18
Rawling, Piers, 24–25
Rawls, John, 105, 639
balance and, 630
esoteric theory and, 640
expressivism and, 158
on justice, 472
mentalism and, 610
on moral theory construction, 605
on reflective equilibrium, 598, 604
on rights, 466
veil of ignorance, 498
Realism
ignorance and, 201
quasi-realism and, 154–55
Reason, 110–13
adjustment of, 58
agent-neutral, 383
agent-relative, 383
Foot on, 118n31
holism and, 582
internal, 296–97
internalism and, 52
normative, 59
normativity and, 134–35
personal, 447
Scanlon on, 441, 456n30
second-personal, 305–7
theoretical, 297
values and, 208–12
virtue and, 516, 585
Reasoning
deductive, 628–29
Hume and, 277–78
reflective equilibrium and, 639
Reciprocal accountability, 18, 290–92
Reductive property identifications, 97
Reflection, enriching, 604–8
Reflective equilibrium, 105, 598–604, 627, 639
alternatives to, 616–18
amendment to, 607
deconstruction of, 616
enriching, 613
mentalism and, 611
moral theory construction and, 606
(p. 661)
narrow, 599–600
wide, 602–4
Regan, D., 428
Regress argument, 299–302
Relativism, 13–14, 92–93, 240–42, 250–53
arguments against, 14, 253–57
indexical, 252–53
internalist argument to, 257–60
moral facts and, 41
nihilism v., 260–62
plausibility of, 60n2
Relativity, 246–47
Religion
care and, 552–54
disagreement between, 79–80
intolerance of, 540–41
Republic (Plato), 100
Respect, 291
dignity and, 490
rationality of, 491
Response, judgment and, 197–98
Responsibility
determinism and, 253
moral obligations and, 307
Resultance, 128
Retribution, 373
Richardson, Henry, 631
Right action, 20
consequentialist theory of, 21
criteria for, 23
nonconsequentialist theory of, 21
principles of, 31
theory of, 524–25
virtue ethics and, 30, 525
Right-making property, 30
Rightness, 9–10
consequentialism and, 21
deontology and, 70
goodness v., 44
identifying, 78–79
as monadic property, 14
Ross on, 47
Rights. See also Moral rights
characteristics of, 469
compossibility of, 468–70
content of, 463–65
correlative constraints and, 475n9
distributive function of, 470
enforceability of, 470–72
exercisability of, 461
exercising, 467–68
group, 476
inalienable, 465
Interest Theory and, 470
liberty v., 467
Mill on, 315n21
morality and, 459–61
natural, 460
negative, 472–74
positive, 472–74
status of, 466–68
structure of, 460, 461–63
as trumps, 468
universal human, 548–49
utilitarianism of, 471
Rights-based theory, 20
Rights-violations, 26
Robinson, Fiona, 557
Ross, W. D., 24, 47, 432–33
contextualist principalism, 575
intuitionism and, 595
Rossian principles
as constraints, 25–26
deontology, 24, 432–33, 435, 445
Ruddick, Sara, 547
mothering and, 558
peace and, 549
Rule consequentialism (RC), 24–25, 428–29
dependencies of, 26
friendship and, 443–44
options and, 455n16
psychology and, 444
Rules
absolutism and, 244
alterable, 462
correct, 251
enforceability of, 466
enforceable, 462
following, 434
morality v., 256
normative guidance and, 172
rights and, 461
Sandel, Michael, 542
Satisficers, 384
maximizers v., 385
Sayre-McCord, Geoffrey, 6–7
on judgment internalism, 15
Scanlon, T. M., 29, 118n31, 637
deontology and, 437–41
on reasons, 456n30
on wrongness, 440
Scheffler, Samuel, 33n12, 397, 431
(p. 662) Science
intuition and, 608–9
natural properties and, 109
virtue ethics and, 527
Scientific inquiry, 616
Scientific progress, 99
Scriptural hermeneutics, 68
Scruton, Roger, 195
Searle, John
on causal determinism, 350–51
practical reasoning and, 327–31
Second-personal aspect of morality, 284, 290–92
Kantian strategy, 304–11
Secularism, 117n25
“Self and Others” (Broad), 399–400
Self-concern, 410
Self-interest
universal law and, 487
virtue and, 30
Self-ownership, 473
Semantics
expressivism and, 156–57
generalizations and, 588–89
Sen, Amartya, 471
Sensation, 360
Sensibility theory, 13, 191–93
dispositionalism and, 200–204
habituation and, 210
humor and, 204
McDowell on, 208–9
Sentiment
Humean theory and, 279
morality and, 15–16
value and, 196
variety of, 204–8
Sentimentalism, 13–14, 187–88, 190, 194–97. See also Moral sentimentalism
circularity and, 233
metaphors for, 212
modern, 229
projective, 206
Shame, 203–4
Side-constraints. See Constraints
Sidgwick, Henry
esoteric theory and, 640
hedonism and, 359
on hedonistic egoism, 388
intuition and, 596
on intuitionism, 619n5
on special obligations, 400
Simple consequentialism (SC), 424
constraints and, 449
deontology and, 426–27
friendship and, 443
options and, 446–47
Scheffler on, 431
Simulation, 216n41
Singer, Peter, 229
Skepticism, 277
Skill model of virtue, 209
Skyrms, Brian, 165–66
Slote, Michael, 13–14, 551
Smilansky, Saul, 350
Smith, Adam, 233–34
Smith, Michael, 143n6
on holism, 581
Sober, Elliott, 165
Society
ethics of care and, 549–51
moral philosophy in, 4
Society-centered moral theory, 26, 33n13, 431
Socrates, 73–74
Sophisticated consequentialism, 429–31, 441, 442–43, 454n11, 455n15, 456n34
Source incompatibilism, 341–42
Speaker-relativism, 14
Special relationships
deontology and, 442–46
duties of, 425
Species, diversity of, 376
Spheres of Justice (Walzer), 263n11
Spite, 183n17
Spreading the Word (Blackburn), 156–57
Star, Daniel, 552–53
Starting at Home (Noddings), 550
Steiner, Hillel, 26
Stevenson, Charles, 114n9, 148
Stocker, Michael
moral psychology and, 220
moral schizophrenia, 232–33
Stoicism, 91
Strawson, Peter, 334
Sturgeon, Nicholas, 8–9, 125–26
on naturalism, 139–40
on Open Question Argument, 130–31
Subjectivism
hedonism and, 389
naive, 151
Substitute success syndrome, 238
Substitution test, 96
(p. 663) Suffering
animals and, 375
hedonism and, 360–61
Supererogatory action, 71, 448
Supernatural, 139
Superstition, 65
Supervenience, 128
Supremacy
aspects of, 286–87
Kantian theory and, 282
Sympathy, 223
empathy v., 227
Synonymy, 96
test, 103
test for, 97
Taylor, Richard, 324–26
Teaching, 175–76
Temporal immediacy, 230
Ten Commandments, 24, 66
expressivism and, 154
Terminology, 99, 213n8
Theism, 32n2
causation and, 101
Platonism and, 77
Theodicy (Leibniz), 75
Theological voluntarism, 309
Christian, 64–68
definition of, 63
Theology
casuistry and, 633
Moore on, 94
Theoretical reasoning, 268, 300
modeling practical on, 303–4
A Theory of Justice (Rawls), 472, 598
The Theory of Moral Sentiments (Smith), 234
The Theory of Morality (Donagan), 490
Thomas Aquinas, Saint, 66–67
atheism and, 117n25
Thomson, Judith Jarvis, 596, 629
on intuition, 601
Tit for tat (TFT), 167–68
Torture, 25
Treatise of Human Nature (Hume), 222, 275–76
action and, 274
Tribalism, 540–41
Trivers, Robert, 167
Triviality Objection, 131–32
normativity and, 140
Tronto, Joan, 544, 550
Trumps, 466
and rights, 468
Trust
ethics of care and, 560
practical reason and, 276
Truth, 47
antirealism and, 49–50
noncognitivism and, 49–50
Ubiquity thesis, 635
Unity, perfectionism and, 365–66
Universal law, 28
application of, 486–88
interpretation of, 484–86
willing, 508n25
willing maxims as, 481–88
Universal Law Formulation (FUL), 313n2, 481–83
criticisms of, 488
FULN v., 484
Kant on, 507n15
Universality
aspects of, 286
Kantian theory and, 282
Univocity, 207–8
Wiggins on, 215–16n32
Utilitarianism. See also Consequentialism
act, 79
Butler on, 222
feminism in, 557
flourishing and, 520
hedonistic act, 380
history of, 223–24
impartiality and, 393–95
internalism and, 260
monistic, 629
person neutrality of, 402
personal identity and, 402–5
personal options and, 397
prospects, 416
of rights, 471
voluntarism v., 402
Utilitarianism (Mill), 391
Utterances, 133
Valence, 579–80
particularism and, 636
switching, 579–81
variable, 434
(p. 664) Value
adjustment of, 58
balancing and, 631
care as, 546
definition of, 358–59
dispositionalism and, 201
environmental, 375–77
ethical, 519
ethical naturalism and, 92
fundamental, 499
of humanity formula, 493
perception of, 186–93
philosophy of, 148
promoting, 383
reality of, 202
reasons and, 208–12
sentiment and, 196
variety of, 204–8
Value theory, 21–22, 357–59
hedonism and, 359–61
Value-facts, 137–38
Value-judgments, 197
hedonism and, 360
van Inwagen, Peter, 350
on judgments, 343
on PAP, 334–35
practical reasoning and, 324–26
Verdictives, 626
Virtue
artificial, 223–24, 232
conceiving, 638
definition of, 516, 638
examples of, 517–18
faux, 210–11
final end and, 530–31
flourishing and, 519–23
living by, 523–25
natural, 220, 222
nature and, 525–28
perfectionism and, 365
reasons and, 585
self-interest and, 30
sensibility theory and, 193
skill model of, 209
unreduced modern, 532
Virtue consequentialism, 20
Virtue ethics, 20, 29–30, 158, 516–28, 636–38
Aristotle and, 29, 515
assumptions of, 523
caring v., 225
consequentialism and, 381, 533
criticism of, 534
deontology and, 453–54
evolution of, 526–27
features of, 515–16
flourishing and, 521–22
future of, 533–34
Humean theory and, 528
practical reasoning in, 518
reduced versions of, 528–32
weak, 531–32
Virtue theory, 20, 627, 636–38
ethics of care and, 29, 551–52
feminism and, 551–52
Virtuous actions, 91
Voluntarism. See also Theological voluntarism
associative duties and, 401–2
utilitarianism v., 402
Walker, Margaret, 540
feminism and, 556–57
Wallace, James, 632
Walzer, Michael, 263n11
Welfare-maximizing, 129
Well-being, 418n6
Wierenga, Edward R., 69–70, 75
Wiggins, David
on evaluative concepts, 206–7
sensibility theory and, 191
on sentimentalism, 196
on univocity, 215–16n32
Will
act of, 275
autonomy of, 489
Kant on, 508n24
weakness of, 150–51
Will theory, 463
Williams, Bernard, 71, 114n9
casuistry and, 634
on ethical theory, 625
moral psychology and, 220
on relativism, 253–54
sensibility theory and, 191
sentimentalism and, 206
Willing maxims, 481–88
Wittgenstein, Ludwig, 158–59, 300
Women. See also Feminism
ethics of care and, 539–40
exploitation of, 547–48
moral theory and, 555
Wood, Alan, 491–92
Wrangham, Richard, 169
Wright, Crispin, 215n24
(p. 665) Writing, invention of, 174
Wrongdoing
blameless, 454n11
blameless v. praiseworthy, 385
God's will and, 69
Wrongness, 7–8, 195
absolutism and, 243
akedah and, 86
degrees of, 467
deontology and, 70
divine command theory and, 69–70
divine command view and, 32n1
Mill on, 290
as moral property, 11–12
as natural property, 125
Scanlon on, 440
Yuan, Lijun, 553
Zimmerman, Michael, 333