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date: 08 March 2021

(p. ix) Contributors

(p. ix) Contributors

Kenneth Aizawa is Charles T. Beaird Professor of Philosophy at Centenary College of Louisiana. He is the author of The Systematicity Arguments and coauthor, with Frederick Adams, of The Bounds of Cognition. He works primarily in the philosophy of psychology.

Colin Allen is Professor of History and Philosophy of Science and Professor of Cognitive Science at Indiana University, Bloomington, where he is also Adjunct Professor of Philosophy and a member of IU's Center for the Integrative Study of Animal Behavior. He has written extensively on philosophical issues in animal cognition and other issues at the intersection of philosophy of biology and philosophy of mind. He is engaged in several projects in Digital Philosophy, including directing the Indiana Philosophy Ontology project, and is serving as associate editor of the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.

William Bechtel is Professor in the Department of Philosophy and the interdisciplinary programs in Cognitive Science and Science Studies at the University of California, San Diego. His research focuses on the nature of mechanistic explanations and strategies for developing such explanations in the life sciences, including cell and molecular biology, neuroscience, and cognitive science. His recent books include Connectionism and the Mind: Parallel Processing, Dynamics, and Evolution in Networks (with Adele Abrahamsen, 2002), Discovering Cell Mechanisms: The Creation of Modern Cell Biology (2006), and Mental Mechanisms: Philosophical Perspectives on Cognitive Neuroscience (2007). He is also editor of the interdisciplinary journal Philosophical Psychology.

John Bickle is Professor at the University of Cincinnati, in the Department of Philosophy and the Neuroscience Graduate Program. His research interests include the philosophy of neuroscience, the nature of scientific reductionism, and cellular and molecular mechanisms of cognition and consciousness. He is the author of three books and more than 60 articles, book chapters, and encyclopedia entries, in journals ranging from Philosophy of Science and Philosophy and Phenomenological Research to Journal of Computational Neuroscience and Journal of Physiology (Paris).

Anthony Chemero is Associate Professor in the Scientific and Philosophical Studies of Mind Program and the Psychology Department at Franklin and Marshall College. He is a cognitive scientist and philosopher of science whose (p. x) work focuses on perception–action, dynamical systems modeling, and complex systems. His first book, Radical Embodied Cognitive Science, is soon to be published.

Christopher Cherniak is a member of the Philosophy Department and its Committee for Philosophy and the Sciences at the University of Maryland. His research falls mainly in theory of knowledge and in computational neuroscience. His chapter in this volume is based on computational neuroanatomy that stemmed from his epistemology book, Minimal Rationality. His articles have appeared in, among other journals, Journal of Philosophy, Physical Review, and Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA).

Mazviita Chirimuuta is a postdoctoral research fellow at the School of Philosophy and Bioethics, Monash University, Australia. She graduated in philosophy and psychology from the University of Bristol, and then went on to conduct a Ph.D. in visual neuroscience at the University of Cambridge. Her scientific research has been published in Vision Research and the Journal of the Optical Society of America, and since 2005 her research has been concentrated on the philosophy of vision, particularly color perception. Her work on the relation between empirical vision science and color realism is forthcoming in the Australasian Journal of Philosophy, and she is currently writing a monograph on the philosophy of color.

Patricia Smith Churchland is Professor of Philosophy at the University of California, San Diego, and an adjunct Professor at the Salk Institute. Her research focuses on the interface between neuroscience and philosophy. She explores the impact of scientific developments on our understanding of consciousness, the self, free will, decision making, ethics, learning, and religion. She is author of the groundbreaking book Neurophilosophy (1986), coauthor with T. J. Sejnowski of The Computational Brain (1992), and coauthor with Paul Churchland of On the Contrary (1998). She has been president of the American Philosophical Association (Pacific Division) and the Society for Philosophy and Psychology, and she won a MacArthur Fellowship in 1991.

Carl F. Craver is Associate Professor in the Philosophy‐Neuroscience‐Psychology Program and the Department of Philosophy at Washington University in St. Louis. His research interests include the philosophy of neuroscience, scientific explanation, reduction and the unity of science, the history of electrophysiology, and the cognitive neuroscience of memory. He is the author of Explaining the Brain: Mechanisms and the Mosaic Unity of Science (Oxford University Press) and several articles in journals in history, philosophy, and neuroscience.

Chris Eliasmith is Canada Research Chair and Director of the Centre for Theoretical Neuroscience at the University of Waterloo. He is jointly appointed (p. xi) to the departments of Philosophy and Systems Design Engineering. His research interests include large‐scale, biologically realistic neural modeling, mental and neural representation, and neural dynamics. He is coauthor of the book Neural Engineering, which presents three principles for addressing such issues. He has published across a wide array of disciplines, with articles in journals including the Journal of Philosophy, Synthese, Cognitive Science, Neural Computation, Journal of Neuroscience, and Cerebral Cortex.

Owen Flanagan is author most recently of The Really Hard Problem: Meaning in a Material World (2007). He is James B. Duke Professor of Philosophy at Duke University, where he also holds appointments as Professor of Neurobiology and Professor of Psychology and Neuroscience.

Shaun Gallagher is Professor and Chair of Philosophy and Cognitive Science at the University of Central Florida and Professor of Philosophy and Cognitive Science at the University of Hertfordshire. He is the author of four books, including How the Body Shapes the Mind (Oxford University Press, 2005) and, with Dan Zahavi, The Phenomenological Mind (2008). He is currently editing the Oxford Handbook of the Self, and was recent coeditor of Does Consciousness Cause Behavior? (2006).

Carl Gillett is Associate Professor of Philosophy at Northern Illinois University. His research interests cover foundational issues in the philosophy of psychology and neuroscience, the philosophy of science and metaphysics. He is a pioneer in the new research area of the metaphysics of science and is the author of numerous articles in journals such as Nous, the Journal of Philosophy and Analysis, among others. Presently, he is finishing a monograph on reduction and emergence in the sciences

Ian Gold holds a Canada Research Chair in the departments of Philosophy and Psychiatry, and is Director of the Cognitive Science Program at McGill University in Montreal. His research, both empirical and theoretical, addresses the nature of delusions in psychiatric and neurological illness. He is also interested in questions concerning reductionism in neuroscience and psychiatry. He is the author of research articles and encyclopedia entries in the philosophy of perception and the philosophy of neuroscience, as well as a number of articles on delusion.

James W. Grau received his doctorate in psychology from the University of Pennsylvania in 1985. He was recruited to Texas A&M in 1987 and is currently Professor in both Psychology and Neuroscience. His research has been funded (since 1986) by NSF, NIDA, NIMH, NICHD, and NINDS. He was among the first to receive a University Faculty Fellow Award at Texas A&M and currently holds the Mary Tucker Currie Professorship in Liberal Arts.

Rick Grush is Professor of Philosophy at the University of California, San Diego. His research interests center on understanding the neural mechanisms (p. xii) underlying certain mental phenomena, including the representation of spatial and temporal aspects of experience, and the nature of demonstrative thought. He has published work on the philosophical, psychological, neurophysiological, and historical aspects of these issues.

Valerie Gray Hardcastle is Dean of the McMicken College of Arts and Sciences at the University of Cincinnati and Professor of Philosophy and Psychology. Her research interests include philosophical aspects of cognitive science, neurophilosophy, consciousness studies, and philosophy of science. Currently Editor‐in‐Chief of the Journal of Consciousness Studies, she has also published six books, most recently Constructing the Self, and numerous articles and chapters.

Charles Heyser is Associate Professor at Franklin and Marshall College in the Department of Psychology. His research interests include behavioral neuroscience and psychopharmacology. He is the author of more than 50 articles and book chapters.

William Hirstein is Professor and Chair of the Philosophy Department at Elmhurst College, in Elmhurst, Illinois. He received his doctorate from the University of California, Davis, in 1994. He is the author of several books, including On the Churchlands (2004) and Brain Fiction: Self‐Deception and the Riddle of Confabulation (2005). His other interests include autism, sociopathy, brain laterality, and the misidentification syndromes.

Judy Illes is Professor of Neurology and Canada Research Chair in Neuroethics at the University of British Columbia (UBC). She directs the National Core for Neuroethics at UBC and a research team devoted to ethical, legal, social and policy challenges specifically at the intersection of the neurosciences and biomedical ethics. These include advances in functional neuroimaging in basic and clinical research, commercialization of cognitive neuroscience, clinical findings detected incidentally in research, regenerative medicine, and stakeholder engagement on a global scale. She has written numerous books, edited volumes and more than 60 journal articles. Her latest book, Neuroethics: Defining the Issues in Theory, Practice and Policy, was published by Oxford University Press in 2006.

Brian L. Keeley is Associate Professor of Philosophy at Pitzer College in Claremont, California. He teaches in a variety of programs, including Philosophy, Neuroscience, Cognitive Science, and Science, Technology, and Society. In addition to publishing work on the strange epistemology of conspiracy theories and the nature of sensory modalities, he is the editor of Paul Churchland, a volume in the Cambridge University Press Contemporary Philosophy in Focus series of books.

Anthony Landreth is a postdoctoral researcher in neurobiology at UCLA. His research interests include the philosophy of science, moral psychology, mechanisms of motivation, and mechanisms of learning and memory. His experimental research is focused on genes for remote memory and the correction of learning deficits associated with neurofibromatosis.

Peter Machamer is Professor in the Department of History and Philosophy of Science at the University of Pittsburgh. He is also a member of the Center for the Neural Basis of Cognition, a joint Pitt‐Carnegie Mellon University program. He is consciously interested in learning and memory.

Pete Mandik is Associate Professor and Chair of Philosophy and Director of Cognitive Science at William Paterson University. His main current research interest is the neural basis for conscious experience. He has over 30 articles on this and other topics, including mental representation, enactive and embodied cognition, and artificial life. He is coauthor of Cognitive Science: An Introduction to the Mind and Brain and coeditor of Philosophy and the Neurosciences: A Reader. He was a junior member and codirector of the McDonnell Project for Philosophy and the Neurosciences and is coeditor of the forthcoming book Brain to Mind: Reports from the McDonnell Project in Philosophy and the Neurosciences. He writes Brain Hammer, his intermittently neurophilosophical blog.

Mary W. Meagher received her Ph.D. from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in 1989 in experimental and biological psychology with a minor in neurobiology. She trained postdoctorally in clinical psychology at Texas A&M University in 1993 and interned at the Audie L. Murphy Memorial VA Hospital in San Antonio, Texas, during 1993–1994. She is currently Professor of Clinical Psychology and Behavioral Neuroscience in the Department of Psychology, Faculty of Neuroscience, and the School of Rural Public Health at Texas A&M University.

Jennifer Mundale is Associate Professor of Philosophy and Cognitive Sciences at the University of Central Florida. Her research interests include the philosophy of psychology, philosophy of psychiatry, and philosophy of neuroscience.

Eric Racine is Director of the Neuroethics Research Unit at the Institut de recherches cliniques de Montréal (IRCM). He is also a member of the Department of Medicine (University of Montreal), Adjunct Professor at the Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, and Affiliate Member of the Biomedical Ethics Unit (McGill University). He is the author of several papers and book chapters examining ethical issues in the application of neuroscience in research and patient care.

Sarah K. Robins is currently a senior graduate student in the Philosophy‐Neuroscience‐Psychology Program at Washington University in St. Louis. She has (p. xiv) published in both philosophy and psychology. She is co‐organizer of the Future Directions in Biology Series, a graduate student workshop in the philosophy of biology.

Alex Rosenberg is the R. Taylor Cole Professor of Philosophy at Duke University. He has held fellowships from the National Science Foundation, the American Council of Learned Societies, and the John Simon Guggenheim Foundation. In 1993, he received the Lakatos Award in the philosophy of science. In 2006–2007 he held a fellowship at the National Humanities Center. He was also the Phi Beta Kappa–Romanell Lecturer for 2006–2007. Rosenberg is the author of 11 books, including (most recently) Darwinian Reductionism, or How to Stop Worrying and Love Molecular Biology and The Philosophy of Biology: A Contemporary Introduction (coauthored with Daniel McShea). He has also written approximately 180 papers in the philosophy of biology and the philosophy of cognitive, behavioral, and social science.

Adina L. Roskies is Assistant Professor of Philosophy at Dartmouth College. She has doctorates in both philosophy and in the neurosciences, and her primary research interests are in philosophy of neuroscience, philosophy of mind, and neuroethics. She has published extensively in both philosophy and neuroscience, in journals such as Journal of Philosophy, Philosophy of Science, Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Science, and Journal of Neuroscience. She is a project fellow in the MacArthur Project in Law and Neuroscience. When not thinking about the brain, she can often be found ascending or descending a mountain.

Alcino J. Silva pioneered the field of molecular and cellular cognition (MCC), and his laboratory had a key role in the development and expansion of MCC into an influential field with its own international society (MCCS; he was the society's founding president) and more than 300 laboratories worldwide. He is currently Professor of Neurobiology, Psychiatry, and Biobehavioral Sciences and Psychology at the University of California, Los Angeles. His laboratory is studying the biology of learning and memory. His research group is also unraveling mechanisms and developing treatments for learning and memory disorders. Recently, his studies in mice have led to clinical trials for the first targeted treatment for learning disabilities. He is also interested in the science of research, specifically in developing and testing hypothesis about the principles underlying scientific discovery.

C. Matthew Stewart is Resident Physician at the Johns Hopkins University in the Department of Otolaryngology, Head, and Neck Surgery. His primary research interest is in the interaction between the vestibular and visual systems, with an emphasis on assessing how specific types of visual motion processing centers compensate for dysfunctions in the balance apparatus of the inner ear. In addition, he has become involved in philosophy of neuroscience, with a (p. xv) focus on hypothesis and theory construction; data collection, interpretation, and validation; stimulus‐response analysis; open‐ versus closed‐loop biological system modeling; and brain imaging. He is the author of many articles and book chapters, in journals ranging from Philosophy of Science to Journal of Neurophysiology.

Kenneth Sufka is Professor of Psychology and Pharmacology and Research Professor in the Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences at the University of Mississippi in Oxford. His research interests include animal modeling of neuropsychiatric disorders, development of novel analgesic screening paradigms in chronic pain models, and philosophy of mind. He is the author of several book chapters and over 50 research articles in journals ranging from Pain to Psychopharmacology to Philosophical Psychology.

Charles Wallis is Associate Professor in the Philosophy Department at California State University, Long Beach, and cofounder and Director of the Center for Cognitive Science. His research interests include philosophy of cognitive science, philosophy of neuroscience, the nature of explanation and reduction in the sciences with emphasis on cognitive science, theories of mental representation, theories of knowledge, theories of computability, theories of consciousness, and moral psychology. He regularly publishes articles in philosophy, cognitive science, psychology, neuroscience, and computer science journals, books, and encyclopedias.

Morgan Weldon is a senior psychology major with minors in classics and English in the Sally McDonnell Barksdale Honors College at the University of Mississippi. Upon graduation, she plans to enroll in a Ph.D. program in social psychology and conduct studies on achievement behavior.

Wayne Wright is Assistant Professor of Logic and Philosophy of Science, University of California, Irvine. His research is focused on foundational issues for the scientific studies of vision and color. His publications have appeared in journals such as Erkenntnis, Philosophical Psychology, Philosophical Studies, and Visual Neuroscience.

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