- The Substance of Coinage: The Role of Scientific Analysis in Ancient Numismatics
- Archaic and Classical Greek Coinage
- The Monetary Background of Early Coinage
- Asia Minor to the Ionian Revolt
- The Coinage of the Persian Empire
- The Coinage of Athens, Sixth to First Century B.C.
- Aegina, the Cyclades, and Crete
- The Coinage of Italy
- The Coinage of Sicily
- Greece and the Balkans to 360 B.C.
- The Hellenistic World
- Royal Hellenistic Coinages: From Alexander to Mithradates
- The Hellenistic World: The Cities of Mainland Greece and Asia Minor
- The Coinage of the Ptolemies
- The Seleucids
- Greek Coinages of Palestine
- The Coinage of the Parthians
- The Roman World
- Early Roman Coinage and Its Italian Context
- The Denarius Coinage of the Roman Republic
- The Julio-Claudians
- The Ancient Coinages of the Iberian Peninsula
- Flavian Coinage
- The Coinage of the Roman Provinces through Hadrian
- Trajan and Hadrian
- Antonine Coinage
- The Provinces after Commodus
- Syria in the Roman Period, 64 BC–AD 260
- Roman Coinages of Palestine
- The Severans
- From Gordian III to the Gallic Empire (AD 238–274)
- The Later Third Century
- The Coinage of Roman Egypt
- Tetrarchy and the House of Constantine
- The Coinage of the Later Roman Empire, 364–498
- The Transformation of the West
- Marks of Value (Certain and Possible) on Late Roman Coins <i>with</i> Intrinsic Values (from Aurelian)
- Earliest Christian Symbols on Roman Coinsrichard abdy
Abstract and Keywords
Rome made its steps in the production of coined money against the background of Italy's coinage development. The Romans started to make coinage in around 300 BC, and the system they gradually established lasted until the middle of the Second Punic or Hannibalic war. It was followed by the much-longer-lasting denarius coinage. Hoards of bronze from the late second and early first millennia BC in Italy consisted of scrap metal, chopped-up objects, and large round objects, formed in the bottom of crucibles during the manufacture of bronze or the melting down of scrap. These objects have been one of the influences on the later shape of early Roman monetary objects. The early currency of bronze in Rome is known today as “aes rude.” Other elements of early Roman coinage are coined bronze, coined silver, cast heavy bronze bars or ingots; and cast heavy bronze discs (“aes grave”).
Andrew Burnett is Deputy Director of the British Museum, London.
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