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date: 11 July 2020

(p. 545) Index

(p. 545) Index

Abarbanell, L., 509
Abbott, Jack Henry, 434
abduction, 75, 341
Abramson, Fred, 161
absolute nonconceptual content, 296 n7
abstracta, 265
abstract condition, 534
accelerating Turing machine, 164 n30
access consciousness, 23
accidie, 193
Ackerman, B., 443
action-based framework, 279
action condition, 413
action individuation, 532
action potential, 226, 281
activation of concepts, 352
active attention, 101
Adams, Fred, 118n, 142n29
on extended cognition, 141
on Glenberg, 132n19
adaptation, 97
adaptive lag, 482
adaptive processes, 97
Adolphs, R., 413
Adrian, Edgar, 236
adults, psychological essentialism in, 457–58
affect program, 188
affordances, 121–22, 259n14
Aizawa, K., 118n, 142n29, 253n3
on extended cognition, 141
Alcock, J., 482
allocation devices, 88
allocation problem, 81
Fodor's version of, 81–82
Allport, D.A., 209, 211, 216
Alzheimer's disease, 141
amae, 185, 193
ambiguity, 365
American Council of Learned Societies, 445 n17
amnesia, 37
amok, 194
analog computation, 235
analytical behaviorism, 340
analytic cognitive style, 511
analytic processing, 441
advancing, 536–37
analytic project, 535–40
arguments against, 537–38
independent of, 539–40
anaphoric relations, 369
Andreou, C., 430 n6
Andrews, S., 467
animal cognition, 49–50
A-not-B error, 137
anterior insula, 412
anthropomorphism, 172
apodeictic, 158–59, 162
appraisal, 184
a priori knowledge, 320 n1
archaeology, 492–96
Ariew, A., 324, 325, 326, 428n3
Aristotle, 286, 319, 456
Armon-Jones, C., 184
Armstrong, Katherine, 216
arousal, 21
artificial intelligence, 11, 147–73
human-level, 147–48, 151, 166–67
narrow mechanism and, 161–62
ascent-routine theory, 419
associationism, 241
essentialism and, 466
asymmetric dependency analysis, 345
Atran, S., 506n3, 507
attention, 35, 201–18
active, 101
passive, 101
attentional learning account (ALA), 464
attenuation, 134
attributions, 413
audition, 102
auditory cues, 98
auditory-location, 106
Australian Aboriginal languages, 390
Australopithecines, 493
autism, 329n12, 432
automatic mimicry, 414
automatic processing, 441
autonomous mobile robot, 135
awareness, 22
first-person, 32–33
Baars, Bernard, 28
backward masking, 34
(p. 546) Baillargeon, R., 405
Baka, 507
Ballard, D., 133–34, 135
Baron-Cohen, Simon, 406
Barrett, Clark, 322 n4
on associationism, 466
on dangerous animals, 514–15
on enzymatic computation, 85–88
on minimal functional notion of modules, 64
basic emotions, 189, 198
Bayesian model, 47
Bayes nets, 405
Bayes’ theorem, 41
Bayne, Tim, 96
Beer, Randall, 124, 137, 138, 259n12
behavior
cognitive-behavioral flexibility, 78–88
discriminative, 137
evolutionary models of, 480–83
expressive, 172
flexibility, 79–80
infant, 137
simulated robot, 124
social, 481
Belief Box, 418
beliefs, 251
bias, 54
concepts and, 294
false, 389, 404, 507
language and, 312–13
paradigmatic, 293
relevance of, 78
systems of, 76
Berinmo pattern, 510
Berkeley, George, 333, 340
Berlin, B., 384
Bermudez, J., 313 n17
Berthoz, A., 279
biased-competition model, 203, 212–16
conflicting interpretations, 216–18
Desimone on, 216–18
Duncan on, 216–18
binocular rivalry, 214, 215
bipedalism, 492
Blair, James, 432 n7
blending emotions, 195
Bletchley Park, 168 n34
blindsight, 35
Block, Ned, 25, 152, 163, 321n3
on access consciousness, 23
on phenomenal consciousness, 31
blockheads, 152, 163
Boas, Franz, 126 n11
Boden, M.A., 159
bodily patterns, 196–97
Bohman, James, 445 n17
Boland, J.E., 512
BOLD signal, 215
Boolean constructions, 343–44
bootstrapping, 344
in children, 391
boredom, 186
Boroditsky, L., 126n10, 127–28
Bostrom, Nick, 167
bounded rationality, 44–50
Boyd, R., 436
Boyer, P., 522
brain
architecture, 282–85
functions of, 280–86
neurons, 280–81
rates and, 281
spikes, 280–81
split-brain thought-experiments, 170
time and, 281
brainstorming, 439
Braitenberg, Valentino, 172
Brandom, Robert, 310–12
Braun, J., 213
Brazilian Amazonia, 505
breathing control, 493, 495
Brentano, Franz, 121
Bricolo, Emanuela, 205
Broadbent, Donald, 9, 202–5
legacy of, 205–12
Brooks, Rodney, 83n18, 135, 148n3, 168n36, 172, 258, 278
Brown, Eric, 428n3, 438n13, 445n17
brute causal, 327
Buckner, R.L., 415
buffering, 325
Buller, David, 485
Bundesen, Claus, 205, 213
Bundy, Ted, 444
Bunge, Mario, 160
buoyancy, 127
Burge, T., 261, 345
Calder, A.J., 413
Callanan, M.A., 466
Campbell, John, 216
canalization, 323–26, 332
environmental, 324
genetic, 325n7
canalized traits, 506–7
canonical decomposition, 303
canonical description, 262
canonical neurons, 132
Cantonese, 390
capacity-limitation management, 205
Carens, J.H., 429 n5
Carey, Susan, 344, 350, 407
Carnap, R., 344
Carroll, D.C., 415
Carruthers, Peter, 7, 60, 65, 395
on modularity, 408
Cartesian confidence, 142
(p. 547) Cartesian Theater, 26
category boundaries, 461, 472
causal
brute, 327
computation, 226–32
constraints, 306
determinism, 470
externalism, 345–46
causation, 532, 535
c-command, 369, 370, 376
central cognition, confederate view of, 67
central modularity, 61, 66–67
strong, 67
weak, 67
Chalmers, David, 96, 139, 140, 226–27, 286
Charcot, Jean-Martin, 437
cheater detection mechanism, 65, 392
Cheng, K., 392
Cherniak, C., 325
Chierchia, G., 371 n8
children, 350 n26
bootstrapping in, 391
emotion in, 490
false belief test in, 507
innate bias in, 459
language and, 368–69, 372
nativism in, 459
parents and, 490
prelinguistic, 388
psychological essentialism in, 458–60
underlying structure and, 459–60
child-scientist, 405–6
chimpanzees, 488
Chinese, 511–12
Chinese gym, 156, 164
Chinese Room argument (CRA), 148
overview of, 153–54
part-of principle and, 155–56
problems in, 154–55
Wittgenstein and, 157–58
Choi, I., 51
Chomsky, Noam, 61, 262n19, 325, 341, 352, 361n1, 370n7
on language, 14, 202, 320, 363–64, 366, 369
on motivation, 267
poverty of stimulus arguments, 333
on strong representationalism, 260–62
Chua, H.F., 512
Church, Alonzo, 204, 223, 363
Churchland, P.S., 129, 238, 334n15
on commonsense psychology, 403
Church-Turing thesis, 164, 224, 234
Cialdini, R.B., 442
circumplex theory, 186–87
Clancy, W., 259
Clark, Andy, 124, 124n7, 259, 286, 387, 489
on dynamical systems, 138–40
on embedded accounts, 260
Clark, Austen, 101
classicism, 75
computationalism, 223–26, 238, 282
Fodor on, 282
Pylyshyn on, 282
revisiting, 239–43
Cliff, D., 259 n12
clinical narcissism, 433 n9
cocktail party effect, 206
cognition, 14
culture and, 503–23
effects of, on culture, 520–22
emotion and, 276–78
extended, 139–42, 508–10
intuitive, 55
language in, 382–97
mind and, 286–87
motor activity and, 131–32
in physical world, 5–6
reason and, 286
situated, 125
socially-embedded, 440
structuring, 385
traditional taxonomy, 274–76
cognitive architecture, 10, 60
cognitive-behavioral flexibility, 78–88
enzymatic computation, 85–88
massively modular architectures of, 82–88
pipeline architecture and, 83–85
weak massive modularity and, 82–83
cognitive evolution, 491–97
cognitive flexibility, confederate account of, 80
cognitive impenetrability, 63
cognitive interpretation, 266
cognitive mechanisms, 61, 63
individuation of, 66
cognitive niche construction, 49–50
cognitive styles
analytic, 511
holistic, 511
cognitive theories of consciousness, 27–28
cognitive trails, 50
cognitivism, traditional, 118–20
Cohen, Stewart, 42
collaborativism, 427, 445
collected information, 351
Collingwood, R.G., 411
color contrast, 298
color identification task, 510
color vocabulary, 510
Colyvan, Mark, 118n
combinatorial explosion, 77
commensurability, 105–6
common content, 105–7
commonsense psychology, Fodor on, 403
communication theory, 204, 229
compatiblists, 533, 537
compellingness, 101
competence, 352
composite concepts, 339
(p. 548) compositional massive modularity, 79
compositional plurality, 66
computation, theory of, 262
computationalism, 5, 75–76, 120, 167, 222–44
analog, 235
causal, 226–32
classicism in, 223–26, 238, 282
computational neuroscience and, 223–26
connectionism, 223–26, 282
digital, 232–35
forms of, 244f
generic, 236
mechanistic, 226–32
quantum, 235
semantic, 226–32
substantive empirical hypothesis, 222–23
computational neuroscience, 223–26
revisiting, 239–43
computational problems, 84
computational tractability, 70–77
computers, 159–60
metaphor, 119
conceptions, 341, 344
concepts, 291–315, 463
activation of, 352
beliefs and, 294
classical view of, 339
composite, 339
of consciousness, 20–23
contradictory contents argument, 300–302
current perceptions and, 305–7
defining, 291, 334–35
deployment of, 352
Descartes on, 335
detection and, 310–12
in embodied cognition, 125
of emotions, 150–51
in essentialism, 468
exact number, 390–91
fineness of grain argument, 296–98
holism argument, 308–9
innateness of, 339
Kantian spontaneity and, 310–12
kind, 388–89
of knowledge, 538
language-dependent, 388–91
learning, 127
lexical, 291
massive modularity, 339
metacognitive argument, 312–14
opacity argument, 307–8
possession of, 305–14
reasoning and, 310–12
re-representation of, 392n5
richness of experience argument, 299–300
scope of, 8
thought and, 7–8
variation, 468
conceptualism
content, 296 n7
state, 296 n7
conceptual identity, 301
conceptual issues, 4, 11–13
conceptualization fallacy, 295
conceptual mental states, 294–305
conceptual nativism, 320, 341, 353
Fodor on, 333–35
initial arguments for, 337–39
conceptual states, 293
concrete condition, 534
confederate view of central cognition, 67
confederate view of cognitive flexibility, 80
confirmation holism, 341
conflict, 104–10
importance of, 104–5
conformity, 436
conjoinability, 392
conjunctive entailment, 376–77
connectionism
computationalism and, 223–26, 282
revisiting, 239–43
conscious memory, 36–38
consciousness
access, 23
cognition and, 23–24
cognitive theories of, 27–28
creature, 20
diverse concepts of, 20–23
higher-order theories, 25–26
local recurrence models of, 31–32
multiple drafts model of, 26–27
narrative, 23
neural synchrony theories of, 30–31
neurobiological theories of, 30–32
phenomenal, 31
philosophical theories of, 24–27
problems of, 6–7
qualia realist theories of, 27
representational theories of, 24–25
research methods, 32–34
state, 20
stream of, 23
transitive, 22
conscious perception, 34–36
conservatism, 76
consistency, 76
constitution, in embodied cognition, 125, 129–32
constrained homophony, 365–70
constraints, 362
essentialism and, 468
consumption problem, 81
contempt, 195
content, 104–10, 186
absolute nonconceptual, 296n7
common, 105–7
conceptualism, 296n7
contradictory, 300–302
general consumption, 78
(p. 549) language and, 391–94
nonconceptual, 292
relative nonconceptual, 296n7
scenario, 299
context-sensitivity, 466
contradictory contents, 300–302
contrastive cases, 34–35
control, flow of, 79–80
control shell, 88
convention, individuation and, 111
Copeland, J., 11, 73n13
core knowledge, 406
correspondence problems, 113
Cosmides, Leda, 60, 67, 71, 322n4, 485
counterfactual, 345–46
coupling, 140
Cowie, Fiona, 326, 347, 348, 361n1
Crain, S., 14, 368, 370n6, 375, 376, 378
Crane, Tim, 300–302
creature consciousness, 20
Creatures, 135–36
creolization, 377 n12
Cross, D., 405, 507
cross-cultural psychological diversity, 507–12
environmental differences in, 511–12
proximal origins of, 508–10
crossmodal illusions, 97–98
explaining, 99–104
understanding, 105
crossmodal mechanisms, 101–2
crossmodal triggers, 101–2
cross-species continuity, 294–96
Csibra, G., 518, 519
Cudworth, Ralph, 319
Culbertson, James, 163
culture, 14, 384
acquisition, 512–20
cognition and, 503–23
dangerous animals and, 514–15
diet and, 515
diversity, 507–12
domain-general acquisition methods, 517–20
domain-specificity in acquisition of, 513–17
effects of cognition on, 520–22
environmental differences in, 511–12
evolution of, 520–22
experimental psychology and, 529–30
fear and, 514
inheritance, 487
psychological essentialism and, 507
psychological universals and, 503–7
social structure and, 515–16
tools and, 516
transmission through, 487–88
variation, 482
Cummins, T.D.R., 47, 253n3
Cushman, F., 431, 532
cybernetics movement, 283
Damasio, Antonio, 277–78, 285
dangerous animals, 521
Barrett on, 514–15
Dani, 384, 385, 509–10
Darley, J.M., 430, 441, 533
Darwin, Charles, 53, 319–20, 503
Darwinian modules, 188, 190, 192, 196
Davidoff, J., 510
Davidson, Donald, 314 n18
metacognitive argument, 312–14
opacity argument, 307–9
Davis, Miles, 251
deafness, 389
decision making
Berthoz on, 279
constraints, 46
decompositional plurality, 66
deductive closure, 409
deference, 102–3
to experts, 470
de Fockert, J.W., 211
Dehaene, S., 31, 505
deictic codes, 133, 135, 367
deliberative democracy, 442
deliberative polling, 443
Dennett, Daniel, 26
on evolutionary psychology, 489
multiple drafts model, 28
on rationality-teleology theory, 408–9
on strong representationalism, 253
deployment of concepts, 352
Descartes, Rene, 5, 286, 319, 333
on concepts, 335
on individualism, 428
DesChene, Dennis, 428 n3
descriptive tasks, 43
Desimone, Robert, 205, 213
on biased competition, 216–18
despair, 187
detection, concepts and, 310–12
determinism, 532–35
Deutsch, D., 208
Deutsch, J.A., 208
developmentalists, 418
de Villiers, J., 390
de Villiers, P., 390
Devitt, M., 351
dialects, 363
dichotic listening experiments, 206
diet, culture and, 515
difference vector, 264
differential looking time test, 485
digital computation, 232–35
types of, 233 f
digits, 232
Dilthey, 411
disagreement, 105
discontinuities, 267
discrete state machine, 152
(p. 550) discrimination behavior, 137
discursive representation, 302–5
disgust, 521
disgust mirroring, 412
displacement, 265
in visual space, 266
display rules, 193
dispositional properties, 319
distal interpretation, 256, 265
distal properties, 267
diversity, 53
domain-general capacities
cultural acquisition mechanisms, 517–20
essentialism and, 468–70
domain-specificity, 62, 63
cultural information acquisition mechanisms, 513–17
in essentialism, 463–64
of folk theories, 506
Donald, Merlin, 139
Doris, J., 15, 430n6, 533
dorsal stream, 36
down-stream module, 392
Down syndrome, 406
downward entailing, 374
Dretske, F., 267n21, 345
Dreyfus, H.L., 168 n36
dualism, 27, 41–2, 55
dual process approach, 441
dual-process model, 275
dual-process theory, 43–44
dual systems theories, 383
language and, 394–97
dumb attentional mechanisms, 464
dumbfounding, 441
Dummett, Michael, 305–7, 383n1
Duncan, J., 208, 213
on biased-competition, 216–18
Dunning, D., 416
duplication problem, 170
Dutch, 509
dynamical systems, 283
Clark on, 138–40
embodied cognition and, 136–39
ecological rationality, 44–50, 55
ecological tools, 488–89
Edelman, Gerald, 29, 30
EEG, 34
Egan, Frances, 5, 262n20, 268n22
egocentricism, 386
bias, 416
E-imagination, 414
Ekman, Paul, 187, 189, 192, 196, 198
E-languages, 363
Eliasmith, Chris, 284
eliminativism, 212, 262
Ellenberger, H., 437
Ellis, R., 131–32
embedded accounts, 5
Clark on, 260
embedded cognition
socially, 440
strong representationalism and, 258–60
embodied accounts, 5
Clark on, 260
embodied cognition, 118–44
conceptions of, 123–25
conceptualization in, 125, 126–29
constitution and, 129–32
dynamical systems and, 136–39
Gibsonian foundations of, 120–23
replacement and, 125, 133
strong, 128 n12
strong representationalism and, 258–60
support for, 125–39
emendation, 440
emotion, 183–200
acquiring new, 192–96
basic, 189, 198
blending, 195
bodily patterns in, 196–97
cardinality, 184–92
in children, 490
cognition and, 276–78
concept of, 150–51
counting, 196–99
defining, 278
expressions, 193–94
nonbasic, 198
reactions, 395
social, 444
theories, 184–92
empathy theory, 410
empiricism, 340–41
essentialism and, 464–68
employment test, 151
emulators, 285
end effectors, 263
enduring substance, 319
energy, individuation of, 111
English, 363, 365
Enigma, 168 n34
Enlightenment, 429, 436
entropy, 228–29, 353
environmental canalization, 324
environmental differences in cross-cultural diversity, 511–12
Environment of Evolutionary Adaptiveness, 322 n5
envy, 196
enzymatic computation, cognitive-behavioral flexibility and, 85–88
E-rationality, 43
error management, 521
Eskimos, 384
(p. 551) essence, 455
Essential Distal Content View, 257, 265, 266
essentialism, 454–73
arguments against, 460–62
associationism and, 466
causal determinism, 470
conceptual change, 468, 470–71
constraints in, 468
deference in, 470
defining, 461
domain-general capacities and, 468–70
domain-specificity in, 463–64
framing issues, 455–57
Gelman in, 463
labels in, 467
modular accounts of, 463–64
nativism and, 462–70
origins of, 462–70
psychological, 8, 455, 457–60, 507
root capacities underlying, 469 t
essentializing, 388
ethics, 437
Evans, 43–44, 49, 419
evolution
cognitive, 491–97
of culture, 520–22
of language, 493
massive modularity and, 68–70
nativism and, 483–86
of tool use, 492–96
evolutionary biology, 10–11
evolutionary psychology, 392, 480–98
alternative models of, 487–91
behavior in, 480–83
Dennett on, 489
folk psychology and, 489–91
future of, 497–98
language in, 483–84
mind in, 480–83
evolutionary rationality, 54
evolvability, 68
exact number concepts, 390–91
excessive world modelling, 124
exclusive disjunction, 371–72
exhaustive search, 72–73
experience, 114
distinctive characteristics of, 111
individuation of, 111
phenomenal, 21–22
qualitative, 21–22
richness of, 299–300
experimental philosophy, 16, 528–41
analytic project and, 535–40
cultural differences, 529–30
studies, 529–35
explanada, 142n29, 143
explanatorily independent, 94
explanatory transparency, 268
explicit memory, 37
expressive behaviors, 172
expressive capacity, 349
expressive power, 339, 348, 352
extended cognition, 139–42
Adams on, 141
Aizawa on, 141
language and, 508
extended Turing machine (ETM), 161
externalism, 345–49
causal theories, 345–46
Fodor on, 345–46
eye saccades, 133
facial actions, 193
facial mimicry, 414
faithfulness assumption, 405
false beliefs, 389, 404
children in, 507
fear, 187, 192–93
culture and, 514
Feature Integration Theory, 210
feedback control systems, 283
Feigenbaum, E.A., 151, 153
Feigenbaum test, 151
Fessler, Daniel, 14, 522
field dependence, 511
field independence, 511
Fiendish experts, 152–53
fineness of grain argument, 296–98
finiteness of universal, 165
finite-yet-unbounded language, 363
first-order empirical issues, 4, 13–15
first-person awareness, 32–33
first-person mindreading, 417–20
Fischer, L., 213
Fiskin, J.S., 443
Fitch, W., 361n1, 370n7
flash illusion, 99
flexibility, 61
behavioral, 79–80
cognitive, 80
cognitive-behavioral, 78–88, 82–88
representational, 78–79
thesis, 79
flow of control, 79–80
fMRI, 34, 215, 412, 413
focal colors, 510
Fodor, Jerry, 60, 71, 73n13, 80n17, 267n21, 308, 320, 336n18, 361n1
on allocation problem, 81–82
Boolean constructions of, 343–44
on classical architecture, 282
on commonsense psychology, 403
on conceptual nativism, 333–35
on externalism, 345–46
formality condition, 255
(p. 552) on innate ideas, 349–51
on innateness of concepts, 338
input problem of, 82f
on language, 383
locality argument of, 74–77
on modularity, 60, 66–67, 188, 408
on nativism, 329n11
on Piaget, 339n20
prototype triggering view of, 346–49
on representation, 302–5
on robust notions of modularity, 62–64
on thought, 252
Fodor's Puzzle of Concept Acquisition, 334
Folds-Bennett, Trisha, 432 n7
folk biology, 506
folk-physics, 392
folk psychology, 186–87
evolutionary psychology and, 489–91
moral judgment and, 530–32
universal core in, 507
folk theories, domain-specificity of, 506
Ford, Kenneth, 151
formality condition, 255
forward kinematics, 263
forward model, 284
fossil record, 492–96
framework concepts, 343
Frankish, K., 395
Frege, G., 335n16, 339, 363
Fregean tradition, 301
Freud, Sigmund, 36–37, 437
Frith, Uta, 406
function, individuation of, 111
functional fixedness, 517
functional mechanisms, 230
fundamental divisions, 298
futurists, 166
Gage, Phineas, 277, 327
Gallagher, S., 259
Gallese, Vittorio, 411–14
Gandhi, Mohandas, 437
Gandy, Robin, 165 n31
Gaussian, 263
gaze, 407
Gelman, S., 350n26, 457, 458
on essentialism, 463
generalizing primitivism, 330–32
General Problem Solver (GPS), 119, 204
generatively entrenched homologies, 504–6
generic computationalism, 236
genetic canalization, 325 n7
genius, 436–37
geocentricism, 386
geometric information, 394
Gergely, G., 409, 518, 519
Gettier case, 52, 529
Gibson, J.J., 121
on strong representationalism, 257–58
Gibsonian foundations of embodied cognition, 120–23
Gigerenzer, G., 45, 47, 456
Gill, Michael, 445 n17
Gleitman, L., 386, 509
Glenberg, A., 131, 132n19
Adams on, 132n19
global broadcasting, 395
global representation, 269
global workplace theories, 28
Gödel, Kurt, 223, 530
Godfrey-Smith, P., 226
Goldman, Alvin, 13, 411, 420
Goldstein, E., 122 n2
Goldstone, R.L., 49
Good, Jack, 168 n34
Goodale, M., 36
Goodin, R.E., 429
Goodman, Nelson, 337
Good Old-Fashioned AI (GOFAI), 153
Gopnik, A., 71, 403, 405
Gordon, Robert, 410, 419, 505
Gould, Stephen G., 60
Graham, G., 309
Greene, J.D., 428n3, 431
Greenspan, P., 184
Gregory, Richard, 121
Grice, H.P., 371 n8
Griffiths, Paul, 51, 188, 320n2, 330n13
Gross, S., 12
grue, 337–38
Grush, R., 284
Gualmini, A., 375, 376, 378
Guha, R.V., 73 n13
guilt, 444
Habekost, Thomas, 205, 213
Haidt, J., 440–41
hallucinations, 435
halting function, 161 n26
Haney, C., 434
happiness, 532
Harlow, H.F., 432
Harman, G., 251, 341
Harvey, I., 259 n12
Hatfield, Gary, 118n, 121n2, 143
Hauser, M., 361n1, 370n7
Haybron, Daniel, 445 n17
Hayes, Patrick, 151
Heal, Jane, 411
(p. 553) Hebbian learning, 282
Heidegger, Martin, 121
Heider, E., 385, 510
Heil, J., 112
Herbert, 258
Herbert of Cherbury, 319
Hermer, L., 393
Hermer-Vazquez, L., 393
heuristics, 53, 456
one-reason decision, 46
simple, 46–47
take-the-best, 46
Higginbotham, J., 364
higher order theories of consciousness, 25–26
high-level mindreading, 414–17
hippocampus, 37
Hirschfeld, L.A., 457, 521
Hirst, A., 211
Hobbes, Thomas, 223
Hodgkin, A.L., 226
holism argument, 308–9
confirmation, 341
holism problem, 81
holistic cognitive style, 511
Hollywood Squares paradigm, 134
hominins, 492–93
Homo erectus, 493
Homo neandertalis, 493, 494
Hong, Lu, 53
hormones, 238
Hornstein, N., 361n1, 370n7
horror, 196
hot metaphor, 185
Huguenots, 442
human-level AI, 147–48, 151, 166–67
Hume, David, 12, 333, 340
Hurlburt, R.T., 419
Hurley, S., 47, 284
Husbands, P., 259 n12
Husserl, Edmund, 121
Hutchins, Edwin, 139
Huxley, A.F., 226
hypercomputation, 158–65
hyper-nets, 164
hypothesis confirmation, 338
hypothetical deductive (HD), 352
hysteria, 194
Iacoboni, M., 413
iconic representation, 302–5
I-languages, 362–64, 368, 378
acquisition of, 377n12
illusions, 97
waterfall, 300
crossmodal, 97–105
flash, 99
motion aftereffect, 300
imagine-based simulation, 416
imitation game, 148, 149–50
impactful research, 439
implications, 444
implicit memory, 37
incest taboos, 522
inclusive disjunction, 371–72
incompatibility, 532
incompatiblists, 537
indignation, 193
individual differences, 53–55
individualism, 53, 426, 445
in cognitive science of morality, 430–31
Descartes on, 428
history of, 427–30
possessive, 429
reasoning and, 440
individuation, 303
action, 532
of function, 111
infant behavior, 137
inferential holism, 73, 78
informal motivation, 267
information, collected, 351
informational encapsulation, 62, 63
informational impoverishment, 71
information flow, 209
information integration theories, 29–30
information-processing architecture, 286
information-using systems, 250, 259, 268
inherent appropriateness, 102
inhibitory control, 405
innate bias, 459
innate ideas, 333–51
empiricism in, 340–41
evolutionary worries, 336–37
externalism, 345–49
Fodor on, 349–51
internal constructs, 339–45
preliminary issues, 334–37
prototype theories, 342
verificationism in, 340–41
innateness, 12, 62, 318–54, 332–33
biological conceptions of, 321–26
of concepts, 339
defining, 320–33
historical background of, 319–20
of massive modularity, 347
innate potential, 459
inner sense, 419
inner speech, 387, 395
input/output digital (I/O), 234
input problem, Fodor's, 82 f
inputs, 63
instincts, 319–20
integrated competition model, 203
(p. 554) integrated modalities, 96
integration problem, 81
intelligence. See also artificial intelligence
amplifiers, 148
make-believe, 171–72
social, 48
swarm, 50
“Intelligent Machinery” (Turing), 150
intended outcome, 330 n13
intentional action, 539
intentional internals, 268 n22
intentionalism, 108
intentional stance, 409–10
intention condition, 413
interaction, among sensory systems, 97
intermediate level representation theories, 28–29
intermodal binding, 109
intermodal perception, 100, 109
internal environment, 265
internalism, 41, 43
internal models, 285
intractability arguments, 70
of unencapsulated process, 73–74
Intractability Thesis, 70–71
intramodal restrictions, 108
introspection, 25, 417, 419
introspectionism, 419
intuition, 52, 442, 532
about knowledge, 529, 532
reference and, 530
intuitive cognition, 55
invariance, 322–23
invariants, 121
inverse dynamics, 264
inverse kinematics, 264
Inverted Earth, 25
Izard, V., 505
Jackendoff, R., 343
Jacoby, L., 38
James, William, 190, 201, 456
Jerne, Niels, 331, 336
Jews, 442
Ji, L., 511
Joanette, Y., 389 n4
Johnson, M., 126–27, 407
Johnson-Laird, Philip, 275
Jones, John, 163, 465
Joy, Bill, 166
J-shaped distribution, 47
Kacelnik, A., 43
Kant, Immanuel, 347, 348, 429
Kantian spontaneity, 310–12
Kaschak, M., 131
Kastner, Sabine, 215, 216, 218
Kauppinen, A., 537
Kay, P., 384
Keeley, B.L., 112
Keil, Frank, 456
Kelly, Sean, 297, 298
Keltner, Dacher, 194
kind-concepts, 388–89
King, Martin Luther, Jr., 437
Kirsh, D., 259, 268n23
Kismet, 171–72
Kitcher, Philip, 53, 436
Kleene, Stephen, 223
Knobe, Joshua, 16, 430n6, 534
knowledge, 532
concept of, 538
core, 406
intuitions about, 529
a priori, 320 n1
sources, 88
tacit, 130
Kornblith, Hilary, 54
Kosslyn, S.M., 415
Krascum, R.M., 467
Kripke, S., 457, 530
on natural kind terms, 349–50
on reference fixers, 344–45
Kuhn, T., 437
Kurzban, R., 64
Kurzweil, Ray, 154, 166, 169, 170–71
Kurzweil's law, 168–69
labels, 467
Lakoff, G., 126–27
Lamme, Victor, 31–32
Landau, B., 385 n3
Landy, D., 49
language, 361–79. See also specific languages
acquisition, 312
Australian Aboriginal, 390
belief and, 312–13
children and, 368–69, 372
Chomsky on, 14, 202, 320, 363–64, 366, 369
in cognition, 382–97
cognition and, 508
concepts dependent on, 388–91
constraints, 362
as content combiner, 391–94
dual systems theory and, 394–97
E-languages, 363
in evolutionary psychology, 483–84
evolution of, 493
extended cognition and, 508
finite-yet-unbounded, 363
Fodor on, 383
I-languages, 362–64, 368, 378
learning, 388–89
(p. 555) Levinson on, 508–9
limited variation, 377–78
patterns in, 370–74
procedures, 362–64
related generalizations, 374–77
thought and, 7, 383
time and, 128n12
Language Acquisition Device, 325
language faculty, 361–79
Laplaceans, 263
Lasker-Bauer combination, 276
Lasnik, H., 363
latah, 194
Latane, B., 441
late selection theory, 208
Laurence, S., 8, 334, 345, 349, 351, 370n6
Lavie, Nilli, 211
Lavoisier, Antoine, 53
Law of accelerating returns. See Kurzweil's law
learning, 327, 353, 377n12
Hebbian, 282
language, 388–89
ostension in, 518
reference in, 518
relevance in, 518
target selection, 519
trial and error, 516
triggering v., 335–36
Lecours, A., 389 n4
Lee, M.D., 47
Leibniz, 333
Lemer, C., 505
Lenat, Douglas, 148
Leslie, A., 391, 406, 407
Levenson, R.W., 197
Levinson, S., 385, 386
on language, 508–9
Levy, A., 73 n13
Lewis, David, 344
Lewontin, D., 321
lexical concepts, 291
Li, P., 386, 509
Lienard, P., 522
Lightfoot, D., 361 n1
light intensities, 263, 265, 266
limited pancomputationalism, 227 n1
linguistic scaffolding, 387–88
Lipton, J., 341
LISP, 162
locality argument, 74–77
local recurrence models of consciousness, 31–32
Locke, John, 319, 333, 340, 456
Loebner Contests, 153
Loewenstein, G., 416
Logical Positivism, 340
logical structure, 340
long-term memory, 280
low-level mind-reading, 414
Ludwig, K., 74n16, 537
Luria, Alexander, 508
macaques, 132
MacDonald, C., 253
MacDonald, G., 253
Mace, W., 122 n1
Machery, Edouard, 14, 350n26, 530
Macpherson, C.B., 429
make-believe intelligence, 171–72
mandatory operation, 62
marah, 195
Marcel, Anthony, 34
Margolis, Eric, 8, 334, 345, 349, 351, 370n6
Marr, David, 11, 261, 262, 263, 265
Martin, L., 93, 384n2
Marwick, Ben, 495
masked stimuli, 34–35
massive modularity, 60–89
central, 61, 66–67
cognitive-behavioral flexibility and, 82–88
compositional, 79
composition of, 61–64
concepts, 339
empirically plausable systems for, 85
evolution and, 68–70
innateness of, 347
plurality in, 61, 64–66
strong, 62
task specificity and, 69
weak, 62, 82–83
matching bias, 54
materialism, 161n25, 167, 255
mathematical intuition, 160
Matthen, Mohan, 300, 304
Matthews, R., 252n2, 268n22
Maya, Itza, 507
Mayans, 386
McCarrell, N.S., 466
McCarthy, John, 148
McConnell-Ginet, S., 371 n8
McCulloch, Warren, 224–25, 237–38, 239
McCulloch-Pitts networks, 224–25, 234
McDaniel, D., 378
McDermott, K., 38
McDowell, John, 297, 302–4, 309, 310–12
McGurk effect, 99, 102, 103, 104
McKee, C., 368
meaning, 269
meaning-blind, 158
meaning relation, 261
means-end reasoning, 306
mechanistic assumptions, 10
mechanistic computation, 226–32
mechanistic explanations, 5
Medin, D., 342
medium-independence, 231
MEG, 34
(p. 556) Meltzoff, Andrew, 403
memory
conscious, 36–38
explicit, 37
implicit, 37
long-term, 280
motor activity and, 131
short-term, 520
unconscious, 36–38
Meno (Plato), 319
mental mechanisms, 520–22
misfirings of, 522–23
mental phenomena, 8–9
Merleau-Ponty, Maurice, 120–21
Meroni, L., 375
Mesmer, 437
metacognitive argument, 312–14
metaphilosophical issues, 16, 540–41
metaphor
for cognition, 287–88
computer, 119
in concept acquisition, 127
hot, 184
metaphysics, 347
meta-theoretic issues, 4, 9–11
foundational assumptions, 9–10
inter-disciplinary relationships, 10–11
Milgram, S., 441
Mill, John Stewart, 429, 436–37
Milner, A., 36
mimicking digital computer, 152
mimicry
automatic, 414
facial, 414
mind, 151, 273
cognition and, 286–87
embedded accounts of, 5
embodied accounts of, 5
evolutionary models of, 480–83
faculties of, 274
theory of, 13, 389–90, 402–20
traditional philosophical issues about, 4–9
uploading, 170–71
mind-reading, 392
high-level, 414–17
low-level, 414
simulational, 411–14
minimal functional notion of modules, 64
minimal link condition, 261
mirroring, 411–14
mirror neurons, 132, 412
mirror system, 412
miscomputation, 231
Mithen, Stephen, 496
modality appropriateness hypothesis, 102
modern control theory, 283–84
modularity, 77. See also massive modularity
Carruthers on, 408
essentialism and, 463–64
Fodor on, 66, 188, 408
robust notions of, 62–64
ToMM and, 408
of vision, 110
modularity-nativist approach, 406–8
modules, 383
characteristics of, 188
down-stream, 392
minimal functional notion of, 64
modus ponens, 43, 275
modus tollens, 42, 275
Mole, Christopher, 9, 218
Moll, J., 431
Moore, Gordon, 166
Moore, Tirin, 216
Moore's law, 166–68
morality, 425–45
dumbfounding, 441
folk psychology and, 530–32
individualism and, 430–31
judgments, 530–32
reasoning and, 440–45
responsibility and, 532–35
tradition and, 437
Moravec, Hans, 166
Moray, Neville, 206
morphemes, 334
Morris, E., 534
motion aftereffect illusion, 300
motion-bounce effect, 99
motion parallax, 129–30
motivation
Chomsky on, 267
general, 267
informal, 267
motor activity, 131
cognition and, 131–32
motor mirroring, 412
multimodality, 8
calibration of, 97
deference in, 102
interaction, 102–4
organizing principles, 99–101
in perception, 113–14
rich, 94
senses in, 110–12
unified, 95
varieties of, 95–97
multiple drafts model of consciousness, 26–27
Dennett on, 28
Mundurukú, 505
Munnich, E., 385 n3
Naccache, 31
Nadelhoffer, T., 534
Nagel, Thomas, 6, 21
Nahmias, E., 534
nanobots, 167–68, 172
(p. 557) narcissistic personality disorder, 433
narrative consciousness, 23
narrow mechanism, 160–61
AI foundations and, 161–62
National Socialism, 441
nativism, 319–20
in children, 459
conceptual, 320, 341
essentialism and, 462–70
evolutionary, 483–86
Fodor on, 329 n11
Naturahl, 363, 365, 377n12
natural kind terms, 349–50
natural meaning, 229
natural semantic information, 237
nature-versus-nurture, 462
Navarrete, 522
negative polarity items (NPIs), 375, 376
nervous system, evolution of, 279
Neumann, Odmar, 216
neural imaging techniques, 34
neural localization, 62
neural-network approaches, 240
neural synchrony theories of consciousness, 30–31
neuroanatomical data, 225
neurobiological theories of consciousness, 30–32
neuronal global workspace, 31
neurons
canonical, 132
mirror, 132, 412
neurophysiological data, 225
neuroscience, 11
neurotransmitters, 238
Newell, Allen, 11, 71, 162n27, 286
on GPS, 119–20, 204
physical symbol system, 254
on Turing machines, 160
Newman, Max, 168
Newton's law, 136
niche construction, 491
cognitive, 49–50
Nichols, S., 15, 418, 430n6, 432n7, 529, 530, 534, 538
Nichols-Stich theory, 418
Nietzsche, Friedrich, 427, 429
Nilsson, N.J., 151
Nisbett, R.E., 51, 511, 512
Noë, A., 130, 259
nonbasic emotions, 198
nonce words, 528
nonconceptual, 292
absolute, content, 296 n7
content, 292
relative, content, 296 n7
states, 293
nonexperimental philosophy, 540
non-naturalism, 348
non-natural meaning, 229
non-natural semantic information, 237
nonobvious properties, 460
non-overlapping pools, 84
non-sensory primitives, 343–45
nonvisual modalities, 93
Norenzayan, A., 512
Normalization Model, 214
Norman, J., 143
normative project, 538
normative rationality, 54
normative tasks, 43
nostalgia, 196
Nudds, M., 47, 112
number words, 390–91
nutrition, 515
object-files, 391
objective criteria, 32–33
objects, 107
individuation of, 111
objectual unity, 96, 114
O’Callaghan, Casey, 8
occurant properties, 319
Olivier, D., 385, 510
one-reason decision heuristics, 46–47
one-way dependence, 24
Onishi, K.H., 405
opacity argument, 307–8
optic array, 121
optic ataxia, 36
O’Regan, J.K., 130
orientation, 98
or-statements, 371–72
ostension, learning in, 518
overt speech, 387
Page, Scott, 53
pain mirroring, 412
paleoanthropology, 496
pancomputationalism, 227, 231
limited, 227n1
unlimited, 227n1
Papafragou, A., 509
paradigmatic belief states, 293
paradox of preface, 409
parallel distributed processing (PDP), 268
Parasuraman, Raja, 212
parents, children and, 490
Pashler, Harold, 210, 211
passive attention, 101
Pastukhov, A., 213
patterns
bodily, 196–97
language, 370–74
Peacocke, C., 299, 304, 335n16
pedagogy, 521
Pelican Bay, 434
Peng, K., 511
perception
conscious, 34–36
current, 305–7
individuation of, 111
intermodal, 100, 109
multimodality in, 113–14
unconscious, 34–36
unimodal approaches to, 92–95
perceptual expectations, 114
perceptual experiences, 95
perceptual load, 211
perceptual mechanisms, 96
performance factors, 63
Perner, Josef, 403, 404
perspective, 53
perspicuous representation, 161 n25
Peruvian Indians, 507
PET, 34
Peterson, Steven, 208–9
phenomenal consciousness, 31
phenomenal experience, 21–22
phenomenalism, 340
phenomenal states, 22
phenomenology, 32–33, 104–10
shared, 107–10
phenotypic plasticity, 504
phenotypic variation, 321
phenylketonuria (PKU), 329 n13
phi, 29–30
philosophical method, 539
physical symbol system, 162, 254
physical world, cognition in, 5–6
physiological channels, individuation of, 111
physiology of preference, 279
Piaget, J., 136
Fodor on, 339 n20
Pica, P., 505
Piccinini, Gualtiero, 5
Pickwick representation, 260
picture principle, 303
Pietroski, P., 14, 370n6, 370n7, 378
pilot, 283
Pinker, Steven, 60, 336, 361n1
pipeline architecture, cognitive-behavioral flexibility and, 83–85
Pirahã, 505
Pitts, Walter, 224–25, 237–38, 239
place holders, 344, 457
plasticity
phenotypic, 504
representational, 78
Plato, 319, 456
plurality, 61, 64–66
compositional, 66
decompositional, 66
Pohl, T., 74 n16
pointing, 133, 135
Pollack, Jordan, 148, 154
Port, R., 259 n12
positive polarity item (PPI), 373
Posner, Michael, 208–9
possessive individualism, 429
Post, Emil, 223
Pour-El, M., 235, 238
poverty of stimulus argument, 320, 337, 370n6, 463
of Chomsky, 333
PP-rationality, 43
precedent effects, 442
prelinguistic children, 388
prepotent tendencies, 405
prescriptive tasks, 43
primitivism
generalizing, 330–32
overgeneration and, 326–27
psychological, 326–30
Prinz, Jesse, 9, 29
privileged access, 417
problem solving, 286
procedural matters, 362–64
processing specificity, 86, 87–88
production blocking, 439
property clusters, 469–70
propositional attitudes, 251–54, 292, 305n13, 312n16, 334, 402–3, 408–9, 411
proprioception, 103
proto-thought, 305–6, 383n1
prototype theories, 342–43
prototype triggering view, 346–49
Proudfoot, 11
proxytypes, 342
psychic unity, 504
psychoanalysis, 36–37
psychological data, 225
psychological essentialism, 8, 455
in adults, 457–58
in children, 458–60
culture and, 507
evidence for, 457–60
framing issues, 455–57
psychological primitivism, 326–30
normal development and, 328–30
prototype theories, 342
psychological processes, 536
psychological refractory period, 210
psychological universals
canalized traits, 506–7
culture and, 503–7
in folk psychology, 507
generatively entrenched homologies, 504–6
psychopathy, 433 n9
(p. 559) publicity, 335
public reasoning process, 396
Pullum, G., 361n1, 370n6, 384n2
pure simulation, 162–64
Putnam, Hilary, 160, 163n28, 340, 345
on natural kind terms, 349–50
Pylyshyn, Z.W., 252, 255, 256
on classical architecture, 282
on mechanical reasoning, 255–56
qualia realist theories of consciousness, 27
qualifications, 444
qualitative experience, 21–22
qualitative states, 22
quality spaces, 338
quantum computation, 235
quarantine failure, 416
qubits, 235
qudits, 235
Quecha, 507
Quine, W., 260, 334, 338, 341n21, 343, 345
on confirmational holism, 340–41
Ramachandran, V., 129
Ramscar, M., 127–28
Ramsey, Frank, 344
rate codes, 281
rational conceptual nativism (RCN), 334
rationality, 15–16, 41–55
bounded, 44–50
ecological, 44–50, 55
E-rationality, 43
evolutionary, 54
in groups, 52–53
normative, 54
PP, 43
sociality and, 434
variation in, 51–55
rationality-teleology theory, 408–10
Dennett on, 408–9
reasoning, 15–16, 41–55, 426
architecture, 275
cognition and, 286
concepts and, 310–12
individualism and, 440
means-end, 306
morality and, 440–45
public, 396
Pylyshyn on, 255–56
similarity-based, 464
sociality and, 435–36
socially embedded, 436–40
variation in, 51–55
reconceptualization, 295
reconciliation, 105
explanation of, 107
recursion, 391
redeployment theories, 418–19
reference
intuition and, 530
in learning, 518
reference fixers, 344
reference relation, 261
reflex analogy, 136 n23
Reingen, P.H., 442
relationships, among senses, 97
relative nonconceptual content, 296 n7
relativism, 51
relevance, 70–77
of beliefs, 78
in learning, 518
problems, 72
in update, 72
reliabilism, 42
replacement, 138
in embodied cognition, 125, 133
representational flexibility, 78–79
representational integration, 78
representationalism, 5, 250–69
discursive, 302–5
Fodor on, 302–5
global, 269
iconic, 302–5
Pickwick, 260
rethinking, 262–67
standard view of, 254–57
x-type, 260
representational plasticity, 78
Representational Relation, 256
representational theory of mind (RTM), 251 n1
representation-as, 303
representation-lite, 136
research methods, consciousness, 32–34
Residual Cartesianism, 41–42, 47, 54
response-dependence, 150, 347
retinal flow, 257
reverence, 194
revulsion, 187
Rey, Georges, 12, 261, 335n16
Reynolds, John, 205, 213, 216
Richardson, D., 134, 135
Richerson, P.J., 436
rich multimodality, 94
richness of experience argument, 299–300
rigidity assumption, 261
Rizzolatti, Giacomo, 412
Robber's Cave experiment, 442
Roberson, D., 385 n3
robust modularity, 62–64
Roediger, H., 38
Roomba, 148 n3
Rosch, E., 123, 259, 342
Rosenfeld, A., 119
(p. 560) Rosenthal, David, 24
rotation experiment, 509
Rowlands, M., 142 n30
Rozin, P., 464
Rubin, Edgar, 213
Rupert, R., 141
sadness, 190
same-order theories, 26
Samson, D., 417
Samuels, Richard, 74n16, 326–27, 329
Sapir, Edward, 508–10
Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, 508
satisfaction conditions, 106–7
satisficing, 46
scaffolding, linguistic, 387–88
scenario content, 299
schadenfreude, 193
Scheier, C., 136
Schleiermacher, 411
Schneider, W., 74 n16
Scholz, B., 361n1, 370n6
Schöner, G., 136
Schooler, J., 419
Schwartz, E.L., 439
Searle, John, 148, 153, 154, 157, 164
security housing units, 434
Security Housing Unit Syndrome, 434
Sejnowski, T., 129, 238
self-awareness, 21, 26
self-narrative, 23
self-projection, 415
Sellars, Wilfrid, 403
semantic computation, 226–32
semantic properties, 206
semantics, 301
senses, 95
individuating, 111–12
interaction among, 97
modularity of, 110–11
multimodality of, 110–12
relationships among, 97
sensorimotor processes, 130, 278–79, 284
coordination, 279
sensory classification thesis, 300
sentience, 20
seriatim, 54
Shadmehr, R., 263, 264, 268
shallow outputs, 62
Shannon-McCarthy/block objection, 151–52
Shapiro, Larry, 5
shared phenomenology, 107–10
Sherif, D., 442
Shieber, S, 151
Shoemaker, S., 419
short-term memory, 520
Shusterman, A., 393
Siegelmann, Hava, 164
signal processing, 283–84
similarity-based reasoning, 464
Simon, Herbert, 11, 48, 68, 286
on GPS, 119–20, 204
simplicity, 76
simulated robot behavior, 124
simulation, 414–17
imagination-based, 416
simulational mind reading, 411–14
simulation fallacy, 156
simulation theory, 13, 410–11
simulation version, 163
Singer, Wolf, 30
singularitarianism, 167–71
objections to, 169–70
Singularity is Near (Kurzweil), 171 n40
Sinnott-Armstrong, W., 430 n6
situatedness, 168 n34
situating cognition, 125
skepticism, 437
Skinner, B.F., 202
Slaughter, V., 407
Slobin, D., 384
Slovic, P., 54
Smith, Henry, 163, 342, 465
Smith, L., 136
smoking, 438
Smolensky, Paul, 164
Sober, E., 321
social behavior, 481
social cues, 444
social emotions, 444
social intelligence hypothesis, 48
Social Intuitionist model, 441
sociality, 425–45
defining, 426
moral reasoning and, 440–45
rationality and, 434
reasoning and, 435–36
virtual, 426
socially embedded cognition, 440
socially embedded reasoning, 436–40
social rationality, 48–49
social structure, culture and, 515–16
sociobiology, 482
Socrates, 280, 286, 319
software, 168 n36
solitary confinement, 434
Solomon, R., 184
somatic appraisal theory, 190–91
somatic marker theory, 277, 285
somatosensory cortex, 412
Sosa, Ernest, 438 n15
Sozzy, 172
spatial, 95–96
concepts, 127
information, 101, 394
location, 98, 103
vision and, 98–99
(p. 561) spatio-temporal unity, 114
Speaks, Jeff, 296n7, 300
specific disposition, 349
Spelke, E., 391, 393, 406
Sperber, Dan, 60, 521
Sperling's partial report, 304
spikes
in brain, 280–81
rates, 237
Spivey, M., 134
split-brain thought-experiments, 170
stability, 335 n17
Stalnaker, R., 345
standard linguistic entities (SLEs), 262
Stanovich, K., 54
state conceptualism, 296 n7
state consciousness, 20
states, 292
conceptual, 293
nonconceptual, 293
paradigmatic belief, 293
Sterelny, K., 45, 48, 250, 347, 351, 488
Stich, S.P., 418, 430n6, 529, 530, 538
Stigmergy, 50
stimulus conditions, 34
stream of consciousness, 23
strong central modularity, 67
strong embodiment, 128 n12
strong massive modularity, 62
strong representationalism, 251, 253–54, 268
Chomsky on, 260–62
Dennett on, 253
embedded cognition and, 258–60
embodied cognition and, 258–60
Gibsonian challenge to, 257–58
Styles, Elizabeth, 212
subjective criteria, 32–33
substance abuse, 435
subsumption architecture, 83n18, 258
Suomi, S., 432
superarticularity, 153
superfluous, 165
superior colliculus, 35–36
superior temporal sulcus, 132
surface orientation, 265
surrounding conditions, 78
sustaining mechanism, 350–51
swarm intelligence, 50
Swoyer, C., 252 n2
symbol manipulation, 119
syncategoramatic, 260
synesthesia, 100
syntactic thesis, 260
System 1, 395–96
System 2, 395–96
tacit knowledge, 130
tactual-object, 106
take-the-best heuristic, 46
task specificity, 135
massive modularity and, 69
teleological stance, 410
temporal information, 101
Teztlan, 509
thalamus, 35–36
that-clauses, 389–90
Thelen, Ester, 123, 136
theory of mind, 13, 389–90, 402–20, 485
theory of mind mechanism (ToMM), 407–8
modularity theory and, 408
theory-theory, 403–6
thermodynamics, 228
thermostats, 283
Thompson, E., 123, 259
Thornton, R., 377, 378
thought
concepts and, 7–8
Fodor on, 252
language and, 7, 383
tokens, 383
thrills, 196
time
codes, 281
language and, 128 n12
slices, 257
Tinbergen-Lorenz experimental program, 481
Tinkertoy mechanism, 276
Tomasello, Michael, 487–88
Tononi, Giulio, 29
Tooby, John, 60, 67, 71, 322n4, 485
tools
culture and, 516
evolution of, 492–96
top-down signals, 214, 217
touch, 98–99
mirroring, 412
Tower of Hanoi puzzle, 120
Townshend, J., 429 n5
toy bear example, 465
tractability, 77
traditional cognitivism, 118–20
transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), 36
transitive consciousness, 22
Treisman, Anne, 207–8, 210, 211
trial-and-error learning, 516
triggering file, 191, 193, 197, 328n10
Truth Value Judgment Task, 373, 375
Tsivkin, S., 391
Tucker, M., 131–32
Tunny, 168 n34
Turing, Alan, 11, 147, 204, 223, 241, 286
Turing-computable function, 234–35
Turing machine
accelerating, 164 n30
extended, 161
Newell on, 160
universal, 159, 162, 224
(p. 562) Turing test, 149–53
objections to, 151–52
Turing-type neural net, 148
Turner, J., 534
turning gear, 439
Tversky, A., 54
two factor theories, 346
two-tier structure, 472
Tye, Michael, 24, 298
type-individuation, 256
Ulam, Stanislaw, 168 n34
unconscious memory, 36–38
unconscious perception, 34–36
underlying structures, 459–60
understanding-acceptance principle, 54
unencapsulated process, intractability of, 73–74
Ungerleider, L.G., 216
unified multimodality, 95
unimodalism, 8–9
perception and, 92–95
unity assumptions, 105
universalism, 52
universal Turing machine, 159, 162, 224
unlimited pancomputationalism, 227 n1
uploading the mind, 170–71
valenced marker, 277
Van Boven, L., 416
van Gelder, Timothy, 259n12, 278, 283
Van Gulick, Robert, 7
Varela, F., 123, 124, 259
ventral stream, 36
ventriloquism, 98, 103, 107
verbal dual task, 510
veridicality conditions, 106–7
Verifiable Theory of Meaning, 340
verificationism, 340–41, 341n21
Viding, E., 211
vigilance, 204
Viney, W., 533
Vinge, Vernor, 168 n34
virtual sociality, 426
vision, 93
audition and, 102
computational, 260
modularity of, 110
spatial features and, 98–99
wins, 98
visual cortex, 216
visual-location, 106
visual-object, 106
visual processing, 35
visual streams, 36
visual targets, 98
vocalizing, 419
Von Eckardt, B., 119, 254
von Neumann, John, 168 n34
von Neumann machine, 65
Vygotsky, Lev, 7, 387–88, 508
Waddington, C.H., 323
wakefulness, 21
Warren, W., 122 n5
Wason selection task, 395, 485
waterfall illusion, 300–1
Watson, J., 405, 507
Watt Governor, 283
weak central modularity, 67
weak massive modularity, 62
cognitive-behavioral flexibility and, 82–83
Weierstrauss, Karl, 339
weighting function, 103
Weinberg, J., 529, 538
Wellman, Henry, 403, 405, 507
West, R., 54
Westermarck, E., 522
Whorf, Benjamin Lee, 7, 126n11, 383–87, 388, 508
Whorfianism, 383–87
Wicker, B., 412
wide mechanism, 160–61
universal finiteness and, 165
wild pigs, 192–93
Wilson, M., 141, 417–18, 481
Wimmer, H., 404
Winawer, J., 510
Wise, S., 263, 264, 268
Wittgenstein, Ludwig, 157–58, 202, 335n17, 345
CRA and, 157–58
Wolpert, D.M., 284
Woodward, A.L., 407
Woolfolk, R., 533
words, 34–35, 366–67
nonce, 528
number, 390–91
world making, 124
Wu, Wayne, 216
Xee, 263
xenophobia, 185, 481
Xerox, 430–31
x-type representation, 260
Xu, F., 388
Yamamoto, Masaki, 172
Young, L., 431
Zalta, E., 335 n16