- The Substance of Coinage: The Role of Scientific Analysis in Ancient Numismatics
- Archaic and Classical Greek Coinage
- The Monetary Background of Early Coinage
- Asia Minor to the Ionian Revolt
- The Coinage of the Persian Empire
- The Coinage of Athens, Sixth to First Century B.C.
- Aegina, the Cyclades, and Crete
- The Coinage of Italy
- The Coinage of Sicily
- Greece and the Balkans to 360 B.C.
- The Hellenistic World
- Royal Hellenistic Coinages: From Alexander to Mithradates
- The Hellenistic World: The Cities of Mainland Greece and Asia Minor
- The Coinage of the Ptolemies
- The Seleucids
- Greek Coinages of Palestine
- The Coinage of the Parthians
- The Roman World
- Early Roman Coinage and Its Italian Context
- The Denarius Coinage of the Roman Republic
- The Julio-Claudians
- The Ancient Coinages of the Iberian Peninsula
- Flavian Coinage
- The Coinage of the Roman Provinces through Hadrian
- Trajan and Hadrian
- Antonine Coinage
- The Provinces after Commodus
- Syria in the Roman Period, 64 BC–AD 260
- Roman Coinages of Palestine
- The Severans
- From Gordian III to the Gallic Empire (AD 238–274)
- The Later Third Century
- The Coinage of Roman Egypt
- Tetrarchy and the House of Constantine
- The Coinage of the Later Roman Empire, 364–498
- The Transformation of the West
- Marks of Value (Certain and Possible) on Late Roman Coins <i>with</i> Intrinsic Values (from Aurelian)
- Earliest Christian Symbols on Roman Coinsrichard abdy
Abstract and Keywords
Interest in the composition of ancient coins is not recent. Up to 1908, most analyses had consisted solely of the major elemental compositions; little attempt had been made to study the trace elements, or, indeed, the microstructures. It was not until 1912 that metallography was first used to suggest Roman minting procedures. Levels of fineness and the ratio of gold to silver were seen as the most important areas of interest and continue to be the focus of much current research. The 1960s and 1970s saw the development and increasing use of instrumental analytical techniques that could be used without the need to take a sample from a coin. Over the last forty years, a relatively large number of analyses have been conducted using x-ray fluorescence and neutron activation analysis techniques, and they continue to be favored in some quarters today.
Matthew J. Ponting is Lecturer in Science-based Archaeology, School of Archaeology, Classics and Egyptology, University of Liverpool.
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