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date: 26 February 2020

(p. 403) Index

(p. 403) Index

Note: Page numbers followed by “f” and “t” denote figures and tables, respectively.

A
ABCX model, 350
Aberrant Behavior Checklist, 265
absolute pitch (AP), 139, 140–41
Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist, 313, 369
added-stress hypothesis, 354
affective distress inventories, 355
affect modulation, 245
African Americans, environmental factors and, 18
allele, 24
allelic association, 24
alternative means of communication, 284
Alzheimer disease (AD), 153, 177, 256
Angelman syndrome (AS), 8, 9, 275–76, 277t
ASD and, 279, 291
brain development and psychophysiology in, 266
emotional development and temperament in, 265–66
epilepsy and, 266, 267
family outcomes and, 369–70
PWS compared with, 369–70
social and behavioral development in, 265
A-not-B tasks, 128
approachability, WS and, 262
ASD assessment and ID, 284, 285t289t, 290–93
combined measures for, 292
interview measures for, 290
observational measures for, 291–92
questionnaire measures for, 291
ASD identification and ID, 281–84
ASD prevalence and ID, 276–77, 277t
Asperger syndrome
cognitive-behavioral interventions, 248
emotional expression in, 243
associated characteristics, 399
association. see allelic association
Attachment Behavior Q-sort (AQS), 338
attachment behaviors, 319
cognitive delays and, 338–39
determinants in ID of, 338
disorganized, 336, 358
DS and, 336, 358–59
secure and insecure types of, 358
SSP and, 358
working models in, 358
attachment theory, 334
DS and, 320–23
mother-child interactions and, 319, 320–23
overview of, 335
parental insightfulness and, 340–42
parenting children with ID and, 339–40
attention, 7
conceptual framework for, 90–92
DS and, 51, 89–90, 92–93, 92t
FXS and, 37, 89–90, 92t, 93–94
joint, 320, 325, 328, 359
MA level and, 89
selective, 90, 90f
visual, 69
visual selective, 91
WS and, 37, 89–90, 92t, 94
attentional selection, 8
attention defect theory, 5, 89
attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 133
DS and, 51
emotion recognition and understanding in, 241
FXS and, 50–51
22qDS and, 261, 267
working memory and, 117–18
auditory allodynia, 140, 145
auditory brainstem responses (ABR), 143
auditory fascinations, 140
auditory processing
in DS, 143
neuroimaging studies of, 142
in RS, 144
in WS, 142
auditory-verbal working memory
DS and, 174, 176
expressive language impairment and, 176
language acquisition and, 174
autism, 8, 9
child eliciting effects and, 373–74
complex span tasks and, 119
life course family caregiving and, 385–86
parent attributions and, 370
working memory and, 118–19
Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC), 284, 285t, 290
Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R), 278, 279, 286t, 290–92
Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS), 222, 279, 287t, 290–92
Autism Observation Scale for Infants, 287t
Autism Screening Questionnaire, 279
autism spectrum disorders (ASD), 9
AS and, 279, 291
CdLS and, 279–80, 282, 290, 291
CHARGE syndrome and, 281
clinical diagnosis and assessments for, 292
defining, 275
development delay and diagnosing, 283
DS and, 275, 276, 277t, 280, 282
emotional development and, 239
emotional expression in, 243–44
emotional responsiveness and, 244–45
emotion recognition and understanding in, 240–41
emotion regulation in, 246–47
ID and assessment of, 284, 285t289t, 290–93
combined measures for, 292
interview measures for, 290
observational measures for, 291–92
questionnaire measures for, 291
ID and identification of, 281–84
ID syndromes and prevalence of, 276–77, 277t
parental resolution of diagnosis of, 344
PKU and, 280–81
RS and, 275–76, 277t, 278, 290
(p. 404) theory of mind development delays in, 52, 278
TSC and, 276, 277t, 278–79
WS similarities to, 222, 283
Autism Spectrum Disorders—Diagnosis Scale for Intellectually Disabled Adults (ASD—DA), 285t
Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire, 285t
Autistic Spectrum Disorder in Adults Screening Questionnaire (ASDASQ), 285t
automatic memory tasks, 98–99
autonomic emotional responses, 243
B
background genetics, 398
Baddeley working memory model, 174–76
basal ganglia, 105, 106
Bayley Mental Development Index (MDI), 246, 322
Bayley Scale of Infant Mental Development (BSID), 17
Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), 307, 369
behavior
attachment, 319
cognitive delays and, 338–39
disorganized, 336, 358
DS and, 336, 358–59
secure and insecure types of, 358
SSPand, 358
working models in, 358
development of
in AS, 265
in DS, 255–56
in FXS, 258
in PWS, 264
22qDS and, 260
WS and, 262
DS phenotype for, 169t, 324–26
externalizing, in DS, 256
FXS and problematic, 50–52
FXS phenotype for, 212
gene mapping to, 33–34
genetics and outcomes for, 30–31
genetics influencing brain and, 266
internalizing, in DS, 256
management strategies for, 283
neuroanatomy mapping to, 34–35
parental insightfulness and, 341
parental outcome prediction and problems in, 310–11
behavioral genetics, 13, 20, 21, 24, 397
Behavioral Style Questionnaire, 258
behavior modification, music in, 144
Behavior Observation Scale (BOS), 287t
Behavior Rating Instrument for Autistic and Atypical Children (BRIAAC), 288t
bioanthropological framework, 9, 371–72, 375
block construction tasks
constructional apraxia and, 68–69
global processing deficit hypothesis and, 65–67
monkeys performing, 68–70
requirements of task, 67–68, 68f
ventral sparing, dorsal/parietal weakness hypothesis for, 70
in WS, 65–70, 66f, 83
blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD), 46
brain-based research methods, 149–50
comparison group issues in, 159–60
DS neurophysiology studies with, 257
experimental paradigm choices in, 160
interdisciplinary connections for, 160
lack of longitudinal studies in, 159
brain development, 8
in AS, 266
bridging theories and, 33–35
cognition and atypical, 43
domain-specific regions in, 38
DS and, 256–57
FXS and, 258–59
genetic mutations and architecture of, 38
in PWS, 264
22qDS and, 260–61
WS and, 37–38, 262–63
brain imaging, 42
brain oxygen level dependent (BOLD), 155
brainstem auditory evoked response (BAER), 142
brain structures
developmental cognitive neuroscience and, 45–46
DS and, 104–5
FXS and, 47–48
genetics influencing behavior and, 266
spatial representation, developmental timing, and, 81–85
bridging approaches, WS and, 33–35
BRIEF, 133
British Picture Vocabulary Scale (BPVS), 132
C
CA matching, 5–6, 64, 89
candidate gene approach, 22
CANTAB, 129
Carers' Assessment of Difficulties Index (CADI), 305
Carers' Assessment of Satisfactions Index (CASI), 305
Catell Infant Intelligence Scale, 17
central executive, 8, 109, 175
central nervous system malformation (CNS malformation), 24
cerebellum, 105
cerebral palsy, 24
change detection task, 91
CHARGE syndrome, 276, 277t, 281
Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), 310, 369
child eliciting effects
autism and, 373–74
child psychopathology and, 369
distal framework for, 371–72
DS advantage and, 368–69
environmental reactions to, 399
future research directions in, 375–76
historical background for, 367
nonphenotypic factors in, 370–71
parental preparedness and, 373–74
phenotypic characteristics of, 368
proximal framework for, 367–68
specific cues and, 374–75
Childhood Autism Rating Scales (CARS), 278, 288t, 290, 292
child psychopathology, 369
child-related stress, 354
chorionic villi sampling, 370
chromosome, 24
Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-IV (CELF-IV), 223
co-constructivist model, 319–20
Coffin-Lowry syndrome, 9, 275
cognition
atypical brain development and, 43
bridging theories and, 33–35
developmental cognitive neuroscience and, 44–45
development of, 7
attachment and delayed, 338–39
DS and, 174
emotional regulation and, 246
language deficits confounded with, 167
language skill development differences and, 174–76
etiology-specific profiles of, 5
(p. 405) FMRP level and, 49–50
FXS and, 48–49
genetic influences on, 20, 63, 397
language development and, 200–201
literacy development and, 190
neuropsychological approaches to, 31
social, 157
spatial, 63
visual, 48–49
visuospatial, 112
WS and, 62
cognitive-behavioral interventions, 248
cognitive coping inventories, 355
cognitive genetics, 35
cognitive neuroscience
developmental, 43–46
WS and, 31
cognitive sequences, 395
Cohen syndrome, 9, 275
color naming Stroop tasks, 91
communication, alternative means of, 284. see also language
Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales (CSBS), 203, 222
communication skills delays, in ID, 283
Communicative Development Inventory (CDI), 220
communicative intent, 222
comorbidity, 24
comparison groups
as fMRI research issue, 159–60
for WS, 63–65
complex span tasks
autism and, 119
working memory assessment and, 110–11, 116
Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing (CTOPP), 227
computed tomography (CT), 45
computer-based interventions, 249
concordance rate, 24
concrete vocabulary, in WS, 222–23
congenital, 24
constructional apraxia, 68, 69
contingency naming task (CNT), 132
coping
cognitive inventories of, 355
community's role in, 357
cultural context of, 356–57
emotional regulation, 354
life course perspective on, 387
parental strategies and styles for, 312–13
of parents of children with DS, 354–58
parent's resources for, 360–61
problem-oriented, 354
social capital and, 357
social support and, 355–56
stress and, among parents of children with DS, 351–54
and stress perspective on mental retardation, 350–51
virtual social support and, 357–58
copying figure tasks
constructional apraxia and, 69
global processing deficit hypothesis and, 65–67
monkeys performing, 69–70
requirements of task, 67–68
ventral sparing, dorsal/parietal weakness hypothesis for, 70
in WS, 65–70, 83
Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS), 9, 275, 276, 277t
ASD and, 279–80, 282, 290, 291
FXS and, 279–80
Corsi span task, 110
cortisol, 207
counting Stroop task, 93
cretinism, 25
Cri du Chat syndrome, 279
cultural context, stress and coping and, 356–57
cultural theory, 320
D
declarative memory. see explicit memory
defect approach
developmental level and, 5–7
methodological problems with, 6
shift away from, 4–5
deliberation, 90, 90f
visual, 91
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), 25
depression
in DS, 256, 257
EEG activity in, 257
family well-being and, 304
in FXS, 211
in parents of ID children, 306–7
22qDS and, 260
WS and, 262
determinants of attachment in ID, 338
developmental approach
broadening of field by, 3, 396
developmental level and, 5–7
differentiation by etiology in, 396
environmental interaction and, 397
goal of, 4
growth of knowledge in, 400
progressive modularization in, 35
shift from singular defect approach to, 4–5
transactional theory and, 319
two-group approach and, 15–17
WS and, 35–39
Developmental Behavior Checklist, 258
developmental cognitive neuroscience, 43–46
brain level of, 45–46
cognitive level of, 44–45
developmental delay, 14
ASD diagnosis and, 283
genetic syndromes associated with, 254–55
developmental level
group matching by, 5–7
methodological considerations of, 91–92
developmental neuropsychology, 31, 42
developmental timing
spatial representation, brain structure, and, 81–85
in WS, 82–85
developmental trajectories, 36, 65
etiology-related, 398
in WS, 84, 84f
DF extremes analysis, 21, 25
Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders (DISCO), 287t, 290
diagnostic overshadowing, 282
Differential Ability Scales (DAS), 65, 219
differential-exposure hypothesis, 354
differential parental investment, 371
differential-reactivity hypothesis, 354
differential-stress buffering hypothesis, 354
diffusion tensor imagine (DTI), 46, 48, 151, 155
digit span task, 110
Dimensional Change Card Sort Task (DCCS), 128, 130–31
discourse development, 171–73
disorganized attachment, 336, 358
dissociability, 32, 33
dizygotic twins (DZ twins), 20–21, 23, 25
DNA microarray analysis, 370
DNA pooling, 25
domain-specific deficits, 42
dorsal stream functions
block construction and copying figure tasks and, 70
weaknesses in, 74–81
double dissociations (DD), 31, 32
double-step saccades, 94
Down syndrome (DS), 8, 9, 15, 23, 35
ADHD and, 51
ASD and, 275, 276, 277t, 280, 282
attachment behaviors of children with, 336, 358–59
attachment research on, 320–23
attention and, 89–90, 92–93, 92t
auditory processing in, 143
auditory-verbal working memory and, 174, 176
Baddeley working memory model and, 174–76
(p. 406) behavior phenotype of, 169t, 324–26
brain-based research method studies of, 257
brain development and psychophysiology in, 256–57
brain structures and, 104–5
cognitive development and, 174
coping among parents of children with, 354–58
depression in, 256, 257
discourse development in, 171–73
disorganized attachment in, 336
domain-specific STM impairment in, 111–12
dual language development in, 176–78
early communication in, 168, 170
EF in, 128, 129–32
emotional development and, 239, 256
emotional expression in, 242–43
emotional responsiveness and, 245
emotion recognition and understanding in, 240, 266–67
emotion regulation in, 245–46
ERP studies of, 151–53
etiology-specific profile development for, 398
experience of parenting children with, 352–53
expressive language development and, 168, 170–73, 191–92
expressive pragmatics in, 171–73
expressive syntax acquisition in, 171
expressive vocabulary in, 168, 170
eye gaze in, 255
family stress and, 368, 369
fluency and, 129–30
fMRI studies of, 153
FXS vs., 52–53, 240
genetic basis for, 168
hearing loss in, 176
hippocampus and, 129
implicit memory in, 102–3
inhibition and, 129–30
item and order memory in, 114
language acquisition in, 167
language deficits in, 112, 116
language input and, 176
language learning phenotype in, 168, 169t
life course family caregiving and, 385
literacy development in, 184–85, 190–92
literacy intervention in, 194–97
LTM and, 99–100, 105
memory and learning in, 97, 104–5
morphosyntax and, 205
mother-child interactions and
attachment research, 320–23
future research on, 326
learning context, 323–24
shared activity in, 324–26
MRI studies of, 153
musical ability and, 138, 142–43
narrative language and, 172
parent attributions and, 370
parents of children with, 307
phonological awareness and, 192–96
phonological development and, 170
planning and, 129–30
prenatal screening for, 370
prevalence of, 349–50
reading ability predictors in, 185, 190–92
reading and writing ability profile, 193–94
reading development and, 186t189t
receptive language acquisition in, 173, 191–92
rehearsal and, 113
self-regulation in, 323
set-shifting in, 130–31
sleep problems in, 321
social and behavioral development in, 255–56
social competence in, 256
sources of parental stress and, 354
speech production in, 170–71
SSP and, 336–37
stress and coping among parents of children with, 351–54
stress related to other variables, 354
stress specific to diagnosis of, 353
syntax comprehension in, 168, 173–74, 177, 191
temperament and, 256
translocation forms of, 5
verbal list learning task and, 99
visual-object memory in, 101
visual-spatial memory in, 101, 105
vocabulary comprehension in, 173–74
writing ability predictors in, 185
WS compared with, 32
DS advantage, 351, 352–53, 368–69
dual diagnoses, 8
dual language development
in DS, 176–78
future research implications of, 177
intervention implications of, 177–78
dyadic interaction, WS and, 326–28
dysmorphic syndrome, 25
DZ twins. see dizygotic twins
E
early-onset dementia, 153
The Early Screening of Autistic Traits Questionnaire, 286t
Ebbinghaus illusion, 66
echolalia, 51
eclampsia, 25
effortful memory tasks, 98–99
electroencephalogram (EEG), 45, 139, 149, 255, 257, 266–67, 397
electrophysiology, 149
Elithorn's Perceptual Maze Test, 133
emerging language profile, 8
emotional development, 8
in AS, 265–66
ASD and, 239
DS and, 239, 256
in FXS, 258
intervention implications of, 247–49
in PWS, 264
22qDS and, 260
WS and, 262
emotional expression
ASD and, 243–44
in Asperger syndrome, 243
DS and, 242–43
in FXS, 244
emotional reaction patterns of parents, 343
emotional regulation coping, 354
emotional responsiveness
ASD and, 244–45
atypical development and, 244
DS and, 245
emotion recognition and understanding
ADHD and, 241
age-related differences in, 241
ASD and, 240–41
cognitive-behavioral interventions and, 248
computer-based interventions for, 249
DS and, 240, 266–67
facial processing and, 240
FXS and, 240, 242
interventions targeting, 248
social competence and, 239–40
WS and, 242
emotion regulation
in ASD, 246–47
in DS, 245–46
in FXS, 246–47
interventions targeting, 248
strategies for, 245
in typically developing children, 245
environment, 25. see also socioeconomic status
African Americans and, 18
child characteristics interacting with, 399
developmental approach and, 397
FXS and, 210–11
genetic interactions with, 19–20, 30, 399
group common, 25
language development and, 201–2, 210–11
literacy development and home, 190–91
nonshared, 26
shared, 26
epilepsy, AS and, 266, 267
episodic buffer, 175
episodic memory, 175
etiology, 25
etiology-related trajectories and profiles, 398
event-related potentials (ERPs), 37, 45, 47–48, 94, 149
DS and, 151–53
FXS and, 158
PWS and, 154
WS and, 155–57
evolutionary developmental psychology, 371, 375
executive function (EF), 8
cognitive-behavioral interventions and, 248
defining, 125
in DS, 128, 129–32
experimental tracking of development of, 127–28
in FXS, 128, 132–33
in ID, 128–29
organization of, 126
PFC and, 126–27
in PKU, 128, 133–34
in PWS, 128, 134
in typically developing children, 126–28
WCST and, 125, 127–28
working memory and, 117–19
explicit memory, 98
verbal, 99–100
visual-spatial, 100–101
exploration, 90, 90f
visual, 91
expressive language development
auditory-verbal working memory deficits and, 176
joint attention and, 320
literacy development and, 191–92
studies of, 168, 170–73
WS and, 328
expressive pragmatics, 171–73
expressive syntax, DS and acquisition of, 171
expressive vocabulary
in DS, 168, 170
in WS, 223
Expressive Vocabulary Test (EVT), 223, 228
externalizing behavior, in DS, 256
eye gaze
aversion of, 259, 267, 398
in DS, 255
in typically developing children, 255
WS and long, 327
F
face inversion effect, 70, 71
facial processing, emotion recognition and, 240
facial recognition, WS and, 326–28
familial intellectual disabilities, 395–96
familial mental retardation, 14–17, 16t, 23, 395
polygenic inheritance of, 20–22
families
child characteristic-related stress in, 368
child psychopathology and stress in, 369
direct and indirect effects of, 9
ID and functioning of, 366–67
impact of launching on, 383–84
life course perspective on, 380–81
life cycle stages of, 382
uncertain diagnosis and stress in, 370
family-centered support programs, 361
family-focused programs, 360
family pedigree, 25
family quality of life, 309
family studies, 25
family unit, 309
F-COPES, 313, 368
fetal alcohol syndrome, 102
5p syndrome, 369
fragile X mental retardation 1 gene (FMR1), 46–48, 158–59, 207
language development and, 210
fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), 43–44, 46–48, 132, 207
cognition and level of, 49–50
language development variations and levels of, 210
fragile X syndrome (FXS), 7, 8, 9, 25, 35, 257
ADHD and, 50–51
attention and, 37, 89–90, 92t, 93–94
behavioral phenotype of, 212
behavioral problems in, 50–52
brain development and psychophysiology in, 258–59
brain level, 47–48
CdLS vs., 279–80
cognitive level, 48–49
cross-cultural differences and, 52
cross-syndrome comparisons with, 52–53
dendritic spine abnormalities in, 44, 47
depression in, 211
DS vs., 52–53, 240
EF in, 128, 132–33
emotional development in, 258
emotional expression in, 244
emotion recognition and understanding and, 240, 242
emotion regulation in, 246–47
environmental contributions in, 210–11
ERP studies of, 158
family stress and, 368, 369
future research avenues for, 52–53
gaze aversion in, 259, 267, 398
genetic and cellular level, 46–47
genetic disruption in, 43–44
HPA in, 259
hyperarousal in, 258, 259, 267
inhibition in, 132
language development and, 200, 210
language learning and use in, 202
life course family caregiving and, 386
linguistic phenotype of
gender differences in, 207–9
morphosyntax, 203–5, 212
pragmatics, 205–7
transition into language, 202
vocabulary, 202–3
within-syndrome variation in, 207–10
mental retardation in, 48
MLU in, 204
MRI studies of, 158–59
musical ability and, 138, 143
neuroconstructivist approach and, 44
parent-child interactions in, 212
pragmatics and, 45, 205–9
receptive language and, 203
set-shifting in, 132–33
shyness in, 255, 258, 397
social and behavioral development in, 258
speech fluency and, 45
temperament in, 258
theory of mind and, 278
uncertainty period for diagnosis of, 370
vocabulary and, 202–3
WS vs., 52
fragile X tremor and ataxia syndrome (FXTAS), 49–50
Friedrich Questionnaire on Resources and Stress, 307
functional dissociations, 98
functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), 46–49, 81, 93–94, 139, 151
comparison group issues for, 159–60
DS and, 153
FXS and, 159
social cognition and, 157
WS and, 157
G
Gage, Phineas, 125
gamete, 25
gaze aversion, 259, 267, 398
generalized attention deficit, 89
genetic modularity, 32
(p. 408) genetics, 7, 13. see also polygenic inheritance
background, 398
behavioral, 13, 20, 21, 24, 397
behavioral outcomes and, 30–31
brain and behavior influenced by, 266
brain development and, 38
bridging theories and, 33–35
cognition and, 20, 63, 397
cognitive, 35
developmental delay associated with, 254–55
DS and, 168
environmental interactions with, 19–20, 30, 399
future research directions for, 398–99
FXS and, 46–47
imaging, 160
launching stage and, 384
molecular, 13, 22–24, 26, 42
nonadditive variance in, 26
PWS and, 263–65
gene-to-behavior mapping, 33–34
genotype, 25
gestational, 25
Gilliam Autism Rating Scale (GARS), 284, 289t
global processing deficit hypothesis, 65–67
grammar, in WS, 224–25
group common environment (GCE), 25
group familiality (GF), 25
group heritability (GH), 21, 25
G × E interactions, 399
H
habits, 90, 90f
visual, 91
Handicaps, Behaviour, and Skills Schedules (HBS), 284, 287t
happy puppet syndrome. see Angelman syndrome
Harper, Lawrence, 367
hearing loss, 176
heritability, 25
high-functioning autism (HFA), 241
cognitive-behavioral interventions for, 248
social-cognitive interventions for, 248
hippocampus, 25
DS and, 129
mental retardation and, 43
hope within hope theory, 361
hydrocephalic, 25
hyperacusis, 140, 145
hyperarousal, 207, 258, 259, 267
hyperphagia, 264, 370, 397, 398
hypersociability, 35, 262, 263, 267
musical ability and, 141
hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA), 259
hypothyroidism, 25
I
imaging genetics, 160
implicit memory, 98
DS and, 102–3
ID and long-term, 101–4
WS and, 102–3
Infant Behavioral Summarized Evaluation (IBSE), 289t
information coding, 98
inhibition
DS and, 129–30
in FXS, 132
in PKU, 133–34
inhibitory control, 207
insecure attachment, 358
insightfulness of parents, 340–42
intelligence. see also Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children
distributions of, 14–15, 15f
general, in WS, 218–20
heritability of, 20
molecular genetics research on, 22–24
musical ability and, 139
standardized tests of, 14
internalizing behavior, in DS, 256
interpersonal relationships, 9
intraparietal sulcus (IPS), 81–82
IQ matching, 118
item and order memory, 113–14
J
joint attention, 320, 325, 328, 359
K
Kanisza illusion, 66
Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test (KBIT), 219
L
language. see also emerging language profile
deficits in
cognitive development confounded with, 167
DS and, 112, 116
development of, 7, 8
biology and, 201–2
cognition and, 200–201
different domains of, 201
dual, 176–78
environment and, 201–2, 210–11
factors disrupting, 202
FMR1 mutation and, 210
FMRP levels and, 210
FXS and, 200, 210
WS and, 217–18
expressive
development of, 168, 170–73, 176, 191–92, 320, 328
DS and, 168, 170–73
WS and, 328
narrative, 172
predicting individual differences in skills, 174–76
receptive
acquisition of, 173, 191–92
DS and, 173, 191–92
FXS and, 203
literacy development and, 191–92
vocabulary, 203, 223
spatial, 73–74, 83
WS and, 33, 37, 222–28, 230–31
language acquisition
auditory-verbal STM and, 174
in DS, 167, 173, 191–92
early, 8, 220–22
WS and, 220–22
language delay, 51
language development
mental retardation and, 115–16
mother-child joint attention and, 328, 359
verbal STM and, 115–16
language input, 176
language learning
DS phenotype for, 168, 169t
in FXS, 202
social interaction and, 202
Latch-On program, 197
launching stage
genetic syndromes and defined disorders and impact of, 384
ID and, 382–84
impact on families of, 383–84
premature and postponed, 382–83
learning
development in ID, 97
mother-child interactions in DS and, 323–24
STM and, 115
visual-object, 101
visual-spatial, 101
working memory and, 116, 120
WS and, 101, 105–6
Leber's congenital amaurosis, 282
Leiter International Performance Scale—Revised, 173
lexicality effect, 112
life course perspective, 9, 380–81
autism and, 385–86
coping in, 387
diagnostic group contexts of, 384
DS and, 385
FXS and, 386
social support in, 387
stress in, 386–87
(p. 409) Lifespan Family Research Project, 381
linguistic profile, 8
linkage analysis, 25–26
linkage disequilibrium, 24
literacy development. see also reading
chronological age and, 190
cognitive abilities and, 190
expressive and receptive spoken language and, 191–92
gender and, 191
home environment and, 190–91
schooling and, 191
SES and, 191
syntax comprehension and, 191
WS and, 227–28
literacy intervention, 194–97
long-term memory (LTM), 98
in DS, 99–100, 105
explicit verbal, 99–100
explicit visual-spatial, 100–101
in ID, 98–104
implicit, 101–4
in WS, 100
M
MA. see mental age
MacArthur Longitudinal Twin Study (MALTS), 22
macrocephaly, 26
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 45, 47, 104, 150–51, 397
DS and, 153
FXS and, 158–59
PWS and, 154–55, 264
22qDS and, 261
WS and, 157
magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRspect), 150, 264
magnetoencephalography (MEG), 139, 143, 149
major gene approach, 23
Makaton signing, 284
marital adjustment, 307–9
marker genes, 26
matching problems, 5–7
working memory assessment and, 120
matching procedures
delay and deviance in, 35
developmental issues in, 92
WS and, 36
Maternal Gratification Scale, 369
Maternal PKU (MPKU), 133–34
mean length of utterance (MLU)
in DS, 168, 171, 172, 192
in FXS, 204
meiosis, 26
memory. see also explicit memory; implicit memory; long-term memory; short-term memory
deficits in, ID and, 97
DS and, 104–5
episodic, 175
item and order, 113–14
rehearsal and, 113
structural approaches to, 98
WS and, 101, 104–5
mental age (MA), 32
matching by, 5–6, 64, 89, 167
verbal, 132
mental retardation
behavioral genetics and, 13
distributions of, 14–15, 15f
familial, 14–17, 16t, 20–23, 395
FXS and, 48
hippocampus and, 43
language development and, 115–16
mild
familial genes and environment interaction in, 19–20
familial link in, 17–18
low socioeconomic environments and, 18
organic anomalies in, 18–19
molecular genetics research on, 22–24
organic, 15–17, 16t
pathology perspective on, 350
profound, 26
shift in approaches to, 350
stress and coping perspective on, 350–51
methylphenidate, 247
microcephaly, 26
microdeletions, 26
mild mental retardation
familial genes and environment interaction in, 19–20
familial link in, 17–18
low socioeconomic environments and, 18
organic anomalies in, 18–19
mitochondrial, 26
mnesic trace deterioration rate, 98
Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT), 284, 285t
modular analysis
genetics interactions with behavior and, 30
neuropsychological theories and, 31
progressive modularity, 35
WS and, 32–33
molecular genetics, 13, 22–24, 26, 42
monozygotic twins (MZ twins), 20–21, 23, 26
morphology, 26
morphosyntax
DS and, 205
FXS linguistic phenotype and, 203–5, 212
mosaicism, 5, 48
mother-child interaction, 318
co-constructivist model and, 319–20
DS and
attachment research, 320–23
future research on, 326
learning context of, 323–24
self-regulation and, 323
shared activity in, 324–26
future research paths for, 329–30
language development and, 328, 359
theoretical perspectives on
attachment theory, 319, 320–23
cultural theory, 320
transactional theory, 319–20
WS and
future research on, 329
studies of, 328–29
motion coherence, 71, 73, 83
motion processing, in WS, 71–73, 83
MPKU. see maternal PKU
Mullen Scales of Early Learning, 209, 219
Muller-Lyer illusion, 66, 66f
multiple object tracking task (MOT), 79–80, 80f
music, behavior modification and, 144
musical ability, 8
DS and, 138, 142–43
FXS and, 138, 143
hypersociability and, 141
ID and, 138–39
intelligence and, 139
local-global distinction in, 140
pitch, rhythm, and melody in, 141
RS and, 138, 144
TSC and, 138, 143–44
WS and, 33, 138, 139–42
musical affect, 141–42
musical processing
neuroimaging studies of, 142
in WS, 142
MZ twins. see monozygotic twins
N
narrative language, in DS, 172
National Reading Panel, 231
naturalistic fallacy, 375
near-infrared optical tomography (NIROT), 149
NEPSY, 129
neuroanatomy-to-behavior mapping, 34–35
neuroconstructivist approaches, 30, 44
neurodevelopmental differences, 266–68
neuroimaging (NI), 45, 47, 142, 159–60
neuropsychological dissociations, 98
neuropsychological theories, 30
cognitive theories in, 31
developmental, 31, 42
modularity in, 31
WS and, 31–33
(p. 410) neurotransmitter, 26
NI. see neuroimaging
nomenclature, 26
nonadditive genetic variance, 26
noncomprehension signaling, 206–7
non-normative stress, 386–87
nonshared environment, 26
nonverbal mental age (NVMA), 203, 204
nonverbal MMRC, 143
nonword Repetition Task, 175
normal distribution, 26
normative stress, 386–87
nuchal translucency screening, 370
nucleotide, 26
NVMA matching, 206, 209
O
object recognition, 71, 72f
object representation, WS and, 71
obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), 155
obstructive sleep apnea, 321
octoTwin Study, 22
odynacusis, 140, 145
Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man database (OMIM), 13
organic mental retardation, 15–17, 16t
mild, 18–19
orienting, 91
orthographic convention training, 196–97
P
paralytic, 26
parental investment theory, 371–72
parental preparedness
child characteristics and, 372–73
disabilities and, 373–74
Parenting Morale Index (PMI), 305
Parenting Stress Index-Short Form, 311
Parenting Stress Inventory (PSI), 368, 369
Parent Interview for Autism (PIA), 287t
parent-related stress, 354
parents
attachment theory and, 339–40
autism and attributions by, 370
of children with DS, 307
children with DS and stress in, 351–54, 359–60
coping strategies and styles of, 312–13
depression in, 306–7
emotional reaction patterns of, 343
etiology group and placement of blame by, 370
experience with children with DS of, 352–53
father's perspectives, 360
insightfulness of, 340–42
marital adjustment and satisfaction, 307–9
negative emotions, 306–7
personality of, 311–12
positive outcomes, 304–6
predicting positive and negative outcomes in, 309–13
child behavior problems and, 310–11
demographic characteristics, 310
parental coping strategies and styles, 312–13
parental personality and, 311–12
SES and, 310
time since and until diagnosis and, 309–10
psychological resources of, 360
reactions to raising children with ID, 303–4
resolution of child's diagnosis and, 342–45
sources of stress to, 354
stress specific to DS diagnosis of child, 353
technology integration and, 360
virtual communities and, 360
parietal cortex, 69, 70, 74–81
Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT), 130, 173, 222–23, 228
Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised (PPVT-R), 217
perinatal, 26
perseverative speech, 51
pervasive developmental disorders-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), 222, 248
phenotype, 26
phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH), 280
phenylamine, 133
phenylketonuria (PKU), 8, 128, 276, 277t
ASD and, 280–81
EF and, 128, 133–34
inhibition in, 133–34
prenatal screening for, 370
philosophy of science, 400
phoneme segmentation, 195
phonological awareness, 192–93, 227
interventions for, 194–96
phonological development
in DS, 170
in WS, 220
phonological loop, 8, 109, 175
rehearsal and, 113
planning, DS and, 129–30
Platter, Felix, 14
polygenes, 26
polygenic inheritance, 7, 26
of familial mental retardation, 20–22
Ponzo illusion, 66, 66f
positive psychology, 304
positron emission tomography (PET), 105, 139, 150, 264
postnatal, 26
postponed launching, 382–84
post-traumatic deficits, 26
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), 8, 9, 97, 150, 267, 279, 307
brain development and psychophysiology in, 264
AS compared with, 369–70
EF in, 128, 134
emotional development and temperament in, 264
ERP studies of, 154
family outcomes and, 368, 369–70
genetic basis of, 263–65
hyperphagia in, 264, 370, 397, 398
MRI studies of, 154–55, 264
social and behavioral development in, 264
WS compared with, 329
Pragmatics
defining, 205
DS and, 171–73
expressive, 171–73
FXS and, 45, 205–9
WS and, 221–22, 229
comprehension monitoring, 226–27
conversational skills, 226
questionnaire-based studies of, 225–26
pre-developmental approaches to ID, 4
prefrontal cortex (PFC)
EF development and, 127
EF organization and, 126
maturation of, 125–26
Pre-Linguistic Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (PLADOS), 288t
premature launching, 382–84
prenatal, 26
prenatal screening, 370
Primary Measures of Music Audiation (PMMA), 139, 141
print-referencing techniques, 194
probands, 20
problem-oriented coping, 354
procedural memory. see implicit
memory profound mental retardation, 26
progressive modularization, 35
(p. 411) Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies (PATHS), 247–48
Proteus Maze test, 102
psychiatric disorders. See specific disorders
psychometric g, 109
psychophysiology
in AS, 266
in DS, 256–57
in FXS, 258–59
in PWS, 264
22qDSand, 260–61
in WS, 262–63
Q
quality of life, family, 309
Quantitative-Checklist for Autism in Toddlers, 286t
quantitative trait loci (QTL), 22, 27
Questionnaire on Resources and Stress (QRS), 368, 369
R
reaction range, 26
Reaction to Diagnosis Interview (RDI), 343–45
reading
DS ability profile for, 193–94, 195f
DS and ability predictors for, 185, 190–92
DS and development of, 186t189t
instruction methods and ability in, 227–28
interventions for, 196
WS and, 227–28
reading span tasks, 110
receptive language
acquisition of, 173, 191–92
DS and, 173, 191–92
FXS and, 203
literacy development and, 191–92
vocabulary, 203, 223
reductionist hypothesis, 101
reference frames
defining, 76
WS and, 76–79, 77f
reflexes, 90, 90f
visual, 91
rehearsal, 113
relational/conceptual vocabulary, in WS, 223
residual normality, 32, 33
retention capacity, 98
Rett syndrome (RS), 8, 9, 23
ASD and, 275–76, 277t, 278, 290
auditory processing in, 144
musical ability and, 138, 144
rewardingness, 352
Reynell scales, 209
Rey-Osterreich Complex Figures Test, 133
Rimland's Diagnostic Checklist for Behavior-Disturbed Children, 286t
Ritvo Freeman Real Life Rating Scale, 288t
S
Scale for Pervasive Developmental Disorder in Mentally Retarded Persons (PDD-MRS), 284, 287t
schizophrenia, 399
22qDS and, 261, 267
Screening Tool for Autism in Two-year olds (STAT), 288t
secure attachment, 358
selective attention, modes of, 90, 90f
selective muteness, 280, 282
self-regulation, 246, 323
semantics, in WS
concrete vocabulary, 222–23
organization of, 223–24
relational/conceptual vocabulary, 223
semantic strategies, 99
sequence hypothesis, 339
serial order tasks, 114
Serial reaction time test (SRT), 102–3
set-shifting
in DS, 130–31
in FXS, 132–33
shared environment, 26
short-term memory (STM), 98
assessment of, 110
auditory-verbal, language acquisition and, 174
defining, 110
impairments in
consequences of, 115–16
domain-specific, in DS and WS, 111–12
item and order memory, 113–14
long-term learning and, 115
rehearsal and, 113
verbal
impairments in, 112–14
language development and, 115–16
STM, 115
vocabulary development and, 115
working memory and, 109–10
in WS, 100
shyness, 255, 258, 397
simple span tasks, 110, 116
singular defect approach, shift away from, 4–5
sleep problems, 321
Smith-Magenis syndrome, 9, 307, 351
sociability, 255
social capital, 357
social class, 18
social cognition, fMRI study of, 157
social-cognitive interventions, 248
Social Communication, Emotion Regulation, and Transactional Supports (SCERTS), 248
Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ), 286t, 291
social competence
in DS, 256
emotion recognition and understanding and, 239–40
social development
in AS, 265
in DS, 255–56
in FXS, 258
in PWS, 264
22qDS and, 260
WS and, 262
Social Emotional Intervention, 247–48
social functioning, etiology-specific profiles of, 5
social interaction, language learning and, 201
social knowledge, WS and, 328
social referencing, 320, 325
Social Responsiveness Scale, 284, 286t
social support, 355–56
life course perspective on, 387
virtual, 357–58, 360
socioeconomic status (SES)
literacy development in DS and, 191
mild mental retardation and, 18
parental outcome prediction and, 310
parents of children with ID and, 309
socioemotional development, 7, 8, 9
sparing of abilities, 5–6
spatial cognition, 63
spatial impairment
ventral sparing, dorsal/parietal weakness hypothesis for, 70
in WS, 61, 65, 70
spatial integration, 67
spatial language, 73–74, 83, 84, 223
spatial representation, 7, 71
brain structure, developmental timing, and, 81–85
spatial semantics, 115
specific language impairment (SLI), 32, 35, 115, 116
speech fluency
DS and, 129–30
FXS and, 45
speech perception, in WS, 220–21
speech production, in DS, 170–71
spina bifida, 370
spinal muscular atrophy, 368
SRS, 290
(p. 412) standardized intelligence tests, 14
Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale, 17
Stern Completion procedure, 102
Still Face procedure, 322
Strange Situation Procedure (SSP), 243, 319, 321, 334
applicability to ID of, 337–38
attachment behaviors and, 358
DS and, 336–37
in ID, 336–38
process of, 335–36
stress
child characteristic-related, 368
child psychopathology-related, 369
child-related, 354
and coping perspective on mental retardation, 350–51
cultural context of, 356–57
DS advantage and, 368–69
hypotheses for sources of, 354
inconsistent findings regarding, 359–60
life course perspective on, 386–87
normative and non-normative sources of, 386–87
parent-related, 354
among parents of children with DS, 351–54, 359–60
uncertainty in diagnosis and, 370
Stroop tasks
color naming, 91
counting, 93
structural MRI. see magnetic resonance imaging
subjective well-being, 305
subtractivity assumption. see residual normality
supravalvular aortic stenosis (SVAS), 33–34, 218
synaptic transmission, 22
syndrome-general deficits, 42
syndrome heritability, 370–71
syndrome-specific deficits, 42
neuroimaging studies of, 45
syntax. see also morphosyntax
comprehension of
in DS, 168, 173–74, 177, 191
literacy development and, 191
expressive, 171
rule-based vs. memory-based systems for, 33
T
temperament
in AS, 265–66
in DS, 256
FXS and, 258
in PWS, 264
22qDS and, 260
WS and, 262
Temperament and Atypical Behavior Scale (TABS), 247
teratogen, 26
Test for Auditory Comprehension of Language-3 (TACL-3), 204
Test for Auditory Comprehension of Language-Revised (TACL-R), 203, 204–5, 209
Test for Reception of Grammar (TROG), 225, 228
Test of Visual-Motor Integration (VMI), 65
theory of mind development
ASD and, 52, 278
cognitive-behavioral interventions and, 248
FXS and, 278
WS and, 262
thyroid-related IDs, 370
Tower of Hanoi test, 102, 125
Tower of London test, 133
transactional theory, 319–20
Trisomy 21, 5
tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), 8, 9
ASD and, 276, 277t, 278–79
musical ability and, 138, 143–44
22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22qDS)
ADHD and, 261, 267
brain development and psychophysiology in, 260–61
defining, 259
emotional development in, 260
psychiatric disorders and, 261, 267
social and behavioral development in, 259–60
temperament in, 260
twins, 20
Twins Early Development Study (TEDS), 21–22
twin studies, 26
2D form-from-motion task, 73
two-group approach, 5
confounding etiologies in, 15
current developments in, 17–20
developmental contributions to, 15–17
development of, 14–15
U
uniparental disomy (UPD), 134, 154–55
V
velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS), 114
ventral sparing, dorsal/parietal weakness hypothesis, 70
ventral stream, spatial functions engaging, 70–74
verbal explicit memory, 99–100
verbal list learning task, 99
verbal mental age (VMA), 132
verbal perseveration, 205, 207
Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS), 205
Vineland Social Maturity Scale, 17
virtual communities, 360
virtual social support, 357–58, 360
visual attention, 69
visual cognition, 48–49
visual-constructive deficit, 74, 228
visual deliberation, 91
visual exploration, 91
visual habits, 91
visual illusions, 66
visual integration, 66–67
visual-manual action, 75–76, 83
visual-object learning, 101
visual orienting tasks, 91
visual reflexes, 91
visual saccades, 37, 94
visual selective attention, 91
visual-spatial learning, 101
visual-spatial memory
DS and, 105
explicit, 100–101
visuospatial cognition, 112
visuospatial constructive tasks, 65
visuospatial processing, 156
visuo-spatial sketch pad, 8, 109, 175
Vocabulary
acquisition of
early, 221
early verbal STM and, 115
WS and, 221
comprehension, 168, 173–74
expressive, 168, 170, 223
FXS and, 202–3
receptive, 203
in WS
concrete, 222–23
relational/conceptual, 223
W
Ways of Coping, 313
Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-II (WIAT-II), 227–28
Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-R), 17, 49, 65, 133, 134, 218–19
(p. 413) Weigl Color-Form Sort, 131
well-being, 305
Williams syndrome (WS), 7, 8, 9, 97, 150, 275
AP and, 140–41
approachability and, 262
ASD similarities to, 222, 283
attention and, 37, 89–90, 92t, 94
auditory and musical processing in, 142
block diagram construction and figure copying in, 65–70, 66f, 83
brain development in, 37–38, 262–63
brain structure in, 81–82, 105–6
bridging approaches to, 33–35
cognitive neuroscience and, 31
cognitive profile of, 62
communicative intent and, 222
comparison groups for, 63–65
copying figure tasks in, 65–70, 83
depression and, 262
developmental approaches to, 35–39
developmental timing in, 82–85
developmental trajectories in, 84, 84f
domain-specific STM impairment in, 111–12
dorsal stream weakness in, 74–81
DS compared with, 32
dyadic interaction research for, 326–28
early language acquisition and, 220–22
communicative/pragmatic development, 221–22
speech production and perception, 220–21
vocabulary acquisition, 221
emotional development and temperament in, 262
emotion recognition and understanding in, 242
ERP studies of, 155–57
etiology-specific profile development for, 398
expressive language and, 328
expressive vocabulary in, 223
facial recognition and, 326–28
family stress and, 368
future research directions for, 229–30
FXS vs., 52
general intellectual ability and, 218–20
global processing deficit hypothesis for, 65–67
hypersociability in, 35, 262, 263, 267
implicit memory in, 102–3
IPS and, 81–82
language abilities in
grammar, 224–25
intervention implications of, 230–31
literacy, 227–28
school-age children and adolescents, 222–28
language development in, 217–18
language proficiency in, 33, 37
language profile of, 229
long gazes in, 327
LTM and, 100
matching procedures and, 36
memory and learning in, 101, 105–6
modular analysis and, 32–33
mother-child interaction studies, 328–29
motion processing in, 71–73, 83
MRI studies of, 157
musical ability and, 33, 138, 139–42
neuroconstructivist approach and, 44
neuropsychological approaches to, 31–33
object representation and, 71
parietal function weakness in, 74–81
phonological awareness and, 227
phonological development in, 220
pragmatics and, 221–22, 229
comprehension monitoring, 226–27
conversational skills, 226
questionnaire-based studies of, 225–26
prevalence of, 218
psychophysiology in, 262–63
PWS compared with, 329
receptive vocabulary in, 223
reductionist hypothesis and, 101
reference frames in, 76–79, 77f
semantics and
concrete vocabulary, 222–23
organization of, 223–24
relational/conceptual vocabulary, 223
sociability in, 255
social and behavioral development in, 262
social knowledge and, 328
spatial impairment and, 61, 65, 70
spatial language and, 73–74, 83, 84, 223
speech perception abilities in, 220–21
STM in, 100
stress among families of children with, 351
theory of mind and, 262
ventral sparing, dorsal/parietal weakness hypothesis for, 70
visual-constructive deficit and, 74, 228
visual illusions and, 66
visual-manual action in, 75–76, 83
visual-object learning in, 101
visual saccades and, 37
visual-spatial learning in, 101
visuospatial cognition and, 112
visuospatial processing and, 156
Wisconsin Card Sort Test (WCST), 22, 133
EF and, 125, 127–28
extensions to, 128
Woodcock Reading Mastery Test-Revised (WRMT-R), 192
word span tasks, 110
working memory
ADHD and, 117–18
assessment of, 110–11, 116–17
auditory-verbal, language acquisition and, 174
autism and, 118–19
Baddeley's model of, 174–76
defining, 109, 110
executive control and, 117–19
learning and, 116, 120
matching groups in studying, 120
STM and, 109–10
working memory impairments, 8
working models of attachment, 358
writing
DS ability profile for, 193–94, 195f
DS and ability predictors for, 185
DS and development of, 186t189t