Show Summary Details

Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD HANDBOOKS ONLINE (www.oxfordhandbooks.com). © Oxford University Press, 2018. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Handbooks Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 24 May 2019

(p. 663) Earliest Christian Symbols on Roman Coinsrichard abdy

(p. 663) Appendix 2 Earliest Christian Symbols on Roman Coinsrichard abdy

(p. 664) (p. 665) (p. 666)

Date AD

Mint

Denomination

Symbol

Position

RIC reference

315

Ticinum(?)

AR medallion

In roundel at front of helmet crest. Possible initiative of die engraver. Cruciform scepter held by Constantine is seen in a more explicitly Christian form on later bronze medallion of Valentinian II (PCR 1473)

RIC VII.364.36

316

Ticinum

AE nummus

Mintmark in field. Chosen by a local mint official and possibly not intended as a Christian symbol.

RIC VII.366.43–47

318–319

Siscia

AE nummus

On prominent square badge on side of helmet. Initiative of one or more die engravers. Note: some suspiciously Christogram-shaped stars spangle the helmets (☧) on this group of nummi.

RIC VII.433.61

319–320

Ticinum

AE nummus

Mintmark in field. Chosen by a local mint official.

RIC VII.377.118–121; 377.125–378.126; 378.129

320

Siscia

AE nummus

Mintmark in field. Chosen by a local mint official.

RIC VII.441.138–139

320

Aquileia

AE nummus

Mintmark in field. Chosen by a local mint official.

RIC VII.401.58–62

322–333

Trier

AE nummus

On shield held by bust of Crispus (see RIC entry footnote). Most dies do not have this (e.g. one die has the badge of Rome, the wolf and twins, instead). Possibly only one die and thus chosen by the die-engraver.

RIC VII.197.372

327

Constantinople

AE nummus

324

Constantinople

AE nummus

Atop the labarum, Constantine's personal standard. Integral part of main design and thus official choice of coin type.

RIC VII.572.19; PCR 1309

334–336

Arles

AE nummus

Mintmark in field. Chosen by a local mint official.

RIC VII.275.381–386; 276.394–277.401

335

Aquileia

AE nummus

Mintmark in field. Chosen by a local mint official. The lower upright of this expanding cross is slightly longer than the upper and appears quite Christian.

RIC VII.407.124–127

336–337

Antioch

AV solidus

Mintmark in field. Chosen by a local mint official.

RIC VII.695.98–101

337–340

Trier

AE nummus

Mintmark in field. Chosen by a local mint official. Equal armed expanding cross—?Christian.

RIC VIII.143.37–43

337–340

Lyon

AE nummus

Mintmark in field. Chosen by a local mint official. First staurogram, looks like Christogram with one crossbar removed (i.e. remaining bar slopes).

RIC VIII.178.1–2

337–340

Lyon

AE nummus

Mintmark in field. Chosen by a local mint official. First staurogram; bar is horizontal.

RIC VIII.178.3

337–340

Lyon

AE nummus

Mintmark on banner. Chosen by a local mint official.

RIC VIII.178.4–11

340

Aquileia

AE nummus

Mintmark on banner. Chosen by a local mint official.

RIC VIII.317.33–34

340

Siscia

AE nummus

Mintmark on banner. Chosen by a local mint official.

RIC VIII.355.85–104

340–348

Siscia

AE nummus

Mintmark in field. Chosen by a local mint official.

RIC VIII.362.176–181

348–354

Trier, Lyon, Arles, Aquileia, Rome, Siscia, Thessalonica, Heraclea, Constantinople, Cyzicus, Nicomedia

AE nummus

As optional design on emperor's labarum on some types of the FEL TEMP REPARATIO series.

(various)

348–54

Heraclea; Cyzicus; Antioch

AE nummus

As optional design on emperor's labarum on some types of the FEL TEMP REPARATIO series.

(various)

Date AD

Mint

Denomination

Symbol

Position

RIC reference

348–350

Rome

AR miliarensis (light)

Christogram is between two pairs of standards, the inner two marked with alpha and omega. First expression of Christogram as complete symbol.

RIC VIII.252.71

350

Siscia

AE nummus

On emperor's labarum—legend HOC SIGNO VICTOR ERIS is the fullest expression of Constantine's victorious standard since issue of 327.

RIC VIII.369.270–292

351–353

Amiens, Trier, Lyons, Arles, Aquileia, Rome

AE nummus (large)

☧, ✱, ♇

Main design flanked by alpha and omega. First time Christogram is the main reverse design.

(various)

350

Rome

AV solidus

Christogram-topped globe held by Roma.

RIC VIII.261.166–167

Sources: P. Bruun, “The victorious signs of Constantine: A reappraisal,” Numismatic Chronicle (1997): 41–60 See also RIC VII and VIII.

*Staurogram = the Greek letter rho (“P”) barred with a horizontal line across its leg to create a monogrammed cross.