- The Substance of Coinage: The Role of Scientific Analysis in Ancient Numismatics
- Archaic and Classical Greek Coinage
- The Monetary Background of Early Coinage
- Asia Minor to the Ionian Revolt
- The Coinage of the Persian Empire
- The Coinage of Athens, Sixth to First Century B.C.
- Aegina, the Cyclades, and Crete
- The Coinage of Italy
- The Coinage of Sicily
- Greece and the Balkans to 360 B.C.
- The Hellenistic World
- Royal Hellenistic Coinages: From Alexander to Mithradates
- The Hellenistic World: The Cities of Mainland Greece and Asia Minor
- The Coinage of the Ptolemies
- The Seleucids
- Greek Coinages of Palestine
- The Coinage of the Parthians
- The Roman World
- Early Roman Coinage and Its Italian Context
- The Denarius Coinage of the Roman Republic
- The Julio-Claudians
- The Ancient Coinages of the Iberian Peninsula
- Flavian Coinage
- The Coinage of the Roman Provinces through Hadrian
- Trajan and Hadrian
- Antonine Coinage
- The Provinces after Commodus
- Syria in the Roman Period, 64 BC–AD 260
- Roman Coinages of Palestine
- The Severans
- From Gordian III to the Gallic Empire (AD 238–274)
- The Later Third Century
- The Coinage of Roman Egypt
- Tetrarchy and the House of Constantine
- The Coinage of the Later Roman Empire, 364–498
- The Transformation of the West
- Marks of Value (Certain and Possible) on Late Roman Coins <i>with</i> Intrinsic Values (from Aurelian)
- Earliest Christian Symbols on Roman Coinsrichard abdy
Abstract and Keywords
The Lydian coinage system completely changed with an ingenious coin reform. With Alyattes's electrum coinage, the recipient had no way of judging the gold or silver content. Therefore, Croesus replaced the electrum coins with pure gold and silver, and changed the lion head design to that of the confronted foreparts of a lion and a bull. The Croesus stater was one of the most popular coins among the Greeks, since they did not strike any gold and because, due to its high value, it was chosen in particular for public and private savings. Darius's introduction of a Persian imperial coinage in Asia Minor was a pathbreaking financial reorganization and an important contribution to the further consolidation of the Achaemenid Empire in the west. Money supply and circulation within the Persian Empire reached an enormous level under Artaxerxes III, indicating an extraordinary prosperity-based economy and trade in the empire.
Michael Alram is Direktor des Münzkabinetts, Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna.
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