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date: 03 June 2020

(p. xv) Chronology

(p. xv) Chronology

The chronological range of this volume sometimes complicates easy reference to dates (this especially so in Part III and its thematic discussions). While context will often provide a guide to the dates cited, an introductory reference in many chapters to follow will tell readers whether dates refer to b.c. or a.d. or both. Ordinarily, all four-digit dates should be taken as modern, while context will again place such references as “fifth century” or “first century,” b.c. or a.d. The following outline may help readers orient themselves with the events. (p. xvi) (p. xvii) (p. xviii) (p. xix) (p. xx) (p. xxi) (p. xxii) (p. xxiii) (p. xxiv)

Political-Military Events in the Greek World

Political-Military Events in the Roman World

ca. 700 b.c.

Lelantine War between Chalcis and Eretria: first “historical” Greek war: era of the “Trojan War” (?)

ca. 650–620

“Messenian Wars”: Sparta defeats and occupies Messenia

ca. 594

Solon’s reforms in Athens

ca. 509

Foundation of Roman Republic after expulsion of kings

ca. 500

Clisthenes and the rise of democracy in Athens

499 (?)

Battle of Lake Regillus (?)

499-494

Ionian Revolt: sparks conflict between Greeks and Persian Empire Era of the Persian Wars

ca. 494–287

Era of the “Struggle of the Orders”

491 (?)

Coriolanus and Volscians attack Rome

490

Battle of Marathon: Athens defeats invading Persian army

Greece

Rome

480

Battles of Thermopylae/Artemisium and Salamis Athens burned by invading Persians

Fabii annihilated at Cremera (?)

479

Battles of Plataea/Mycale: Persian defeat complete

478/477474

Establishment of Delian League under Athenian leadership

Etruscan defeat at Cumae

ca. 469/468

Battle of Eurymedon: victory over Persians

466/465

Revolt and suppression of Naxos by Athens

451/450

Five Years’ Truce (Athens and Sparta’s Peloponnesian League)

Decemvirate in Rome

449 (?)

Peace of Callias, end of war with Persia

446/445

Thirty Years’ Peace ends “First” Peloponnesian War

ca. 441–439

Revolt and suppression of Samos by Athens

435

Outbreak of hostilities between Corcyra and Corinth

First war with Fidenae

433/432 (?)

Dispute between Corcyra and Corinth, now joined by Athens, leads to battle of Sybota

431, spring

Theban attack on Plataea leads to full-scale mobilization of armies and outbreak of Peloponnesian War’s first phase, the Archidamian War; first of annual Peloponnesian invasions of Attica begins; plague in Athens; death of Pericles

427

Civil War in Corcyra; revolt of Mytilene on Lesbos

425

Athenian victory at Sphacteria/Pylos

Fidenae reduced by Romans

424

Battle of Delium: crushing Theban victory over Athens; Congress of Gela, Athenians leave Sicily

Greece

Rome

422/1

Deaths of the generals Brasidas (Sparta) and Cleon (Athens) in battle at Amphipolis; Peace of Nicias ends the Archidamian War; fifty-year alliance between Athens and Sparta

419

Athenian alliance with Argos and allies

418

Battle of Mantinea: the great hoplite battle of the Peloponnesian War

416/415

Athenian attack and destruction of Melos

415

Athenian Expedition sails for Sicily; Alcibiades recalled from Sicily to stand trial in Athens; his flight to Sparta

413

Defeat of Athenian forces in Sicily; Sparta declares war on Athens; Agis occupies Decelea in Attica

412

New phase of the Peloponnesian War, the Ionian War, and Persian intervention in Greek affairs begin.

411

Alcibiades arrives in the Ionia/eastern Aegean, intrigues with Persians, later Athenians; Athenian naval victory at Cynossema; recovery of Cyzicus follows (410)

407

Alcibiades returns in triumph to Athens, soon after elected general; Arrival of the Persian prince Cyrus in Sardis

406

Athenian defeat at Notium; Alcibiades falls from power, returns into exile; Athenian victory over the Spartan fleet at Arginusae; Athens rejects Spartan peace overtures; Athenians condemn and execute the generals in command at Arginusae

Greece

Rome

405/404

Spartan commander Lysander assumes de facto command of Spartan Aegean forces; Spartan destruction of the Athenian fleet at Aegospotami; Athens besieged by land and sea, surrenders

404/403

The Thirty Tyrants rule Athens, democracy overthrown, civil war follows; democracy restored following Spartan intervention

401/400

Expedition of Cyrus, followed by his death at Cunaxa; Greek mercenaries fight their way to Hellespont

396 (?)

Roman destruction of Veii

394

Battle of the Nemea: perhaps greatest hoplite battle of classical Greece

391

Battle of Lechaeum: Spartan hoplites defeated by Athenian peltasts

387/386

King’s Peace, or Peace of Antalcidas: attempted era of “Common Peace”

Gallic attack and brief occupation of Rome

371

Battle of Leuctra: Theban victory ends Sparta as “great” power

343–341

First Samnite War

340–338

Latin War

338/337

Battle of Chaeronea: victory of Philip of Macedon over united Greeks

334–323

Age of Alexander the Great

334

Alexander’s victory at the Granicus: those of Issus (333), Gaugamela (331), and Hydaspes/Jhelum (326) follow

326–304

Second Samnite War

321

Battle of Caudine Forks

301

Battle of Ipsus: end of a “unified” Macedonian kingdom

Greece

Rome

295

Battle of Sentinum

280

Battle of Corupedium: Seleucid and Ptolemaic kingdoms confirmed

280–275

Pyrrhic War

ca. 270–168

Syrian Wars (6), waged between Ptolemaic and Seleucid kingdoms

268

Mamertines seize Messana

264–241

First Punic War

ca. 260

Chremonidean War: Athens defeated, end of Athenian “freedom”

247

Rise of the Arsacid dynasty and the Parthian kingdom

222

Battle of Clastidium leading to Roman occupation of the Po River Valley

ca. 220–202

Eastern campaigns of Antiochus III, the “Great”

218–201

Second Punic, or “Hannibalic,” War

218

Battle of Trebia

217

Battle of Raphia: Ptolemaic victory over Seleucids using Egyptian troops

Battle of Lake Trasimene

216

Battle of Cannae

202

Battle of Zama

200–196

First Macedonian War

197

Battle of Cynoscephalae: Roman legion defeats the Macedonian phalanx

192–188

Asian War against the Seleucid Kingdom

189

Battle of Magnesia, defeat of the Seleucid king Antiochus III, the “Great”

181

Celt-Iberian Wars begin

167–166

Second Macedonia War begins; battle of Pydna (168): Macedon abolished

Greece

Rome

167

Revolt of Maccabees establishes the Hasmonean dynasty

149–146

Third Punic War: Carthage destroyed, 146

146

Third Macedonian and Achaean Wars: Corinth destroyed; Roman province of Macedonia organized

133

Third Celt-Iberian War ends: destruction of Numantia

133–122

Age of Gracchan, or “Roman,” Revolution

105–101

Cimbri and Teutones invade into northern Italy: Roman defeat at Arausio (105)

102–101

Marius defeats Cimbri and Teutones at Aquae Sextiae and Vercellae

91–88

Social War

89–86

Mithridates VI of Pontus invades Greece, attacking Roman interests everywhere; Mithridatic forces defeated by Romans at Chaeronea

87–30

Era of Roman Civil War

71

Slave War of Spartacus suppressed

67

Pompey’s eastern war against the pirates

66–62

Pompey campaigns into the East, ends “Seleucid anarchy,” establishing Roman “protectorate”

58–50

Caesar’s Gallic conquests

52

Caesar’s victory over Vercingetorix at Alesia

53

Battle of Carrhae: Parthians destroy army of Crassus

49–45

Civil War between Caesar and Senate

48

Battle of Pharsalus: Caesar defeats Pompeian/Senate forces

Greece

Rome

44

Assassination of Caesar, dictator perpetua, and renewal of Civil War

42

Battle of Philippi

31

Battle of Actium: victory of Octavian over Antony and Cleopatra; end of the Greek “Hellenistic” world; Ptolemaic kingdom becomes Roman province

27

Octavian as Augustus: establishment of Roman Imperial Army

a.d. 6–9

Pannonian revolt

9

Battle of the Teutoberg Forest, the clades Variana

43

Britain invaded: beginning of Roman occupation

60–61

Revolt of Boudicca and its suppression

66–74

Great Jewish War

68–69

“Year of the Four Emperors”: Roman civil war, the two battles of Bedriacum

70

Siege and capture of Jerusalem by Titus

73/4

Zealot stronghold of Masada falls

77–84

Campaigns of Agricola in Britain

85

Oppius Sabinus, governor of Moesia, defeated and killed by Dacians

85–92

Dacian and Pannonian Wars of Domitian

101–106

Dacian Wars of Trajan: creation of province of Dacia

106

Province of Arabia established

113–117

Parthian War of Trajan

122

Construction of Hadrian’s Wall begins

132–135

Revolt of Bar Kochba

161

M. Sedatius Severianus, governor of Cappadocia, defeated and killed in Armenia

Greece

Rome

162–166

Parthian War of Lucius Verus

167–180

Marcomannic Wars of Marcus Aurelius

193–197

Civil Wars: victory of Septimius Severus over Clodius Albinus at Lugdunum (197)

197–198

Parthian War of Severus: province of Mesopotamia established (198)

208–210

Campaigns of Septimius Severus in northern Scotland

213

Caracalla’s war against the Alamanni in Germany

213–217

Caracalla’s war against Parthia

224

Parthian kingdom overthrown, rise of the Sasanian Persian state

231–233

Severus Alexander’s war against the Persians

235–284

Era of the “Third Century Crisis”: internal anarchy, barbarian invasion

251

Decius defeated and killed by Goths at battle of Abrittus

260

Valerian defeated and captured by Persian king, Shapur

267

Heruli attack Athens

270–275

Aurelian defeats Palmyra; completes new walls of Rome

277–278

Probus defeats the Alamanni and Franks, restores the German frontier

284–305

Reign of Diocletian: reforms of army, state, and provincial structures

312

Battle of the Milvian Bridge: Constantine emperor in west

324–337

Reign of Constantine: continues Diocletian’s reforms, legalizes Christianity

337–360

Persian War

363

Death of Julian fighting Persians

Greece

Rome

370

Appearance of Goths and Huns across the Danube

378

Battle of Adrianople: Valens defeated and killed by the Goths

396

Alaric and Goths besiege Athens

410

Sack of Rome by Alaric, Gothic chief

429

Vandals invade Africa

451

Defeat of Attila at Chalons by Roman-German alliance; Huns retreat

502–561

Roman-Persian Wars

533–560

Justinian sends Belisarius west to recover lost “western” empire

582

Sirmium on the Danube falls: Slavic occupation of the Balkans follows

603–628

Roman-Persian Wars: victory of Heraclius

632

Death of Muhammad

634–640

Muslim victories in Egypt and Syria: Roman Empire near collapse

636

Battle of Yarmuk

642–644

Muslim conquest of Persian Sasanian Empire; end of the ancient world