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date: 27 February 2020

(p. 725) Index

(p. 725) Index

Absolute moral norms, 244, 342, 379, 678
Acceptable risk, 64, 248, 679–80, 683–86. See also Hazards; Safety
Access to health care
adverse selection and mandatory insurance, 204–10, 223
and employer‐provided insurance, 218–19, 222, 349
and exclusions from coverage by insurance, 204, 221–23, 349
and free‐riding and cost‐shifting, 203, 208–15, 219–21, 223, 225
mandatory, compulsory insurance coverage, 207–9, 219
and market segmentation techniques, 205–7, 218, 224
Menzel on just access, 8, 202–31
rationing care and efficiency, 224–25
universal coverage and, 202, 206, 208
Accountability, 27, 35, 278–79, 284, 306, 316
AdvaMed Code of Ethics, 148
Advertising
campaign‐related, 518
deception in, 11, 54, 57, 257, 351–54
direct‐to‐consumer, 148
and the ethics of creating desire, 65–66, 214–15
issue, 520, 528
pharmaceutical, 142
targeted, 370 See also Deception
Affirmative action
Boxill on, 15, 535–62
the concept of, 535–37
as group preferential treatment, 62–63, 536, 540, 544
and the idea of discrimination, 535–37, 551
Lockean natural rights as a defense of, 546–51
as a means to diversity, 551–59
and reverse discrimination, 536
shifting resources through, 540
utilitarian theory as a defense of, 537–45 See also Discrimination; Justice; Prejudice
Agency problems and agency theory, 175, 177, 178, 190, 707–8
Allocation of scarce resources. See Access to health care
Anderson, Elizabeth, 88–89, 633
Animals on factory farms, 241–42, 662
Aristotle and Aristotelian theories, 56–60, 65, 415, 442, 473, 538, 557. See also Virtue theory
Arrogance (cultural), 255
Arthur Andersen Accounting, 35, 150, 239, 718–19
Ashland Oil Co., 720
Authority
bureaucratic, 116–19
and consent of employees, 100, 102, 106–08
and cooperation, 110–15
distinguished from power, 102–04
de facto, 103
employer, 616, 620
the integrated structure of social, 111–14
McMahon on legitimate managerial, 8, 100–24
morally objectionable uses of managerial, 107–13
patrimonial, 482
political authority as the root model, 101–03, 111, 116, 119–21
and property, 105–06
subordinate, 115–17
Automobile industry, 336, 662, 665–67, 680
Beauchamp, Tom, 10, 634
Bebchuk, Lucien, 179–80, 182, 184, 190
Beck, Ulrich, 307
Beinhocker, Eric, 86
Beitz, Charles, 312
Ben and Jerry's ice cream, 169, 664
Beneficence, 57, 62–64, 258, 580–81. See also Charity
Benevolence, 62, 84, 249
Bentham, Jeremy, and Benthamism, 58, 686. See also Utilitarianism
Biomedical ethics, 3
Bluffing in negotiations, 11, 24, 335, 354–58
Board of directors, 132, 135, 163, 170, 176, 179, 181, 188
Boatright, John, 9, 34, 132–133, 457, 462–63, 564
Body Works (Anita Roddick's), 664
Bok, Derek, 38–39, 169
Bok, Sissela, 565, 572–575, 580
Bowie, Norman, 18, 25, 565–66, 645
Brenkert, George, 15, 34–35, 678
Bretton Woods institutions, 661–62
(p. 726) Bribery
as a corporate strategy, 282
different normative views on, 489–94
effects of, 282, 471, 490
ethics of, 54, 472, 479–87, 493–95
extent of, 471–72
and extortion, 487–88, 490
facilitating payments in, 488–90
the formal duties argument, 480–82
the harm argument, 484–87
laws against, 472
the nature of, 473, 478–79
in Nigeria, 491–93
the patrimonial societies view, 491–94
the private‐public argument, 482–84
Velasquez on, 13–14 See also Corruption
British Act of Anne, 411
British American Tobacco, 141–42
British Statute of Monopolies, 411
Brown, Marvin, 151
Buchanan, Allen, 460
Business Ethics
corporate responsibility and, 127
education in, 37–39
ethical theory and, 46–50
empirical study and, 4, 37
the field of, 132
globalization and, 309
levels of analysis, 126
libertarian view of, 638
public policy and, 305–06
regrettable views of, 5–6
two understandings of, 3–5
Campbell, Tom, 271, 273, 290
Capitalism
and business ethics, 74
capitalist ownership, 75–81
creative destruction and, 173
democratic, 126, 130, 133
democracy and, 310
Gaus on, 7–8
and markets, 81–89
nature and meaning of, 7–8
and socialism, 91–93 See also Free markets
Carson, Rachel, 657–58, 662
Carson, Thomas, 445, 488
Categorical imperative (Kant's), 25, 57–58, 60, 62, 635. See also Kantian ethics
Catholics, 555
Caux Round Table, 30, 145, 292
Charity, 109, 241, 259, 312, 368, 548–50
Cheating, 28, 37, 49, 51, 203, 708
Coase, R. M., 81–83, 90–91
Coca‐Cola, 11, 692, 706
Codes of ethics, 238, 243–44, 360–61, 712–13
Coercion, 36, 54, 85, 239, 572
Common morality, 236, 240–47, 250, 257, 260
Common sense intuitionism, 60–61
Compassionate use, 216
Comprehensive moral thinking, 128, 146, 148, 150
Comprehensive social awareness, 143
Conceptual analysis, 30, 54–55, 65–66, 74
Confidentiality, 236, 239, 244
Conflict of interest
cognitive bias and, 453–56
the concept of, 442–48, 450–52, 461
different kinds of, 448–50
empirical work on, 454–56, 457–58
ethical concerns about, 441, 443
importance of, 442–43
institutional approaches to, 443, 451–56
justified and unjustified, 242, 247
macro‐level theory of, 459–64
methods for managing, 456–59
Norman and MacDonald on, 13
normative theory of, 456–58
and organizational integrity, 718–19
and Sarbanes‐Oxley, 441, 449, 456, 460–61
Conflict (moral) and disagreement, 243–48
Conscience, 137–39, 145, 245
Conscientiousness, 61, 237, 240
Consent as a ground of managerial authority, 106–8. See also Authority; Informed consent
Consequentialism. See Utilitarianism.
Contractarian theories and relations, 6, 25, 29, 30–31, 249, 546–47
Cooperation, 29, 84–85, 110–118, 704–6, 718, 722
Copyrights
and bundles of rights, 410
compared to patents, 413
copyright law, 12, 411–12, 414, 422–30
defense of, 418–20
fair use, 424–25, 427–29
and personality, 419
their protection on the Internet, 370
software and, 430–31
Corporate boards, 34, 278
Corporate campaign contributions, 14, 55, 501ff, 672
Corporate cultures and climates, 701–09
Corporate governance, 34, 48, 104, 115, 132, 137, 163, 189–92
Corporate responsibility
and comprehensive moral thinking, 128, 146, 148, 150
and constituents, 129, 151
the dualistic model, 128
(p. 727)
its global implications, 305, 306, 309, 314, 321, 324
and individual responsibility, 713–14
Goodpaster on, 8
and moral projection, 131
non‐fiduciary responsibilities of, 135–36
as a subfield of business ethics, 23
three levels of responsibility, 126
the tripartite model, 127, 129, 140, 144, 151
Correlativity of rights and obligations, 251. See also Rights
Corruption
dealing with, 487, 504
effects of, 471–72
ethics of, 13–14, 35, 473
extent of, 210, 282, 660
the formal duties argument, 480–82
and the harm argument, 484–87
the nature of, 473–478, 501, 503–04, 507
and the private‐public argument, 482–84 See also Bribery
Cosmopolitan theories, 258–59
Cost‐benefit analysis, 59, 679
Cost shifting and health insurance, 208–09, 220. See also Access to health care
Cultural imperialism, 254–57
Cybertechnology, 366ff. See also Privacy
Daly, Herman, 309
Danley, John, 478
Davis, Michael, 444–45, 447, 453, 461–63, 568–72
Dayton Hudson Corporation, 149–50
De George, Richard, 12, 34, 568–70, 573–74, 580–81, 701
Deception
in advertising, 11, 54, 57, 257, 351–54
and bluffing in negotiations, 24, 335, 354–58
and bribery, 493
Carson on, 11, 335–65
the concept of, 336–38, 522
fraud and, 394, 403
and honesty, 358–61
in sales, 342–50
insider trading and, 388–89, 392–94
and withholding information, 337–38, 342–50
Democracy
capitalism and, 310
corporate, 114–15, 119, 122
democratic accountability, 316–17
democratic management, 318
democratic norms and principles, 501–03, 511, 523
and freedom of expression, 502, 521
and participation, 310
and universal values, 308
Deontological theories, 29, 375, 682. See also Kantian theories
Digital information, 428
Disclosure of and withholding information, 11, 335–65. See also Informed consent; Information disclosure
Discretion, 23, 34, 121, 376
Diversity, corporate
Boxill on, 15, 535–62
utilitarian value of, 63
in the workforce, 537, 551–59 See also Affirmative action; Discrimination
Donaldson, Thomas, 29–30, 240, 319
Drucker, Peter, 130, 149, 169
Due care duties, 678
Dunfee, Thomas, 29–30, 240
Efficiency in markets, 74, 78, 81–88, 90–91, 224–25, 691–94. See also Capitalism; Free markets
Egalitarian principles, 224, 258, 705
Employees
employee rights, 613–14, 622, 623
and job‐security rights, 602–03, 613–14, 617, 622
Employment at will
autonomy and, 619–20
common law doctrine of, 602–03
its core doctrines, 14–15, 603–05
and fairness, 620–22
and the “flexicurity” model, 623
European views of, 602–03, 616–17
and freedom of contract, 615–16
and individual termination, 604–07
and job‐security rights, 602–03, 608, 613–14, 617, 622
and just‐cause dismissal rules, 606–07
and layoffs (in Europe), 607–09
and layoffs (in the U.S.), 605–06
liberty rights, 615
limits on, 604–05
property rights and, 615
the relative effectiveness of, 617–22
and the utility argument, 617–19
and U.S. views of employment, 602–03, 614–16
and the WARN Act, 605
Enron case, 35, 64, 239, 578, 580, 586, 712–13, 718–19
Entrepreneurs, 7, 92–94, 162, 167, 173–75, 184, 186, 191, 454, 664, 683–84
Environmental protection
and environmental justice, 319
and environmental responsibilities, 289
governmental attempts to foster, 289, 659–62
history of since the early 1960s, 657–60
its integration into business ethics, 662–65
justice and, 319–320
models of, for business, 665–68
(p. 728) Environmental protection (continued )
Newton on, 17, 657–76
pollution control, 4, 16, 81–82, 721
recommendations in need of attention, 670–72
standards, 309, 324–25
as a value, 120
Equal treatment, 55–56, 59, 536. See also Discrimination
Equality of opportunity, 63, 224, 238, 535, 678
Epistemology, 52–54, 66, 546
Ethical corporate culture, 6, 17–18, 208–09, 224, 701–22
Ethical investors, 218, 220
Ethical theory
Audi on, 7, 46–69
uses and varieties in types of, 26–27, 39, 239, 244, 375, 705
its goals and place in business ethics, 6–7, 26
the tasks of, 464 See also Common morality; Morality
Ethics officers, 4, 17
European Union (EU), 318, 380, 431, 606
Executive compensation
and annual bonuses, 163–64
base salary issues, 163–64
Boatright on, 9, 161ff
the CEO labor market argument, 176–77
and compensation committees, 162, 163, 175
the evolution of executive pay, 165–67
and executives acting as bureaucrats, 162, 167, 191
and executives as entrepreneurs, 162, 167, 173–75, 186, 191
and fiduciary duties, 162
long‐term incentive plans and, 163, 164
the managerial power thesis, 179–86, 190
moral issues in, 247, 707
objections to high, 168–71
a principal‐agent approach to, 177–79
principles justifying, 161–62, 171–75
and shareholder power, 163, 167
and stock options, 164–67, 170, 180, 186–88
the structure of executive pay, 163–65
tying pay to performance, 186–90 See also Justice; Wages
Exploitation (in labor), 85, 216, 239, 254, 309, 317–19
Exploitative wages
the concept of, 642–45
and human dignity, 644–46
Marx on, 642–44
the unfairness of, 643–44, 646
and vulnerability, 644
Wertheimer on, 642–44
Wood, Allen, on, 644 See also Wages
Exxon‐Mobil, 720
Faden, Ruth, 634
Fair share, 203, 208, 211–14, 219, 223, 707
Families, 208, 345, 659
Federal sentencing guidelines (U.S.), 4, 17, 35
Fidelity, 50, 56, 61, 64, 240
Fiduciary relationships and duties, 11–12, 132, 134–35, 183, 236, 246, 336, 360–61, 394–95, 508,
Finnis, John, 375
Food and Drug Administration (FDA), 210–11, 214, 216, 225, 228, 352–53
Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, 35, 472, 479, 488–489
Fossil fuel, 667–68, 671
Fraud (corporate), 35, 84, 347, 359–60, 368, 371, 691–92
Freedom of expression, 14, 250–51, 282
Free markets
and capitalism, 7–8, 34, 38, 73ff
and environmental problems, 670, 672
executive compensation in, 8, 162, 171–73, 178
and lower standards, 309
vs. the bureaucrats, 659 See also Capitalism; Efficiency in markets
Free riding (and medical costs), 203, 208–09, 211–15, 219–21, 223–25. See also Access to health care
Freeman, R. Edward, 22, 25, 33, 36, 322, 663–64, 669, 703
Fried, Jesse, 179, 180, 182, 184, 190
Friedman, Milton, 24, 133–34, 173, 278, 638, 703, 718–19
Friedman, Thomas, 38, 306
Friedrich, Carl, 476–477
Friendship, 88, 375–78
Future generations, 5, 659
Gender equality, 30–31, 238. See also Equal treatment; Equality of opportunity
Gender and preferential treatment, 94, 247
Gender‐based discrimination, 14. See also Discrimination
Genetic discrimination (in health insurance), 206–08, 210, 218, 224. See also Access to health care; Discrimination
Genetic information, 206–07
Gewirth, Alan, 270
Global Reporting Initiative, 292–93
Globalization
the conditions of, 279–281
corporate social responsibility and, 321–24
corporations and, 282, 297
the definition of, 306–09
and development, 305
and democratic accountability, 316–17
egalitarian principles and, 314
and global social justice, 257–59
globalism, 308
Gould on, 10–11
inequalities and, 311–12
(p. 729)
justice and, 311–14, 321
labor standards and, 317–18
problems of, 309–12
and the race to the bottom, 309
Golden handshakes, 163, 168
Golden parachutes, 164, 168
Golden rule
its role in business ethics, 11, 56, 139, 249, 335, 340, 345–46
and the presumption against lying and deception, 340–42, 354
a proof of, 339–40 See also Universalizability
Good and well‐being, theories of, 375
Greed, 23, 49, 54, 170–71, 709
Gregor, Douglas, 710
Griffin, James, 270
Groupthink, 716–17, 722
Handy, Charles, 136–37
Harm
corruption and, 477, 484–89
to the environment, 664, 672
exposures to, 244, 629, 637, 680, 685–86, 688–89
from lack of privacy, 379, 382
from lying and deception, 342–44, 347–48, 351–53, 358, 360
from past injustices, 537
from practices, 368, 371, 663
to organizational integrity, 704
to others, 76, 78, 205, 237, 341, 356–57, 447, 508, 584, 614, 678–80
to self, 348
types of risk of, 16–17, 50, 64
Hayek, F. A., 87, 89, 92–94
Hayward, Tim, 319–20
Hazards
to health and safety, 361, 660
workplace, 16, 245, 240, 252, 628–31, 633–35, 639, 646 See also Harm; Safety; Worker safety
Health care, just access to. See Access to health care
Health Maintenance Organization (HMO), 368
Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich, 418–19
Heinz Company, 711–12
Held, David, 307
Hermann Hospital case, 715
Hierarchical firms, 89–95, 115
HIPAA (privacy law), 227, 381, 383. See also Privacy
Hewlett‐Packard, 721
Holmstron, Bengt, 181–82
Honesty and deception
honest dealing, duty of, 17, 394, 677, 691–93
in sales, 342–50, 358–61
and withholding information, 337–38, 342–50
Hooters of America, Inc. v. Phillips, 400–01
Human dignity, 140, 144–47, 149, 270–71, 276, 635, 639, 645–46
Human rights. See Rights, human
Hume v. U.S., 399
Hume, David, 53, 84
Hypernorms, 30–31, 240
Ideal theory, 709–10
Immigration (illegal), 149
Incentive structures, 58, 82, 102–05, 224–25, 702, 711–12, 722
Individualism, 15, 32, 224, 310, 346, 411, 415, 602, 615, 684
Individual responsibility, 126, 132, 143
Inequalities, 8, 259, 549–50, 556
Information age, 409, 433
Informed consent, 374, 381, 383–84, 690
Information disclosure
Carson on, 11, 335–64
Spinello on, 366–86
Insider trading
arguments from harm, 389–92
and breach of fiduciary duties, 394–95
and breach of trust, 389
corporate, 389, 390, 392, 395, 397–98, 400, 403–04
differing assessments of, 236
results of, 388
Strudler on, 12
and unconscionable contracts, 389, 396, 398–02
unfairness questions about, 396–98, 404
and wrongful deception, 388–89, 392–94, 403, 405
the wrongness of, 388–89, 402–04
Integrative social contracts theory (Donaldson and Dunfee), 29–31, 240
Integrity
Brenkert on moral, 15, 563ff
Organizational, 18, 33, 701–22
Personal, 15, 108–9, 240, 245
Intellectual property
the concept of, 12, 370, 408–09
a contentious notion, 408
and copyrights, 413, 419–20, 428, 433
copyright law on, 411–12, 422–23, 427–30
and digital information, 425, 428–30
De George on, 12
its historical background, 411
(p. 730)
intellectual property law, 410, 417, 419, 421–31
justifications of, 412, 415–19
its legal contexts, 411–15
and natural rights and justice arguments, 414–17, 419
the nature of, 409–10
patents and, 411–14, 417–20, 422, 425, 430–32
and the personality argument, 418–19
software as, 425–28, 430–32
and trade secrecy, 410, 413–14, 419–20
and trademarks, 410, 413–14, 419–20, 430
utilitarian‐pragmatic arguments about, 417–419 See also Property
International Labor Organization (ILO), 318
International Monetary Fund (IMF), 305, 310, 316–17, 661
Investor obligations, 217–18
James, H. S., 478
Jefferson, Thomas, 546–50, 556–57
Jensen, Michael, 166, 187
John Paul II, 143–44, 148
Johnson and Johnson, 713, 720
Jurisprudence, 372
Justice
in access to vital goods (Menzel on), 8, 202–31
and affirmative action, 63, 535–37, 546, 551, 560
compensatory, 92
in contractarian theory, 30–31
corrective, 682
distributive, 172–75, 312, 494
economic, 8–9
in egalitarian theory, 55, 224, 258, 314, 319, 705
environmental, 319–20
in free markets, 8–9, 17, 84, 661
and inequality, 8, 255, 257–59, 321, 549–50, 556
and intellectual property, 415–16, 420
procedural, 706–07, 709
Kant, Immanuel, 57, 270, 442, 610, 644, 710
Kantian ethical theory, 25–26, 57–58, 61
Kaplan, Steve, 181–82
Kimberly Process, 294
Kirzner, Israel, 174–75
Kyosei, 145
Larmer, Robert, 577–78
Legislation, 35, 115–16, 209, 380, 659, 666
Liability (legal)
Hasnas on product liability, 17, 677ff
for environmental damage, 659–60
Lobbying
and big information, 512, 514–15, 518–20, 524–25, 527–28
and big money, 510, 515, 517–18, 523, 527
the Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act (BCRA), 516, 520
as corporate political activity, 501–03, 508–09, 521–22, 529
and freedom of expression, 501–02, 508, 521–22
full quos, 506–09, 513, 518
half quos, 506–09, 512
the nature of, 14, 146, 503, 505
quid pro quo, 504–06, 511
reasoned beliefs and speech, 522–28
and small information, 510–12, 518–20, 523–24, 528
and small money, 512–14, 516–18, 525–27
Stark on, 14
and ways to find value congruence, 146
Locke, John, 77, 79, 132, 174, 415–18, 515–16, 619
Love Canal, 659–60
Loyal agents, 178
Luebke, Neil, 444
Lying
Carson on, 11, 335–65
consequences of, 52
the concept of, 11, 54–55, 338–39, 392–93, 412 See also Deception
Madison, James, 554
Managerial authority. See Authority
Managerial decision making, 23–24, 29, 32–37, 100, 116–24. See also Authority
Managerial power thesis, the, 179–86
Manipulative influences, 13, 58, 65–66, 344, 348, 358, 366
Margolis, Joseph, 444
Market solutions and product safety, 680–81, 684–85, 693–94. See also Capitalism; Free market
Martin Memorial Hospital case, 715
Marx, Karl, 75, 78, 89, 93–94, 642, 644
Medtronic, 135–36, 148
Merck, 352–53, 721
Metaethics, 27, 47, 56, 66
Methods of business ethics
Audi on ethical theory and, 7, 46–67
and business ethics education, 26–27, 31–32, 37–39
centrality of the case method, 28
conceptual analysis as a method, 54–55
Donaldson and Dunfee on, 29–31, 240
empirical, 28–31
Green and Donovan on, 6–7, 21–39
and the mission of business ethics, 22–24
philosophical and ethical, 24–28 See also Business ethics
(p. 731) Mill, J. S., 58–59, 75, 79, 90, 442, 688
Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), 320
Minorities
Boxill on ethnic, 15, 535ff
cultural suppression of, 254–57, 493
and job hiring, 63, 248 See also Affirmative action; Discrimination
Mirandola, Pico Della, 270
Moore, G. E., 143
Moral climates and cultures, 17–18, 701–24
Moral free space, 30, 257
Moral life, the, 137–39, 144–45, 242, 245
Moral point of view, theories of the, 49–50, 65, 248–50, 702–3
Moral psychology, 53–54, 65–66
Moral realism, 50–51
Moral status, 27, 610, 644
Morality
contrasted with law, 421–22, 429, 481
and moral awareness, 137
its nature, 6, 10, 46–47, 60, 240–43, 251, 260, 313, 394, 447, 578, 586, 704
and the role of rights in, 609–13 See also Ethical theory; Rights
Muchlinski, Peter, 268
Multinational corporations, 9–10, 116, 251–53, 660–62, 665
Mutual benefit in markets, 83–84
Nagel, Thomas, 137–39, 144, 145
Natural law and natural rights theories, 79–80, 375, 415–16, 418, 537, 546–51, 611
Nozick, Robert, 85, 172, 174
Nussbaum, Martha, 375
Nye, Joseph, 475–76
Okin, Susan, 256
Paine, Lynn Sharp, 712
Patagonia, 665
Paternalism, 348, 399, 400, 630, 689–90, 693
Personhood (the model of), 80–81, 691
Pharmaceutical practices and pricing
Canadian and U.S. customs compared, 203, 214–15
and “compassionate use” policies, 216
and industry standards, 210–18
“me‐too” and non‐innovative drugs, 211–15, 225
Menzel on, 8, 202–32
and orphan drugs, 202, 211, 215–17, 220, 223–25
reimportation of pharmaceuticals, 211–15
Philips, Michael, 478
Plato, 52, 75, 415, 473
Pluralistic societies, 107. See also Multiculturalism
Pogge, Thomas, 11, 258–59, 306, 313–14, 322
Political philosophy, 8, 34, 36, 92, 100–02, 107, 118, 554, 556
Poverty, 258–59, 311, 541
Prejudice (and discrimination), 535ff, 545. See also Affirmative action; Discrimination
Prima facie obligations, 60, 63, 67, 244, 272, 343–46, 361, 631–32, 639
Principal‐agent, 135, 177–78, 446, 451
Privacy
concepts and theories of, 367, 371, 374
Gavison on seclusion theory, 372–73
and Hohfeld's rights theory, 378
and hospital patients' records, 368, 373–74
informational, 11, 245, 250, 366–87
legal scholarship about, 372
loss of, threatened by cybertechnology, 366–71
Moor and Tavani on restricted access, 373
protections of in law and public policy, 379–84
rights of, 367, 372, 376–79
Thomson's cluster theory, 377
use of private information in marketing and advertising, 370–71
Warren and Brandeis on, 372 See also Rights
Professional ethics, 5, 11, 101, 243, 360–61, 710
Property
concept of, 408
defense of, 415–19
intellectual. See Intellectual property
ownership of, 408–10
property rights, 172, 322, 398, 409, 415–17, 424 See also Capitalism; Rights
Public good(s), 101, 113–16, 119–21, 212–14, 663
Public health, 379, 660
Public policy, 76, 219, 258–60
Rationing health care, 224–25. See also Access to health care
Rawls, John, 25–26, 39, 81, 249–50, 258, 375, 555, 704–06, 709
Reasonable person standard, 678
Reflective equilibrium, 26, 52–53, 65. See also Rawls
Relativism, moral (and cultural)
Beauchamp on, 10, 235–48, 260
Donaldson and Dunfee in opposition to, 29–30
encouraged by methods of education, 27
Religion and ethics, 55–56
Reparations, 60–63, 547, 551
Respect for autonomy, 376, 678, 686, 688, 691, 693. See also Autonomy
Respect for persons, 25, 58, 696
Respectfulness, 61
(p. 732) Richardson, Henry, 116, 246
Right to health care. See Access to health care; Rights
Rights
basic, 610–11
and business responsibilities, 251–53, 267–68, 279–92, 313, 321–24
complicity in human rights abuses, 290–91
the concept and nature of, 244, 250, 269, 271–73, 314, 609
the correlativity of rights and obligations, 251
Cragg on human, 10
the draft‐norms model, 284–87, 288
globalization and, 282, 305–08, 313–14, 317–19, 321–22
the hybrid model of, 269, 293–96
and impact analyses, 323
their institutionalization, 272–74, 292–93
instrumental rights, 612–13
the International Bill of Rights, 282, 288
legal models of, 273–79, 283, 288, 294
McCall and Werhane on employee, 15
moral foundations of, 269–71
overriding, 272–73, 286–88
and responsibilities of the state, 267–68, 279–83, 313
the right to means of subsistence, 313–14
rights‐based approaches in ethical theory, 380
the voluntary self‐regulatory model, 268–69, 283–84, 288
Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 269, 275, 276, 313, 315, 317
violations of, 297, 629
Role models, 56
Rose‐Ackerman, Susan, 476–77
Ross, W. D, 60, 62, 244
Royce, Josiah, 131–32, 134, 144
Ruggie, John, 276–77, 280–81
Sacrifices, 110, 222, 552, 679
Safety
Arnold on workplace, 16, 628ff
and caveat emptor and caveat venditor, 683
the concept of product safety, 678–83
employee, 621
general duties of product safety, 687–93
Hasnas on product safety, 17, 677–97
the inherent subjectivity of product safety, 687
the literature on product, 677–78
types of risk and, 16 See also Harm; Hazards; Worker safety
Sales, deception in, 342–50. See also Deception
Sarbanes‐Oxley Act, 35, 150, 180, 441–42, 449, 460–61, 565–66
Schmidtz, David, 78
Sears Auto Centers, 711
SEC v. Texas Gulf Sulphur, 389, 392–94, 397, 403–04
Self‐interest, 49, 84, 109, 222, 217, 221, 249, 347–48, 355, 544, 661, 685, 707. See also Agency theory; Greed
Selznick, Philip, 131, 149
Sen, Amartya, 256, 315, 710
Sethi, S. Prakash, 316
Sexism, 536. See also Women, rights of
Shareholders (as principals)
fiduciary obligations to, 632
and the nomination of boards, 185
risks to, 621
roles in corporations of, 127–28, 132
shareholder control, 167, 181. 186, 188
shareholder interests, 94, 132, 135, 140, 162, 167, 179, 183, 191, 638
Shell Oil Company, 492
Shiffrin, Seana, 399–400
Shue, Henry, 306, 312–13
Singer, Peter, 258, 306, 312, 581
Smith, Adam, 249, 541, 614
Specification of norms, 245–46
Stakeholders and stakeholder theory
and corporate moral climates, 702–06, 710, 718
corporate stakeholders, 127
and the draft norms model, 287
expanded corporate moral horizons of, 322–23
Freeman's theory, 22–23, 25, 32–33, 35–36, 118
and pharmaceutical company obligations, 217, 220
as a reaction to prior theories, 25
stakeholder dialogues, 294
stakeholder fallacy, 133
the stakeholder paradox, 134–35
stakeholder management, 18, 93, 133, 137, 322, 366, 702–05, 718
stakeholder thinking, 127–32, 134, 136, 138–40, 142–44, 146, 149–51 See also Shareholders; Stockholders
Stallman, Richard, 426
Stark, Andrew, 445, 449–50, 456, 459
Stiglitz, Joseph, 306, 316, 317
Stockholders
boards represent, 133
and corporate moral climates, 703, 707–08, 719
insider trading and, 402–04
legal concerns of, 141
moral responsibilities of, 132–34, 140–41
obligations to, 24, 64, 132, 134–35, 278
preoccupation with, 127, 130–31
profits for, 129, 137, 143
(p. 733)
proximate beneficiaries, 133 See also Shareholders; Stakeholders
Stone, Christopher, 346
Subjective evaluations of safety, 17, 677, 685–87, 691–94. See also Harm; Hazards; Safety; Worker safety
Sullivan Principles, 294
Sunstein, Cass, 88
Supererogation, 349, 575, 585–86, 588
Superfund, 660
Supreme Court, U.S., 372–73
Sustainability, 10, 319, 492
Sweatshops
conditions in, 622, 629, 638–41
criticisms of, 637–39
defense of, 636–39, 642, 645
definition of, 635–36
and human dignity, 636–37, 639, 641–42
and improving working conditions, 14, 16, 108–09, 252–53, 255, 639–42
Tamir, Yael, 257
Teleopathy, 717–18, 722
Texaco, 252
Texas Gulf Sulphur, 389, 392–94, 397, 403–04
3M Co., 663, 666, 669
Thompson, Dennis, 443
Trade secrets, 12, 402, 414, 692
Transaction costs, 91, 206, 684, 695, 712–13, 720
Transparency, 179, 294, 306, 316, 379, 383–84
Tripartite model, 127, 129, 144, 150–51
Trustworthiness, 240
Truthfulness, 59, 64, 236, 240, 336
Tyler, Tom, 458
U. N. Global Compact for Business, 10, 268, 284, 321, 306, 324–25, 472
Unions, 36, 189, 238, 317–18, 357, 604, 608, 643, 716
Unionization, 109, 115, 143
Universal norms and universal morality
Beauchamp on, 10, 240–43, 248–57
Donaldson and Dunfee on, 30–31, 240
globalization and, 10
human rights and, 10
primary issues of, 9–10 See also Globalization; Rights
Universalizability (principle of), 57–64, 340
Utilitarianism, 26, 58–64, 258, 537–45, 551, 560, 681–82, 686–87. See also Bentham; Mill; Singer
Veil of ignorance, 249–50. See also Rawls; Reflective equilibrium.
Velasquez, Manuel, 678
Velsicol Chemical Corporation, 146–47
Veracity, 50, 52, 54, 59
Vices, 57, 240
Virtue ethics, 25, 32, 56–58, 65–66
Voluntary codes of conduct, 268, 283–84, 294. See also Codes of ethics
Wages
economic considerations about, 219, 221, 645–46
exploitative, 90, 252, 258, 642
Marx on, 94, 642–44
Wertheimer on, 642–44
Wood on, 644 See also Executive compensation
Wallerstein, Immanuel, 308
Wal‐Mart, 86, 713
Walzer, Michael, 310
Weber, Max, 482–83
Whistle‐Blowing
Audi on, 7, 63–65
the background of, 563
Brenkert on, 15
and complicity theory, 570–72
the concept of, 564–67
and duties of employees, 576–80
and the duty of beneficence, 580–81, 584
and the duty of confidentiality, 576
and the duty of loyalty, 577–80
and good reasons theory, 572–75
and harm theory, 567–70
and integrity theory, 575–77, 582–91, 595
the Kew Gardens principle, 583
the principle of positional responsibility, 575–76, 582–588
and organizational design, 564, 591–94
reservations about, 63–64, 241–42
and the restatement of agency, 576
and self‐correcting organizations, 593–94
Women, rights of, 238–39, 250, 254–56, 535–36, 658, 715
World Bank, 94, 283, 293, 305, 311, 316–17, 471, 472, 491, 661–62
WorldCom, 565, 571, 580, 582
World Social Forum, 305, 315
World Trade Organization (WTO), 258, 281, 305, 310, 316–17
Worker participation and the Mondragón Corporación Cooperativa, 318
Worker safety
dignity and, 630–31, 635, 637, 641, 644–46
and the disclosure of hazards, 633
and employer obligations, 628–31, 639–42
Hasnas on product safety, 677–94
injuries, 628, 634
the libertarian view of, 630–32
OSHA, 631–32, 640, 646
the reasonable person standard, 633–35
and the right to life, 629, 635
and the right to well‐being, 629 See also Harm; Hazards; Safety