- The Substance of Coinage: The Role of Scientific Analysis in Ancient Numismatics
- Archaic and Classical Greek Coinage
- The Monetary Background of Early Coinage
- Asia Minor to the Ionian Revolt
- The Coinage of the Persian Empire
- The Coinage of Athens, Sixth to First Century B.C.
- Aegina, the Cyclades, and Crete
- The Coinage of Italy
- The Coinage of Sicily
- Greece and the Balkans to 360 B.C.
- The Hellenistic World
- Royal Hellenistic Coinages: From Alexander to Mithradates
- The Hellenistic World: The Cities of Mainland Greece and Asia Minor
- The Coinage of the Ptolemies
- The Seleucids
- Greek Coinages of Palestine
- The Coinage of the Parthians
- The Roman World
- Early Roman Coinage and Its Italian Context
- The Denarius Coinage of the Roman Republic
- The Julio-Claudians
- The Ancient Coinages of the Iberian Peninsula
- Flavian Coinage
- The Coinage of the Roman Provinces through Hadrian
- Trajan and Hadrian
- Antonine Coinage
- The Provinces after Commodus
- Syria in the Roman Period, 64 BC–AD 260
- Roman Coinages of Palestine
- The Severans
- From Gordian III to the Gallic Empire (AD 238–274)
- The Later Third Century
- The Coinage of Roman Egypt
- Tetrarchy and the House of Constantine
- The Coinage of the Later Roman Empire, 364–498
- The Transformation of the West
- Marks of Value (Certain and Possible) on Late Roman Coins <i>with</i> Intrinsic Values (from Aurelian)
- Earliest Christian Symbols on Roman Coinsrichard abdy
Abstract and Keywords
This article encapsulates the main themes of the coinage of the Gallic period: debasement, problems of counterfeiting, and a rapid turnover of rulers. Traditionally, numismatic scholarship has regarded this period as one of decline. The article traces the collapse of the currency system established first by Augustus and refined by his successors such as Nero. This is characterized as: a trimetallic coinage with fixed relationships between coinages in gold, silver, and bronze; coinage in “Roman” denominations produced mainly at the mint of Rome; and an extensive series of provincial silver and civic bronze coinages produced to local standards. At the same time, there were profound changes in the iconography of the coinage: the tradition of naturalistic ruler portraiture with a varied series of reverse designs, reflecting the tastes of the individual emperor, to represent an idealized view of the ruler, and standardized reverse designs that only rarely refer to current events.
Roger Bland is Head of the Department of Portable Antiquities and Treasure, British Museum, London.
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