- The Substance of Coinage: The Role of Scientific Analysis in Ancient Numismatics
- Archaic and Classical Greek Coinage
- The Monetary Background of Early Coinage
- Asia Minor to the Ionian Revolt
- The Coinage of the Persian Empire
- The Coinage of Athens, Sixth to First Century B.C.
- Aegina, the Cyclades, and Crete
- The Coinage of Italy
- The Coinage of Sicily
- Greece and the Balkans to 360 B.C.
- The Hellenistic World
- Royal Hellenistic Coinages: From Alexander to Mithradates
- The Hellenistic World: The Cities of Mainland Greece and Asia Minor
- The Coinage of the Ptolemies
- The Seleucids
- Greek Coinages of Palestine
- The Coinage of the Parthians
- The Roman World
- Early Roman Coinage and Its Italian Context
- The Denarius Coinage of the Roman Republic
- The Julio-Claudians
- The Ancient Coinages of the Iberian Peninsula
- Flavian Coinage
- The Coinage of the Roman Provinces through Hadrian
- Trajan and Hadrian
- Antonine Coinage
- The Provinces after Commodus
- Syria in the Roman Period, 64 BC–AD 260
- Roman Coinages of Palestine
- The Severans
- From Gordian III to the Gallic Empire (AD 238–274)
- The Later Third Century
- The Coinage of Roman Egypt
- Tetrarchy and the House of Constantine
- The Coinage of the Later Roman Empire, 364–498
- The Transformation of the West
- Marks of Value (Certain and Possible) on Late Roman Coins <i>with</i> Intrinsic Values (from Aurelian)
- Earliest Christian Symbols on Roman Coinsrichard abdy
Abstract and Keywords
In the Greek world, monetary practices included the transactional use of weighed bullion. Special circumstances explain why coinage happened to originate in the Greek region. One was that electrum was indigenous to Lydia and by the seventh century was being extracted from the Pactolus River in legendary quantities. Consequently, among the Lydians and their Greek neighbors, electrum had become more abundant than silver and pure gold. The second circumstance was that electrum was an inconsistent and easily adulterated metal and thus poorly suited for reliable monetary exchange. Finally, the key factor that made coinage possible and distinguished it from all earlier forms of money was the involvement of the state. Coinage quickly came to be regarded as both an indispensable instrument of economic and public life and, like standard weights and measures, with which it was often associated, a fundamental responsibility of the well-ordered state.
John H. Kroll is Professor of Classics Emeritus, University of Texas at Austin.
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