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date: 29 May 2020

(p. 743) Index

(p. 743) Index

Abydos, siege of (201 B.C.), 440
Polybius on, 448–49, 452–53
slaves freed during, 442
Acarnanian archers, 150
Achaean mercenaries, 204
Achilles in Vietnam (Shay), 280
Acidinus, L. Manlius, 553
Acrotatus, 450
Actium, Battle of (31 B.C.), 386, 549
Adaeus, 164
Adams, J. P., 354
Ada of Caria, 677
Adrianople, Battle of (A.D. 378), 36, 78–79, 285, 597
Aegospotami, Battle of (405 B.C.), 377, 462
Aelian
on Archilochus, 50
on Attic cuirass, 406
on horse nosebands, 506
on linen corselet, 414
on lunging of horses, 526
Aelianus, 183
Aelius Dubitatus, 269
Aeneas of Stymphalus. See Aeneas Tacticus
Aeneas Tacticus, 65–67. See also How to Survive under Siege (Aeneas Tacticus)
on defense of besieged cities, 446, 447–48
on devices for secret communication, 487
on generalship, 462–63
on mercenaries, 335
during a siege, 342–43
on sieges, 137, 441
on surprise attacks, 158
on watch on the Attic frontier, 483
Aeneid (Virgil), 282
aerarium militare
creation by Augustus, 34, 262, 325
during Second Punic War, 691
Aeschines
on his dutiful service, 54
on his ephebic training as peripolos, 200
Aeschylus
Agamemnon, 727
Eberhart and Rodman on, 731
epitaph of, 727n2
on Greek-Persian dichotomy, 570
on importance of spear and shield, 395
The Persians, 52, 731
Aetius of Amida, 296
Aetolians, 145, 338
Against Alcibiades (Lysias), 54
Against Eubulus (Demosthenes), 54–55
Against Leocrates (Lycurgus), 54
Against the Alans (Arrian), 474, 477–78
Against Timothes (Demosthenes), 54
Agamemnon, 314, 457
Agamemnon (Aeschylus), 727
Agathocles, 337, 338
age-class systems, 146, 156
Agesilaus, 208
at Battle of Coronea, 665
booty taken from Persian territory, 209
cavalry of, 151, 476
in combined arms battle, 157
and Common Peace of 371 B.C., 658
foraging of army of, 209
and manufacture of equipment in Ephesus, 396
and new demands of leadership, 461
at Paktolos River, 666–67
use of plaision formation, 157
Agesilaus (Xenophon), 64–65, 739
agoge, 284
agonal warfare, 8–9
Agricola (Tacitus), 75, 87
Agricola, Gnaeus Julius, 242, 390
agricultural lands
Sasanian protection of, 611
as targets of Hellenistic conquests, 180
agriculture
in Punic North Africa, 706
Sasanian irrigation infrastructure, 712
toll of war on, 130
agri decumates, 591, 594
Agrippa, M. Vipsanius
at Battle of Actium, 386
fleet of, 385
Virgil and, 282
Ahenobarbus, Gnaeus Domitius, 422
Aï Khanoum, Afghanistan, 123
Airs Waters Places (Hippocratic Corpus), 309n10
akontes, 434
Akragas, army of, 145
Akragas, Battle of (472/1 B.C.), 143 (p. 744)
alae, 34, 478, 515
as auxiliaries, 354, 515
in consular legion of the middle Republic, 224, 225
in deployment of manipular battle line, 226
horses of, 495–96, 518
as vexillations, 516
Alamanni, 591, 594
Albinus, Clodius, 264
Alcaeus of Lesbos (Alcaeus of Mytilene), 15, 49, 203
on linen corselets, 407
on service of his brother Antimenides to the Babylonians, 330
on war, 50
Alcibiades
defection to Sparta, 629, 640
return to Athens in 407, 640
and Sicilian Expedition, 624, 627, 639
siege of Byzantium, 647
Alcman, 574
Aldrete, G., 158
Alesia, siege of (52 B.C.)
Caesar on, 76
shields used at, 423
use of field fortification, 233
Alexander Romance, 137
Alexander Sarcophagus, 168, 169f
Alexander the Great, 4, 13, 137
Argyraspids and, 172
cavalry, 512–13
horses, 136
logistics of feeding warhorses, 502–3
origin of horses of, 512
collection of strategic intelligence, 357
death, 170
division of empire of, 13–14, 318
effect of battle on, 291–92
empire of (map), xxxiv
Gedrosian expedition, 358–63
as general, 463–64
horse of, 135
infantry
amount carried by soldiers, 356
the three thousand, 162–78
as inspiration for Romans, 737
killing of Cleitus, 299
military resources of, 16
modern studies of, 738
political marriage, 677
reform of Macedonian army, 463
and siege warfare, 193
literary descriptions, 438
stereotypes in speech before battle of Issus, 586
studies on logistics problems in Asian campaigns, 353
study by Dodge, 738
use of mercenaries, 336
wounds of, 287
arrow chest wound, 298
surgery, 304
Alimentus, L. Cincius, 689
alliances, 330
erosion of equal status of Roman, 33
pan-Hellenic, 10
provision of supplies and, 356
Altar of Augustan Peace (Pax Augusta), 545
Altar of Domitius Ahenobarbus, 221n8, 420f, 422, 428
Ambracia, 626, 646
Ameinocles, 372
Amida
fortification by Constantius II at, 716
siege in A.D. 359, 96, 606, 721–22
siege in A.D. 502/503, 718, 721–22
Ammianus Marcellinus
on Adrianople, 285
description of a Persian clibanarius, 509
on exploratores, 481
history of Rome, 74, 78–79
on horses, 500–501
on Julian’s victory over Alamanni, 594
on Roman-Persian warfare, 711, 719, 739
at ruins of Dura, 100n4
on Sasanian army, 712–13
on siege of Amida, 96, 606, 721
on site of Circesium, 715
on speculatores, 485
amphibious strike operations, fleets of classical antiquity and, 369, 375, 384, 387
Amphipolis
Brasidas’s army at, 461
inscription on military discipline, 319
siege of, 646
as timber port, 134
Amphitryo (Plautus), 562
Amyntas (king of Macedonia), 134
Anabasis (Xenophon), 739
on discipline and good order, 316
included in Men at War, 732
on mercenaries, 332–34
importance of networks, 342
on military leadership, 64
on use of Democrates son of Temnus as scout, 478
analgesics, 304
Anastasius (Roman Emperor), 718
Anaximenes, 163
Anderson, J. K., 207, 279
Andrewes, A., 532
Andromache (Euripides), 53, 584
Andronicos, Manolis, 409
Angarium, 501
animals used in warfare, 135. See also camels; dogs; elephants; warhorses (p. 745)
Annals (Tacitus), 75, 85–87
on conditions to avoid for the Roman armies, 246
example of fleet action, 390
on remains of Varus’s army in Teutoburg forest, 291
antagonists of Greek and Rome, information about, 109–12
Antalcidas, Peace of (387/6 B.C.), 536
Antigenes
burned alive by Antigonus, 176
as chiliarch, 167
commander of hypaspists, 164
commander of the Argyraspids, 165, 168n6, 169, 175
and murder of Perdiccas, 172
Antigonids, 338
Antigonus I Monophthalmus (the One-Eyed)
at battle of Ipsus, 676
Demetrius Poliorcetes son of, 671
and Eumenes of Cardia, 173–74
fleet of, 377
ambushed by Polyclitus, 379
hiring of mercenaries, 343
at Paraetacene, 162, 180, 675
Antigonus II Gonatas, 17, 191
Antimenides, 330, 332
Antioch
captives deported by Kusro I to Asorestan, 609, 611
captives deported by Shapur I to Kuzestan, 609, 611
reduced status of, 264
sack by Shapur I, 603, 717
Antiochus Hierax, 338
Antiochus III the Great, 338
campaigns of, 353
fleet of
defeat at Battle of Side, 379
limits on in treaty with Rome, 385
introduction of kataphraktoi on the battlefield, 189
at Magnesia, 185, 192
and problems of billeting soldiers, 211
at Raphia, 181
use of elephants, 136
siege of Bactras, 440
Antipater, 170, 171, 172
Antiphanes, 335–36
“Antonine revolution” in Roman military dress, 119–21, 121f
Antonius Primus, 244
Aornos, siege of (327 B.C.), 440
Apollonios, archives of, 264
Apology (Plato), 56
Apophthegmata Lakonika, 50
Appian
on Battle of Pharsalus, 243–44
on soldiers’ terms of service, 468
as source on Second Punic War, 689, 704
Apulia as ally of Hannibal, 691
Aratus, 478
Arcadians
aid to Syracuse during Sicilian Expedition, 634
mercenaries, 204
military practices, 145
archaeology of war, 91–124. See also excavations
battle and combat, 94–101
complete mail shirt, 432
evidence of exchange and interaction across cultural boundaries, 119–20
experimental, 113–16
of Goths, 596
information about antigonists of Greek and Rome, 109–12
organization of armies, 106–8
pilum, 426
and Roman arms and armor, 419, 430
Roman saddles, 112–13
on Sasanian Persia, 712
on siege warfare, 722
soldiers’ dress, 117–19
strengths and weaknesses of evidence, 93–94
of transfontier peoples, 591
Archagathus, 307
Archelaus, 233
archers, 150, 190, 338
aboard Athenian triremes, 374
Cretans, 150, 190, 338, 341
horse archers, 192, 193, 489
Huns as, 597
Parthian, 193, 602
in Sasanian army, 713
in Sicilian Expedition, 624
Archidamian War, 651
Archidamus of Sparta, 131
archihypaspistes, 166
Archilochus of Paros
on abandoning shield, 398
early personal poetry by, 49–50
on epikouros, 331
on Lydian ruler Gyges, 574
Archimedes
defense of Syracuse, 440, 444
in service of Hieron II of Syracuse, 446
siege weapons, 194
Arch of Titus, 254f
Ardashir I (Sasanian king), 601, 603, 604
Areus (King of Sparta), 450
Arginusae, Battle of, 461
Argives, 146, 624
Argive shield, 397
Argos
army of, 145
Kegelhelm helmet from, 401
military court in, 316
Argyraspids, 162, 163, 165–66, 168, 187
in Cilicia, 170, 171
losses in crossing of the Nile, 172
(p. 746)
Arimnestus, 286
Aristagoras, 579
Aristarchus of Samothrace, 496
Aristeides, Aelius, 264, 268
Aristeus, 156, 666
Aristides, 157
Aristocles, 316
aristocracy
affinity opposing unity among Greeks, 586
cavalry and, 201
Greek and Greek/barbarian dichotomy, 575
Roman
and military virtues, 467
relationship with army in Imperial era, 262
and Sasanian army, 604
“Aristocrats” (Douglass), 730–31
Aristodemus, 315, 665
Aristophanes
on agrarian population during sieges, 442
The Frogs, 52, 53
on Peloponnesian War, 53
on soldiers’ rations, 206–7
on trauma of war, 281
Aristotle
on gift of spear and shield after ephebic training, 395
on light infantry, 22
on mercenaries, 335
tyranny and, 332
on military training, 200
on pelte shield, 400
on tactical system for infantry, 18
on war debates in frontier regions, 8
on warfare, 58, 59
on war-mad man, 5
Armenia/Armenians
Christian conversion of, 612–13
Lucius Verus in, 250–51
revolt against Sasanians (450/451), 612
in Sasanian cavalry, 606
Sasanian peace with, 614
armies, Carthaginian, 339
armies, Greek. See also cavalry, Greek; hoplites; infantry, Greek; navy, Athenian
discipline in, 314–17
little knowledge on campaign infrastructure, 108
medical services, 304–7
organization
Athenian, 145–46
Spartan, 146
Spartan in 371 B.C., 658–59
Theban in 371 B.C., 659
training, 146, 284
armies, Hellenistic
auxiliary forces, 190–93
care of soldiers’ families, 347
cavalry, 188–90
defections of commanders and troops, 680
discipline in, 318–20
hiring of mercenaries, 343
importance of baggage for troops, 680–81
infantry, 182–88
influence on Roman army, 468–69
loss of lives in, 214
mercenaries in, 336–38
remuneration of, 345
military codes, 319
navy, 180, 194–96
siege warfare, 193–94
size of, 180–81
armies, sizes of
at battle of Ipsus, 676
of Caesar, 233
Greek forces in Sicilian Expedition, 623–25
at Raphia, 676
armies and appearance, 117
Arminius, 239–40, 241
attack on Varus at Teutoburg Forest, 591
pursued by Germanicus, 239
Varus and, 240
armor, Greek, 397–409. See also greaves; helmets; shields
ankle guards, 408
body armor, 405–8, 406f
mitre, 407–8
foot guards, 408
limb protection, 408–9
thigh guards, 408–9
armor, Roman
body armor
in Imperial era, 430–32
in Republican era, 427–29
Imperial era cavalry, 435–36
manufacturing of cavalry armor, 716
shoulder protection, 428
armors
effectiveness of breastplates, 414
for elephants, 191
of hoplites, 148
for horses, 507–8, 509–10
of the hypaspists, 168
in Sasanian army, 712–13
army, Macedonian, 23
discipline in, 317–18, 319
little knowledge on campaign infrastructure, 108
army, Roman. See also cavalry, Roman; legions
adaptability of, 222, 238
Caesar on, 76
allegiance of soldiers to individual commanders, 40
allied forces in, 224
Livy on, 224
Ammianus on flexibility of, 79
awards and, 285
bureaucracy of, 262
change in Imperial era, 261 (p. 747)
cohors ix Batavorum, documents on, 94
cohors xx Palmyrenorum, documents on, 94
commands
delegation of, 225
length of, 38
conscription of farmers, 132
consular armies, 32
deployment
on eastern frontier in late antiquity, 716
of manipular battle line, 226
on the northern frontiers, 248
differences between armies of the Principate and those of the Punic Wars, 240
entrenched marching camps, 102, 232
flexibility of the manipular formation, 467
foreign troops in, 231
growing reliance on recruitment of barbarians, 41
hunting and provisioning of the troops, 129
in Imperial era
daily routine of, 268–69
discipline, 325–27
professional standing army, 264–65
size of standing army, 325
terms of enlistment, 291
invasion of Germany east of the Rhine River, 364
legal privileges of soldiers, 267
and local administration, 270
loyalties of soldiers, 37
lustration of, 547
and means necessary to defeat elephants, 192
medical services, 307–8
mercenaries in, 340–41, 343
military command function of political office, 466
military traditions, 468
oath of allegiance to emperor, 261–62
organization of
archaeology and, 106–8
pay, 223, 262, 325
payment of allies with plunder, 348
personal and collective identity as soldiers, 117–18
promotions, 320, 326
reconstructions of soldiers, 116f
representations of Roman soldiers, 115f
Republican era, 219–20
discipline in, 320–25
training at discretion of commanders, 222
during Second Punic War, 690, 690n1, 690n2
studies on logistics of, 354
training, 285
use of elephants, 136
use of professional allies and auxiliaries, 340
army, Sasanian, 603–4, 712–13
compared to Roman armies, 609
conquered people conscripted in, 605–6
elephants in, 714
organization, 607–8
Arrhidaeus, 13
Arrian, 164, 183, 471, 739
advance in Cappadocia, 238–39
on exploratores, 481
on Gedrosian disaster of Alexander, 358, 360–62
on horses
maneuvers, 499
nosebands, 506
Thracian horses, 493–94
on kataskopoi, 479
military manual commissioned by Hadrian, 509
narrative of the siege of Tyre, 444
on sword of Roman cavalryman, 434
Tactica, 217
on thigh guards for horsemen, 409
on treatment of wounds, 297
use of Nearchus as source, 360–61, 362
arrows
armors and, 412
wounds from, 298, 301, 303
Arsacid dynasty, 602, 603
Arsenal of Philon, 380n7
Ars Tactica (Arrian)
on cavalry maneuvers, 499, 518–19
on throwing lances from horseback, 523
Ars Veterinaria (Pelagonius), 503
art. See also sculpture
on besieged cities, 438, 439f
on Persian army, 155
representation of warfare in, 92
on shields, 397
Sumerian, on warfare, 135
swords depicted in, 411–12
tomb paintings of war chariots, 151
Artaxata (Armenia), 249
Artaxerxes II, 153, 155, 569
Artayctes, 288
Artemisium, Battle of (480 B.C.), 374, 377, 582
Arthahastra (Kautilya), 517
Art of Horsemanship, The (Xenophon). See Peri hippikes (“On Horsemanship”) (Xenophon)
Asclepiodotus, 66–67
on light cavalry, 191
on shields, 400
on subdivisions of the Macedonian phalanx, 183
Asorestan developed by Sasanians, 611
“Asphodel” (Williams), 726–27, 731
aspis, 147–48, 183, 434
Aspis (Menander), 53
Assembly of Centuries (Comitia Centuriata), 37
Assyria
hoplites in, 147
Severus and, 251
siege techniques, 642
two-level galleys, 372
(p. 748)
asthetairoi. See pezhetairoi
asymmetrical warfare, 247
by Roman legions, 239–43
Atarrhias, 164, 165, 167, 168n6
Atarrhias son of Deinomenes, 167
Athenaion Politeia (Aristotle), 58, 200
Athenian expedition to Sicily (415 B.C.), 623–41
diplomacy strategy, 628–29
errors and miscalculations, 638–40
Greek forces in, 623–25
cavalry, 625, 639
fleet, 624
retreat, 638
split command in, 639
Syracusan forces, 625–26
war aims, 626–28
Athens. See also armies, Greek; hoplites; navy, Athenian
acclaiming Antigonus and Demetrius as divine saviors, 683
cavalry force, 22, 151, 157, 202, 479, 517
civil war of 403, 158, 288–89, 664
classical army of, 145
Demetrius and, 684
acclaimed as divine savior, 683
liberation from Cassander by, 675
siege of Athens, 682
discovery of silver at Laurium, 201–2
effect of losses of wealthier citizens due to war, 212
excavations and evidence of plague in Athens, 138
gift by Antigonus to, 682
hoplites in, 19
identification of aristocrats with Persians, 575
impact of destruction of countryside in Peloponnesian War, 131–32
inscriptions relating to warfare, 55
Long Walls, 380
military commanders, 460
mustering of archers, 150
peltasts, 150
penalties for acts relating to military service, 316
promoting stereotype of barbarians, 584
prosecutions over alleged military misconduct, 54–55
spies from, 488
wages of soldiers and sailors, 15
war and peace, 129
Atratinus, L. Sempronius, 556
Attic frontier, defense of, 482–83
Atticus, 558
Aufidienus, Rufus, 326, 327
augurium salutis, 544
Augustus (Roman Emperor). See also Octavian
closure of the shrine of Janus, 545
exploitation of spolia opima tradition, 559
Prima Porta image, 709f
revival of augurium salutis, 544
Roman army under, 34
auxiliary cavalry, 514
binded to the Emperor, 261
and command, 470
military bases along the Rhine, 590
navy in, 386
professional army, 34, 324, 325, 341
triumphal theme of funeral of, 557
triumphs of, 556
Aulus Atticus, 508
Aurelian (Roman Emperor), 717
Aurelius Marcianus, 267
Aurelius Sarapion, 267
Ausculum, Battle of (279), 186
auspices, 547
Austin, N. J. E., 480, 486, 487
auxilia, 34
auxiliary forces, Roman, 340
award of Roman citizenship, 268
cavalry, 514
Germans in, 593, 595
in imperial armies, 236
Trajan’s Column on, 341
Avars, 591, 596, 597
Azerbaijan developed by Sasanians, 611
Babylon, 203, 513
Bacchylides of Ceos, 51
Bactra, siege of, 440
Bactria, 495
Baculus, P. Sextius, 287
Badian, Ernst, 360
Baecula, Battle of (208 B.C.), 226, 700, 703
Balacrus son of Nicanor, 170
Balash (Sasanian king), 612
Balbus, L. Cornelius, 40, 556, 556n10
Balearic archers, 150
Balearic slingers, 338, 341
barbarians. See also Greek-barbarian dichotomy
people beyond Roman frontiers as, 591
Spartans portrayed as by Euripides, 584
Baris horses, 501
Barsauma, bishop of Nisibis, 608
Bartell, S., 158
Bartov, Omer, 538, 539
basileis (kings) in Homer, 313
Basilica Exercitatoria, 518
Batavians, 245
Bato of Dalmatia, 246, 247
Bato the Pannonian, 246, 247
battle deployments
of cohorts, 230
at Cynoscephalae, 226
at Leuctra, 661, 667–68
Macedonian, 23
of manipular line, 226
phalanxes deep deployment, 664–66
of velites, 226
(p. 749)
battlefields
archaeology, 158
as archeological sites, 100–101
destruction of Varus’s army by Arminius, 100–101
fertilizing fields, 130
post-conflict clearance, 101
battlefield trauma. See also blindness, hysterical
Classical writers on, 279, 282–83
Gorgias on, 281
Roman, 257
Shay on, 280
Battle of Blenheim, The (Southey), 290
Battle of the Champions, 8, 9, 280
Battle of the Frogs and the Mice, 49
Battle of the Weasel and the Mice, 49
battles, 153–57
ferocity and brutality in, 285–88
hoplite battle, 154, 154f
between hoplites and non-hoplite infantry, 154–55
length of, 43
Beard, M., 543, 551n5
Belisarius, 341
at battle of Callinicum, 720
in battle of Dara, 719–20
Procopius secretary to, 711
Bellum Civile (Caesar), 470
Bellum Judaicum (Josephus), 523
beneficiarii, 269
Bharam Chobin (Parthian general), 614–15
Bible on forbidding cutting down of fruit trees while besieging a city, 131
Biton
Construction of War Engines, The, 446, 447
on siege engines of Alexander, 675
Blackbourn, D., 364
Blackhawk Down (Bowden), 734
Blackhawk Down (film), 734
black rat and Roman logistics, 366–67
Blaesus, Ti. Semprenius, 384
blindness, hysterical
of Epizelus, 279, 280, 281, 299
Herodotus on, 279, 280
Blyth, Henry, 412, 413
Boardman, John, 399
Boeotia, invasion of by Spartans, 658–59
Boeotian Confederacy, army of, 659
Boeotians, 145
aid to Syracuse during Sicilian Expedition, 634
cavalry of, 201, 512
hoplite shield of, 148–49
and large-force reconnaissance, 476
light infantry, 156
bog deposits, Scandinavian, and information on ancient warfare, 123
Bolanus, Vettius, 102n5
Bomilcar, 696, 697, 703
bonds, creation of by Philip II and Alexander, 464
Book of Golden Deeds, The, 731–32
border spats, 157
Bosworth, A. B., 359–60
Boudica, 241
revolt in 60, 263
Tacitus on, 86
Bowden, Mark, 734
bows, 150
Brasidas (Spartan general)
at Amphipolis, 461, 645
cavalry of, 512
hoplite formation by, 156
social class of, 459
on stratagems, 9
and timber supply, 134
wounded, 413
bravery
acts of courage, 283
honors bestowed in Roman army, 320
ideal of hoplites, 314–15
and prestige in Roman and Italian culture, 466
siege warfare and, 448–49
in Sparta, 4
Britain
hill forts overcome by Romans, 241
Roman conquest of
archaeological evidence for operation in Northern Scotland, 103f
archaeology on, 102
Sarmatian cavalry unit in, 263, 515
British Way in Warfare, The (Liddell Hart), 47
Brooke, Rupert, 728
Bruttians in Hannibal’s army, 691
Bucephalus, 512
Burgundians, 591
burials
after combats, 256, 291, 532
Germans, 593
practices of transfrontier peoples, 595, 597–98
Burkert, Walter, 533, 537
Burn, A. R., 740
Bury, J. B., 352
Busta Gallorum, battlefield of, 290
Caecina, 244, 364
Caesar, Julius, 74, 75–77, 739
on arms and armor, 419
on pilum, 426
on shields, 321
army of
deployment of cohorts, 230
size of, 233
use of allied cavalry to monitor the Helvetii, 477
use of cohorts, 229
use of Numidian cavalry, 514
(p. 750)
building erected by, 555
campaigns against the Gauls, 589–90
studies on logistics of, 354
collection of strategic intelligence, 76, 357
combining Roman and Hellenistic traditions, 470
on consilium, 468
cutting water supply to Cadurci, 135
on differences between Gauls and Germans, 590
establishment of Rhine-Danube frontier, 589
and feast after triumph, 555
on Germans, 590
on good leadership, 320
on mutilation during Spanish War of 46/5 B.C., 289
at Ruspina, 234
use of field fortifications, 233
use of term exploratores, 480
at Uzita, 233
Velleius Paterculus on, 78
writing included in Men at War, 731
Cagniart, P., 477
Calgacus, 264, 390
Callias of Aradus, 446
Callias of Sphettus, 449–50
Callinicum, Battle of (A.D. 531), 718, 720
Callinus of Ephesus, 20, 49, 50, 727
Callisthenes, 658
Camarina, 204
camels, 136, 192, 500
Camillus, M. Furius, 247
campaigns
and objective evaluation, 242
seasonal, 243
Camp Fortifications (Pseudo-Hyginus), 479
camps, Roman
fortified marching, 102, 232
forum in, 323–24
and future cities, 271
Vegetius on maintaining good conditions in camps, 309
Camulodunum, 241
canabae, 265
Cannae, Battle of (216 B.C.)
brutality of, 287–88
Carthaginians
cavalry at, 514–15
dominance, 688
victory, 697
day of, 549
Livy on, 83, 84
Romans
defeat, 467, 468
disputes between commanders, 225
order at, 477
tactics at, 233
Çan sarcophagus, 150
Cape Taenarum as hiring center for mercenaries, 343
Capitoline Fasti, 551
captives. See prisoners
Capture of Miletus (Phrynichus), 52
Caracalla (Roman Emperor), 262
Caratacus, 86, 241
Carduchians, 145
Carians, equipment of, 147, 148, 149
Carneia festival, 533–34
Carney, E., 321
Carrhae, Battle of (53 B.C.), 40, 233, 257, 602
Carthage
fleet of, 145, 691
heavy infantry of, 149
and horsemanship, 514
impact of Second Punic War, 705
invaders of Punic Africa, 701
reforms by Hannibal after Second Punic War, 705
reliance on mercenaries, 339
return to prosperity after Second Punic War, 705–6
use of elephants, 191
war chariots, 151
Cartledge, P, 536–37
Carus (Roman Emperor), 717
Cassander, 172–73, 682
Cassius, C. Avidius, 264
Casson, L., 353
Catana, 628–29
cataphractarii, 509, 515, 713, 716
catapults
of Demetrius Poliorcetes, 194
early use by Dionysius of Syracuse, 157, 205
Ephyra catapult, 447f
invention of, 446
torsion, 378
used at sieges, 445
Amida, 721
Jotapata, 252
Catch-22 (Heller), 732–33
Catiline, 81–82
Cato, M. Porcius, 216–17
cats in Roman forts, 367
cavalry, 22–23, 150–51. See also light cavalry; warhorses
armored, 135, 509
auxiliary horsemen, 190–91
in battle of Dara, 720
of camels, 136
Campanian, 205
on classical battlefield, 157
cost of establishing a force of, 201
deployment at Leuctra, 667–68
formations, 153
and large-force reconnaissance, 476
Macedonian, 512
and conquest of Asia, 188
mounted javelin men, 186
Parthian, 602 (p. 751)
Sarmatian, 595
Sasanian, 603, 604, 606, 607, 607f, 713
training, 516–26
Cantabrian gallop, 521–22
charge from concealment, 519–20
testudo and petrinos, 520–21
used with light infantry, 156
cavalry, Greek, 512–14
in Athenian Sicilian Expedition, 625, 639
of Athens, 22, 151, 157, 202, 479, 517
horses, 493
acquisition of warhorse bloodstock, 494
as integral part of an initial hoplite attack, 666–67
mounts owned by troopers, 516
recuitment, 517
Theban, 659, 666
cavalry, Hellenistic, 188–90
armor of, 189
decline in quality, 185, 188, 191
equipment of, 188–89
lance-wielding, 191
organization, 189–90
cavalry, Roman, 220, 220n5, 227, 514–16
allied forces, 224, 477
armor and helmets, 435–36
disappearance of, 231–32
under Gallienus, 515–16
grades of horses of alae and cohortes equitatae, 518
Imperial, 434–35
late antiquity heavy, 716
maneuvers, 524f
solid performance in armies of the Principate, 240
style of fighting, 220n7
subsidiary role in the battlefield, 222
Touloutegon, 524–25
training, 525–26
weapons, 434–35
Cavalry Commander, The (Xenophon), 516, 739
Cawkwell, G. L., 536
Cedreiae, 646
Celsus, A. Cornelius, 300, 301, 303, 504
Celts as mercenaries, 338
“Cenotaph of the Julii” (Saint-Remy de Provence), 423
censors, Roman, 36
centurions, 226, 327f
Cephisosotus the Younger, 169f
Cerealis, Governor of Britain, 102
Cerealis, Q. Petilius, 245
Chaeronea, Battle of (338 B.C.)
Alexander as commander of Macedonian cavalry at, 463
Macedonian cavalry at, 23
mortuary studies and, 158–59
remains from, 286
Theban soldier killed at, 286f
use of sarissa by Philip II’s cavalry, 410
Chaeronea, Battle of (86 B.C.)
burning of enemy arms by Sulla, 550
Roman trenches and towers at, 233
use of chariots, 192
chain of command
development in Sparta, 459
in Roman army, 321, 322
chalcaspides, 187
Chalcidians, cavalry of, 151, 512
Chaldaeans, heavy infantry of, 149
Chalybians, 145, 149
Chamberlin, J. Edward, 135
Chaonians, 145
Characters (Theophrastus), 46–47, 48
Chares, 413
Cherusci, 591
Chester indoor riding school, 518
chest wounds, 298
Chians
slave in army of, 145
triremes of, 374
Chigi vase illustration of spears, 409
chiliarchia, 184
chiliarchies of Macedonians, 164
Chios, Battle of (201 B.C.), 195
Chios, siege of, 645
chremata, 202
Christians
in Sasanian empire, 614
on western frontier of Sasanians, 612
Chronicle (Malalas), 720
Churchill, Winston, 59
Cicero, M. Tullius
on Corinthian cavalry, 201
on divination by birds, 548
on good leadership, 320
on medicus in the army, 307
preconception on Roman wars, 562
on Roman piety and religion, 542
Cilicia, 170
Cilles, 682
Cimbri, 589
Cimon
adaptation of Athenian triremes, 374–75
disguise of his force, 158
siege of Phaselis, 647
Cineas, 446
Circesium, 715
circumvallation
in Athenian siege of Syracuse, 377, 631, 632
cost of, 645
decrease in, 644
as Greek method of siege, 642
of Plataea by Spartans, 648, 650
cities. See also city-states, Greek
defense of unwalled, 646n4
effect of friendly armies in, 211
fear of revolution in besieged, 441
Roman walls, 35
Sasanian, 610
citizen militias, 145, 446, 737 (p. 752)
citizenship
Athenian, 212
open attitude in enrolling new citizens during Hellenistic period, 213
Roman, 32
awarded to auxiliary forces, 268
citizen-soldier, Greek concept of, 199–201
city-states, Greek
association with the feminine, 450
emergence of, 199
finances of, 201–3
given military equipment by Hellenistic rulers, 201
polis patriotism, 576, 578
versus vision of panhellenic unity, 586
Civilis, 245
civil wars
among Parthians, 603
Athens civil war of 403, 158, 288–89, 664
Roman
civil war of 68–69, 263
effect on Roman Empire, 263
triumphs and, 554
use of cavalry during civil war of 49–45, 232
Syracuse and, 13
clades Variana, 263
Classicus, Julius, 245
classis (service as heavy infantry), 219
classis Britannica, 387, 390
classis Misenatium, 386
classis Ravennatium, 386
Claudius (Roman Emperor)
in Britain, 241, 242
donative on accession, 262
navy under, 387
revival of augurium salutis, 544
revival of fetial treaty ceremonies, 560
Claudius Pulcher, Ap., 552
Claudius Pulcher, P., 548
Claudius Terentianus, 433
Clearchus, 470
on Cyrus, 342
discipline under, 316
Cleitus, 164, 170, 299, 318
Cleochares of Cephisia, 516
Cleombrotus, 660
army deployment at Leuctra, 661
invasion of Boeotia, 658
Cleomenes I (Spartan king), 133, 579
and mercenaries, 332
Cleon (Athenian general), 652
Cleonymus, 185
siege of Sparta, 450
clibanarii, 509, 713, 716
Clisthenes, 212
close combat, valorization of, 155
closing of the shrine of Janus, 544–45
Clouds (Aristophanes), 53
Coele-Syria, 195
Coenus, 166
cohesion. See also social cohesion, concept of
discipline and, 312
of Roman army, 244
of unit as motivator in combat, 258–59
“Cohesion and disintegration in the Wehrmacht in World War II” (Shils and Janowitz), 538
cohorts
as basic tactical unit, 229
deployment of, 230
replacing maniples, 228
scouting assignments along the limes, 484
coinage
as military potential for the future, 15
naval finances and, 382
and payment of mercenaries, 332
Colophon, cavalry of, 151
Combat zone (O’Brien), 733–34
combined arms warfare
coordination of fleet and land army, 359, 360
development of, 155–56
Hellenistic, 190
comedies
Hellenistic on sieges, 451
professional soldiers as type of character in Greek, 337
commanders. See also chain of command; generalship
Ammianus on, 79
in Athens, 460
importance of personalities of
Velleius Paterculus on, 77
in Sparta, 459–60
Commentaries on the Civil War (Caesar), 74, 75
Commentaries on the Gallic War (Caesar), 74, 75
Commodus (Roman emperor), 41
“common peace,” concept of, 6
communities around Roman military bases, 273–74
Companions (hetairoi) (heavy cavalry), 23, 163, 463
exploits of, 501–2
Connolly, J., 363
Connolly, Peter, 113
on pilum, 426
replica of scutum, 423
saddle reconstruction, 507
Connor, Robert, 537
consilium, 468
Constantia, Roman fort at, 716
Constantine (Roman Emperor)
cavalry under, 516
death of, 717
fleet of, 391
Constantinople
Sasanian armies and, 615
siege by Sasanians in 626, 718
Constantius (Roman emperor), 96
Constantius II (Roman Emperor), 716, 717 (p. 753)
Constitution of the Athenians (Aristotle). See Athenaion Politeia (Aristotle)
Constitution of the Lacedaemonians (Xenophon), 65
Construction of Arrows, The (Heron of Alexandria), 447
Construction of Artillery, The (Heron of Alexandria), 447
Construction of War Engines, The (Biton), 447
consuls, Roman, 545
and command in battle, 225
and conduct of war, 36
contiones, 324
Cookson, G. M., 731
Corbridge hoard, 419–20, 430
Corbulo, Cn. Domitius
discipline of, 326, 327
meeting Paetus’s army
Paetus and, 250
on the Parthian frontier, 249
reputation of, 471
Tacitus on, 86, 87, 249
Corinth
cavalry, 201
and Syracuse during Sicilian Expedition, 626, 632, 634
Corinthian War (394–386 B.C.), 11
Coronea, 659
Battle of (394 B.C.), 665
corselets, 404f, 406–7, 414
Corupedium, Battle of (280 B.C.), 201
Cossus, A. Cornelius, 557
Cotta, 468
Coulston, J. N. C., 119
cowardice, penalties for, 316
Crassus, L. Licinius, 553
Crassus, M. Licinius (i)
after battle of Carrhae, 257
at Carrhae, 233
Crassus, M. Licinius (ii)
killing of enemy commander Deldo, 558
Craterus, 169, 170, 171, 678
Cratesipolis, 677
Cratinus, 287
Cremona, Second Battle of (A.D. 69), 244, 256
Cretans
as archers, 150, 190, 338, 341
as mercenaries, 338
Critias, 50, 664
Croesus of Lydia, 500
crossbows, 525–26
Ctesibius of Alexandria, 446
Ctesiphon, 251
sack of in A.D. 283, 717
cuirass
bell cuirass, 405
description by Statius, 431
effectiveness of, 414
weight of, 405
culture
as dividing line between Rome and its enemies, 86
Roman army as conduit of, 29
Cunaxa, Battle of (401 B.C.), 151
appointment of physicians after defeat at, 306
Cyrus the Younger
address before, 569, 571
death of, 333
Greeks left after, 333
infantry formation at, 153
mutilation of Persian dead, 288
Xenophon on, 155
Curtius Lupus, 390
Curtius Rufus, Q., 164, 165
on reorganization of command of hypaspists, 166–67
on silver-plating of shields, 166
on treatment of wounds, 297
customhouses, soldiers and, 270–71
Cynegetica (Pseudo-Oppian), 496
Cynegeticus (“On Hunting with Dogs”) (Xenophon), 64
Cynoscephalae, Battle of (197 B.C.), 185, 477
burial of cavalry killed at, 221
defeat of Philip V at, 214
Roman deployment at, 226
Roman tactics at, 233
Cyprus
Demetrius in war against Ptolemy, 675, 677
war chariots during Ionian Revolt of 499–494 B.C., 151
Cyreans, 156–57
Cyropaedia (Education of Cyrus) (Xenophon), 65, 207, 586
on qualities of successful leader, 462
on spies, 487–88
Cyrus the Great, 579
Cyrus the Younger
address before Battle of Cunaxa, 569, 571
at Cunaxa, 155, 332–33
mercenary remuneration offered by, 344
Xenophon on, 342, 586
Dacians, 591, 595
Dacian Wars, 341
daggers, 412, 433
Daimachus, 446
Damarion, 273
Danube front, 248
Dara, Battle of (A.D. 530), 718, 719–20
Darius I, 570, 578, 579
Darius III
cavalry at Gaugamela, 513
chase by Companion Cavalry of Alexander, 502
loyalty of Greek mercenaries to, 348, 349
served by Rhodian generals, 342
Daylamites in Sasanian army, 607
dead, the (p. 754)
burial, 532
mutilation, 288–89
rituals for, 290
stripping, 531
debriefing after battle, 257–58
deception and stratagem, 9, 462
decimation, 322, 326
declaration of war
Greek, 7
Roman fetial, 561
decorations in Roman Imperial army, 326
decuriones, 217
deforestation
effect of wars, 132
wood need of military forces and, 133
Deidameia, 678
Delbrück, H., 279
Delian League
Athenian control of, 584
compared to Latin League, 31
financial contributions to, 15
in war against Persia, 10
Delium, Battle of (424 B.C.), 158, 669
Athenian defeat at, 290
Boeotian horses at, 512
light troops at, 22
opening moves of, 476
Theban tactics at, 664
Delos, 211, 212
Delphion, 205
Demaratus, 571, 580, 581, 583
Demetrius of Phalerum, 58–59
Demetrius Poliorcetes, the “Besieger,” 211, 343, 671–87
at battle of Ipsus, 676
breastplate
Cypriot breastplate presented to, 406–7
effectiveness of, 412
catapults on ships, 378
divinization of, 683–84
fleet of, 17
gift of panoplies to Athens, 201
homeland and identity of, 679–80
loyalty of mercenaries to, 348–49
married to Phila, 677–78
masculinity of, 451
siege of Rhodes, 438, 440, 445
siege train of, 193–04
sources on, 672–73
demography, 212–14
population transfers by tyrants of Syracuse, 204, 205
of Rome after Second Punic War, 704–5
Demosthenes
on army of Philip II, 16
co-commander with Cleon, 460
on payments to mercenaries, 344
in Sicilian Expedition, 625, 633–34, 635, 636, 637, 639
and sieges, 647
speeches of, 54
Third Philippic, 46, 47–48
on watch on the Attic frontier, 483
deos (apprehension), 535
depotatoi, 309–10
De re militari (Vegetius), 217
Dessau, H., 558
destructiveness of war, 210–12
devotio, 550
Diades, 446
Diadochoi. See Successors
Diadoch War, Second, 173
diagnosis and prognosis, 299–300
Dictionary of Military and Naval Quotations (Heinl), 735
dilochia, 184
Dio, Cassius
on arrowheads, 301
on Boudica, 242
on Claudius in Britain, 242
on Crassus’s killing of Deldo, 558
on German frontier, 246, 247
on revolts against Rome, 264
on Septimius Severus against Parthians, 251
on siege of Hatra, 255
as source on Second Punic War, 689
on wounded at Tapae, 256
Diocletian (Roman Emperor)
cavalry under, 516
and eastern defenses, 715
edict on prices, 136
Persian peace settlement, 717
Diodorus Siculus, 165, 170, 174, 739
on Archimedes’s siege weapons, 194
on Battle of Leuctra, 658, 668
on Demetrius Poliorcetes, 672
on siege of Rhodes, 453–54
distinction between hypaspists and argyraspides, 187
erroneous passage on hoplites, 334
on fleet of Antigonus Monophthalmus, 377
on Greek mercenaries of Agathocles, 337
on high payment offered by Phocians, 344
on hypaspists with Perdiccas, 171–72
on mercenaries, 332
on money and war, 349
on new development in siege warfare, 650
on payments to Balearic Islanders, 345
on Roman reluctance to hiring mercenaries, 340
on Sicilian Expedition
on Nicias, 631
on size of, 624n2
on sieges of Tyre and Rhodes, 444
on Spartan sieges, 650
on spears thrown by hoplites, 409
on swords of peltasts, 411 (p. 755)
on Syracuse after Athenian Sicilian Expedition, 640
on term hoplite, 397
Diogenes Laertius, 58
Dionysius of Alexandria, 194
Dionysius of Halicarnassus
on fetial res repetere procedure, 562
on fetials’ demands for satisfaction before a war, 562
on manipular legion, 223
on military reform of Servius Tullius, 219
on religion, 543
on treatment of the wounded in Roman army, 307
Dionysius of Phocaea, 374, 378
Dionysius of Syracuse, 133, 157, 205
looting of sanctuaries, 210
mercenaries employed by, 338
production of equipment for infantry, 200
quadriremes and quinqueremes of, 194
and siege artillery, 193
and siege warfare
siege engines, 675
technical innovation, 446
Dioscorides, Pedanius, 295
diphalangia, 184
diplomacy and provision of supplies, 356
diplomatic intelligence before Sicilian Expedition, 639
discipline, military, 312–28. See also punishment, military
Aeschylus on Greek, 576, 577, 578
Hellenistic armies, 318–20
Homeric Greece, 313–14, 458
incentives rewarding
in Roman Imperial army, 326
Macedonia, 317–18
polis armies, 314–17
in Roman army
harshness of, 285
Imperial era, 325–27
Republican era, 320–25, 466–67
Discourses (Epictus), 266
Dodge, T. A., 738
dogs, 136–37, 137f, 482
Domitian (Roman emperor), 41, 262
donatives to army, Imperial, 262, 325, 471, 472
Dorians and festival of Carneia, 533–34
dory, 435
Dorylaus of Pontus, 343
doryphoroi, 165
Douglass, Keith, 730
Dover, Kenneth, 534
Dracon’s law on homicide, 12
Drepana, naval defeat at (249 B.C.), 548
drinking and combat, 257n10
Drusenheim helmet, 432
Drusus, 364, 589, 590
Ducetius (Sicel king), 145
“Dulce Et Decorum Est” (Owen), 727
Dura-Europus
archaeology at, 722
mail bards found at, 509
Roman army in, 265
Roman base in, 108
siege of, 94–100, 95f, 98f, 99f, 436
Dyrrachium, siege of, 76, 233, 470
Eberhart, R., 731
economic structures of war, 14–16
economy, passage of armies and, 210–11
Education of Cyrus (Xenophon). See Cyropaedia (Education of Cyrus) (Xenophon)
Egesta appeal to Athens (416 B.C.), 623–24, 626, 629
Egypt
allotment of land to military settlers, 346
early ship transport of military forces, 370
heavy infantry, 149, 152
hoplites in, 147
horses from, 496
navy, 17
payments for military purposes, 345–46
use of Greek mercenaries, 203
elaphroi (light cavalry), 191
Eleans, army of, 146
elephants, 136
at battle of Ipsus, 676
of Hannibal, 697
horses and, 500
reintroduction in Hellenistic warfare, 191–92
in Sasanian army, 714
“Elephant Victory” (275), 191
Eleusis, 483
Elginhaugh, Scotland, 106, 107f
emperors, Roman, 40–41
Encomium of Helen (Gorgias), 281
endurance, Hellenistic commanders and, 465
enemy, locating, 479
engineering
Philon of Byzantium treatises on, 447
in sieges, 97
Suetonius on soldiers as engineers and builders, 271
units at siege of Jotapata, 253
units of Trajan’s army, 250
Ennius, 223
environment, warfare and, 128–38
Epaminondas
at Battle of Leuctra, 657–70
tactics leading to victory, 660, 662–69
death at Mantinea, 156
extreme discipline by, 317
influence on Philip II of Macedon, 463
invasion of the Peloponnese, 345
and spear, 409
spear wound to the chest, 298
tactics
changes in hoplite phalanx, 396
use of cavalry in combined arms battle, 157 (p. 756)
ephebeia (military training of young men), 200, 284
epheboi
equipment of, 200
garrison and duty patrol of, 483
Ephesus, 145, 343
Ephorus, 658
Ephorus of Cyme, 739
Epicrates, 200
Epictus, 266
Epidamnus, siege of (434 B.C.), 651
Epidaurus, Argives investment of, 645
epidemics. See also pandemics; plagues
effects on Mediterranean peoples, 138
Epidemics (Hippocratic Corpus), 309n10
epikouros, 331
epilektoi (picked, or elite, troops), 182, 202
Epimachus of Athens, 446
Epipolae, 452
Epitome rei militaris (Vegetius), 74, 80, 273
on cavalry marches, 519
on Hunnish horse, 496–97
Epizelus, hysterical blindness of, 279, 280, 281, 299
equipment, Greek, 16–24
arms and armor, 395–418
of hoplites, 18, 21, 395
price, 395
uniformity of, 200–201
equipment, Roman
arms and armor, 419–37
caliga speculatoria boots, 486n3
early, 219
Eranshar (land of the Aryans), 604–5
Sasanian offensive warfare as defense of, 609
espionage. See also military intelligence
Greek, 487–90
Etruria
adoption of hoplite equipment, 218
traditional equestrian society, 514
Eumenes II of Pergamum, 137, 378
Eumenes of Cardia, 347
Argyraspids in service of, 173
battle with Antigonus, 162, 173–74
hiring mercenaries, 343
killing of Neoptolemus, 4
at Magnesia, 192
murder of, 176
at Paraetacene, 180, 187, 675
Perdiccas and, 171
Euripides, 52–53
on madness of Heracles, 283
on peace, 6
on rituals for the war dead, 290
on trauma of war, 281
Eurydice, 678
Eurymedon, 625, 633–34, 636, 637
Euthydemus, 633–34
evocatio, 549
excavations. See also archaeology of war
and evidence of plague in Athens, 138
at Maiden Castle (Britain), 286
Newstead, 496, 518
at Waldgirmes, Germany, 102
executions, 326
experience in selection of Athenian commanders, 460
exploratores, 478–79, 489
evolution of, 480–81
stationed along the frontier, 484–85
extortion by Roman soldiers, 267, 270
Fabius Maximus Cunctator, Q., 383, 467, 697
Plutarch on, 689
tactics of, 698
Fabius Pictor, Quintus, 689
Face of Battle, The (Keegan), 279
Fasti Triumphales, 551, 551n6, 556n10
fear
horses and, 500
as motivator of war, 77
Ferghana, horses from, 135, 495
Ferrill, Arthur, 352
festivals, war and, 529, 533
fetials, 559–64
consultation by Senate before wars, 563
and demands for satisfaction, 562–63
surrendering of Roman offenders to enemies, 560–61
treaty ceremony, 559–60
Fick, Nathaniel, 735–36
finances, Hellenistic wars and government, 180, 181
finances, military. See also aerarium militare
in Athens, 15–16
Laurium silver, 202
in Roman Imperial era, 262
Second Punic War
in Carthage, 692
in Rome, 691
finances, naval, 381–82
Roman, 390
Findlow, Frank J., 130
Finley, Moses, 536
fire use in warfare, 133
flamethrowers, 445
Flaccus, Q. Fulvius, 703
death at Herdonea, 697, 698
use of Numidian cavalry, 514
Flamininus, L. Quinctius, 384
Flamininus, T. Quinctius, 185, 233, 477
Flaminius, C.
defeat at Lake Trasimene, 282, 697
dispensing with religious oath, 546–47
triumph approved by popular assembly, 552
Flavius Abbinnaeus, 516
Florus, revolt of, 263
Florus on origin of triumphs, 551
Flower, H. I., 557 (p. 757)
food
foraging of armies, 209
growing at Roman military bases, 272
as important logistic factor, 355
Philon of Byzantium on storage of food for besieged cities, 448
Foot Companions, 463
formations, 152–53. See also phalanxes
of Batavians, 245
early Roman
army of the community as a whole, 217–18
war bands, 218
of Hellenistic cavalry, 189–90
maniple, 220
fortifications, 91, 102–4
along Greek frontier, 482
providing information about army organization, 106
Roman
on eastern frontier, 715
field, 233
Sasanian, 610, 610n10, 715
long walls in, 611
Forum Augustum, 557
Foster, Patricia, 401–2
Franks, 591
Frederick the Great, 737
freedom for Greeks as justification of war, 678, 685
freedom of speech
at camp contio, 324
in the Republican Roman army, 323
freedoms
of Greek soldiers, 317
of Macedonian soldiers, 318
friends/guest-friends
in armies of the ancient world, 330
and mercenary service, 342
Frisian horse, 496
Frogs, The (Aristophanes), 52, 53
From the Founding of the City (Livy), 75, 82–83
frontiers, surveillance along, 481–83
Frontinus, 74, 79–80, 471, 739
on discipline, 321, 326
on interference with enemies’ water supply, 135
on logistics, 42
mention of velites with Sulla at Orchomenus, 231
on Roman generalship, 470
frugality, Hellenistic commanders and, 465
frumentarii, 486–87
Fuller, J. F. C., 738, 739
Fulvius Centumalus, 696
Fulvius Flaccus. See Flaccus, Q. Fulvius
Fussell, Paul, 283, 728
fustuarium (cudgeling to death), 285, 322
Gabiene, Battle of (316 B.C.), 675
Argyraspids in, 174–75
baggage train of Eumenes seized by Antigonus, 680–81
Gabriel, R. S., 114
Gaius Gracchus, 232
Galen
on abdominal wounds, 299
on hemostasis, 301
on plague during reign of Marcus Aurelius, 138
on suturing, 303
Galerius (Roman Emperor), 609, 717
Galilee, Roman warfare in, 230, 236–37, 238, 252
Gallienus (Roman Emperor), 515–16
Galloway, J. L., 734
Gamala, siege of, 254–55
Gates of fire (Pressfield), 735
Gaugamela, Battle of (331 B.C.), 164, 476
Macedonian cavalry at, 188
numbers at, 513, 674
use of a Macedonian reserve force, 186
Gauls
archaeological evidence on, 110
complex society of, 111–12
employed in Hellenistic armies, 190
head-taking in war, 111
influence on Roman soldiers’ clothing, 120
as martial societies, 111
splendor of arms of, 117
Gedrosian expedition, 358–63
Gela, ally of Syracuse, 632
Gelon of Syracuse
combined arms warfare, 155, 156
help sent to Greeks against Persians in 480, 204
hiring of mercenaries, 341
military dictator, 204
Gemellus, Lucius Bellenus, 266
Geminus, Gnaeus Servilius, 383
General, The (Onasander), 471
generals
supervision and prosecution of Greek, 13
technical skills of Hellenistic, 465
generalship, 457–73
Alexander the Great, 463–64
archaic and classical Greece, 458–61
fourth century B.C., 461–63
Hellenistic, 465–66
Homeric, 457–58
Philip II of Macedon, 463–64
Roman
Imperial era, 470–72
Republican, 466–70
Generalship of Alexander the Great, The (Fuller), 738
Gepids, 591
Germania, 112
ancient geography and terrain, 363–64
fleets and conquest of, 387
map, 588f
as Roman frontier, 246, 363–66
routes of supplies in, 364–65 (p. 758)
Germanicus, 238
battlefield tour, 257
burial of remains of Varus’s army, 256, 291
invasion of Germania, 364, 591
marching order of army of, 238
mutinous riots against, 256
pursuit of Arminius, 239
Tacitus on, 86, 87
Tiberius and, 471
triumph of, 556
use of military intelligence, 357
use of North Sea, 365
Germans
as auxiliary forces of Romans, 593, 595
at beginning of first century A.D., 592
effect of Roman world on, 590, 593
Tacitus on, 86
gerron, 149
Gichon, M., 480, 486
Gilgamesh, 128
Gillespie, Alexander, 728
Gladiator (film), 726
gladius, 424, 433, 594. See also Spanish sword
Glaucias, 164
Göktürk Khaganate, 614
Goldberg, Neil J., 130
Goldsworthy, Adrian, 287, 354
Gomme, A. W., 532, 740
Gordian III (Roman Emperor), 545, 717
Gorgias, 281
Goths, 36, 41, 78, 591, 595, 596
Gracchus, Ti. Sempronius, 703
Granicus River, Battle of (334 B.C.), 164, 476, 513
Grass (Sandburg), 290
Gratian (Roman emperor), 79
Grattius Faliscus, 493
Great Jewish War, victory of Titus in, 254f
Great Ludovisi battle sarcophagus, 420f
Great Plains, Battle of (203 B.C.), 700
greaves, 168, 396, 408
Greece, Classical (map), xxxiii
Greece, war and warfare in, 3–25
classical period, 143–59
Greek-barbarian dichotomy, 569–70
beginning in archaic poetry, 575
laid out first in Persae, 576
Greek State at War, The (Pritchett), 527–28
Greeks under siege, 438–56
Griffith, G. T., 339, 344, 346, 348
Grumentum, Battle of (207 B.C.), 698
Grundy, G. B., 739
Gudme, 598
Guisborough helmet, 435–36
Gurgan developed by Sasanians, 611
Gylippus, 452, 459, 640
coming to Syracuse’s aid, 632–34, 639
Hadrian (Roman emperor)
armored cavalry under, 509
cost of revolts under, 264
establishment of forest reserve, 134
exploratores under, 480
military skill of, 471
Hagemann, Arnold, 405
Hagnon (Athenian general), 652
Halicarnassus, siege of (334), 164
Haltern, legionary fortress of, 364, 590
Hamilcar Barca, 340, 696
hamippoi, 156, 659
Hammond, N. G. L., 740
Hannibal, 33, 696–99
admired by Scipio Africanus, 700
army of, 339, 340
in Battle of Side, 379
at Cannae, 233
commanding fleet of King Prusias of Bithynia, 378
debate on possible march on Rome, 703
land devastation by, 132
Livy on, 83
requisition of horses in Italy, 514
in Second Punic War, 688
losses in crossing the Pyrenees, 701–2
size of army of, 690
studies on logistics of campaigns of, 354
study by Dodge, 738
tactics of, 43
use of elephants, 136
use of serpents, 137
use of Spanish cavalry at Cannae, 496
and welfare of his men, 698
Hanno, 691, 696, 703
Hansen, M. H., 13
Hanson, Victor Davis, 131, 132, 353, 410, 737
on Battle of Delium, 669
on Battle of Leuctra, 666, 667
on naval logistics, 353
Western Way of War, The, 143
Harpagos, 155
Harpalus, 170
Harrington, James, 737
Hart, B. H. Liddell, 47
harvests, armies and, 356–57
Hasdrubal, 514, 691, 696
Hasdrubal son of Gisco, 703
Hasdrubal the Fair, 696
hasta, 223, 435
hastati, 220, 223
age of, 223
withdrawal and replacement by principes, 228
Hatra, assault of, 251, 255
hatred as motivator of war, 77
head wounds, 298, 301
heavy infantry. See also hoplites
Egyptian, 149
phalanxes and, 152
Roman, 227
reliance on, 233–34
Hecuba (Euripides), 53
Heddernheim helmet, 435
Heinl, R. D., 735 (p. 759)
helepolis, 675
Heliodorus, 509
Hellanicus, 164
Hellenica (Xenophon), 739
Hellenic League, 678
Hellenistic empires (maps), xxxv, xxxvi
Hellenistic wars, 11, 179–98
Heller, Joseph, 732–33
helmets
Chalcidian, 404f
cheek-pieces on, 429
Greek, 401–4
archaic Cretan, 402–3
Chalcidian, 403
Corinthian, 401–2, 402f, 413
effectiveness of, 413–14
found at Olympia, 396
Illyrian, 401
on the islands, 403
Thomas, 414
Thracian, 403–4
Montefortino type, 429
peak helmets, 403–4
Roman
of cavalrymen, 435–36
Imperial era, 432–33
Republic, 429–30
Hemingway, Ernest, 731–32
hemostasis, 301
Hephaestion, 300
Hephthalites
kingdoms eliminated by Kusro I, 614
in Sasanian army, 606, 607
as threat to Sasanians, 612
Heraclea, Battle of (280 B.C.), 191
Heracleitus, 5
Heracleon, 207–8
Heracles (Euripides), 281
Heraclitus of Ephesus, 51
Heraclius (Roman Emperor), 610, 615, 719
Herdonea, second battle of (210 B.C.), 697, 698
Herippidas, 209
Hermocrates, 640
Herodotus, 8–9, 49, 61–62, 129
on Athenians at Marathon, 396
on barbarian equipment, 396–97
on battlefield of Plataea, 290
on “Battle of the Champions,” 280
on Battle of Thermopylae, 580
on battles between Greeks and Persians, 154–55
on Carians and Ionians in service to the pharaoh, 330
connection to Homer, 61
contrast between hard and soft cultures, 579, 582
on freedom and fighting, 582
on Greek/barbarian dichotomy, 571, 578–80
on Greek ethnic solidarity, 572
on horses, 494, 513
on hysterical blindness, 279, 280
idea of sea power, 376
influence on Ammianus, 78–79
justification of war, 536
on mercenaries, 331
on Miltiades, 5
on rituals
on questions asked of Oracle at Delphi, 528
on trophies, 530
on ritual sacrifices, 529
on scythed chariots, 192
on size of Xerxes’s army, 352
on Spartans, 571n2
on spies, 488
on Thracian peltasts, 149
on trierarchoi, 381
on triremes of Polycrates of Samos, 372–73
on tyranny and mercenaries, 332
on use of camels by Cyrus of Persia, 136
Hesiod, 50
hetairoi. See Companions
Hiero, 133
Hieron (Spartan), 657, 660
Hieron of Syracuse, 143, 204
Archimedes in service of, 446
mercenaries employed by, 338
military dictator, 204
Hieronymus of Cardia, 175, 673, 676
Hignett, C., 740
Himera, Battle of (480 B.C.), 151, 204
Himera as ally of Syracuse, 632
Himilco, 703
hipparch, spies and, 488
hipparchia, 189
Hipparchios (“The Duties of a Cavalry Commander”) (Xenophon), 64
Hippika Gymnasia, 508, 509, 510, 518
Hippocrates, 461, 664
Hippocratic Corpus, 294–95, 301
Hipponax of Ephesus, 372
Hipponoidas, 316
Histories (Amianus Marcellinus), 74
Hitler’s Army (Bartov), 538
Hittites, 138
Hölscher, Tonio, 537
Homer. See also Iliad (Homer); Odyssey (Homer)
and development of Greek/barbarian dichotomy, 573–74
earliest lines of, 727n1
on epikouros, 331
on experience of war, 280
influence of, 59–60
lack of hierarchy in Homeric epic, 457
on martial excellence, 3–4
on military discipline, 313
on mutilation, 288
on preparations for the conduct of war, 12
on protection of limbs, 408
shields mentioned in, 397
on ships carrying warriors, 370, 372
use of term phalanx, 19
honor
Greek code, 5
matters of as justification for war, 536
of mercenaries, 349
as Roman strategic objective under Germanicus, 240
Honorius, 516
hoplite panoply of Roman centuries, 219
“Hoplite Revolution,” 19, 199
hoplites, 16, 18–19, 18f, 20f, 147, 148f, 284. See also phalanxes
aboard Athenian triremes, 374
in battle, 154, 154f
effect of warfare on agricultural fields, 353
equipment of Greek, 395
hypaspists compared to, 168
ideal of bravery of, 314–15
operating outside of the phalanx, 21
response to cavalry combined with light infantry, 156
in Sicilian Expedition, 624
spears of, 410
weight of gear, 149
hoplon, 168
Hormizdagan, Battle of the plain of (A.D. 224), 601, 602
Hormizd IV (Sasanian king), 614
horse archers, 192, 193, 489
horses. See also warhorses
feeding of, 501
used in warfare, 135
Howard, Michael, 740
Howe, Timothy, 133
How to Survive under Siege (Aeneas Tacticus), 66–67, 137, 441
on emotions, 451–52
on human factor, 449
on mercenaries, 335
“H. S. Mauberley (Life and Contacts)” (Pound), 729
Huns, 591, 596
appearance of, 597
raid into Sasanian territory (395), 609
in Roman army, 720
in Sasanian army, 606, 607
hunting as form of warfare, 129
Hyccara, capture of city by Athenians, 629
Hydaspes, Battle of the (326 B.C.), 500, 513–14
Hynes, Samuel, 732
hypaspistai, 163
hypaspistai basilikoi, 164
hypaspists, 163–64, 169f, 187
adorning their armor with silver, 166
as military policemen, 319
hyperetai, 479
Hyphasis mutiny, 166, 318, 514
Iazyges, 248, 595. See also Sarmatians
payment of cavalrymen and mounts to Rome, 496, 515
Iceni, 241
Idavisto, Battle of, 240
identity, civic, in Latin League, 31
identity, concept of, 685
and homeland, 679
identity, Greek, 572, 572n4
breakdown of, 582–83
and development of Greek/barbarian dichotomy, 575
repulse of Xerxes and development of, 575
ideology, military
in Roman society, 74
If I die in a combat zone, box me up and ship me home (O’Brien), 733
ile, 189
Ilerda, Battle of (49 B.C.), 230
Iliad (Homer), 728
Achilles’s battle against the river Scamander, 128–29
on armor
on lack of effectiveness, 412, 413
on linen corselet, 407
army organization and methods in, 458
defining medical treatment, 301
differences between elite and commoners, 574
on Greek vows before combat, 528
influence, 60
on Catch-22, 732
interpersonal conflict in, 535–36
justification of war in, 536
on military discipline, 313
nature of Homeric warfare, 573n8
Shay on, 280
similitude of Greeks and Trojans in, 573, 573n7
on wounds, 296–97, 300, 413
Ilipa, Battle of (206 B.C.), 226, 691
Carthaginian leaders at, 703
elephants at, 697
Scipio Africanus at, 229, 233, 700
imago, Augustus’s use of in military context, 470–71
Imbros, 682
Inchtuthil, 103f, 104, 105f, 106, 518
In Command of History (Reynolds), 59
Indica (Arrian), 360, 506
infamia (disgrace), 258
infantry. See also heavy infantry; light infantry
Greek, 18–19 (See also hoplites; phalangites)
separation of light infantry from phalanx, 22
Hellenistic, 182–88
Persian armies and, 713
Roman, 24 (See also legions)
Sasanian, 607
infra classem (service as light infantry), 219
infrastructure supporting war, 91
bridges, 238, 239
Roman roads, 42, 237
inner war, Greek preoccupation with, 56 (p. 761)
innovations
in design of pilum, 186
by Dionysius of Syracuse, 205
in infantry tactics, 186
military needs and, 445
during Peloponnesian Wars, 460–61
in siege warfare, 446
Instructions (Frederick the Great), 737, 738
insurrections against Sasanian kings, 610–11
Ionian Revolt, 152
Ionian War, 645, 651
Iphicrates, 150, 202, 334
extreme discipline by, 316–17
mercenary service, 335
peltasts, 461
reforms, 407
swords, 411
and pelte shield, 400
use of large-force reconnaissance, 476
Ipsus, Battle of (301 B.C.), 185
Athenian mercenaries in, 343
elephants at, 191
Macedonian cavalry at, 188
scale of, 676
Isaeus, speeches of, 54
Isaura Vetus inscription on evocatio, 549
Isidore of Seville, 431
Isocrates, 17, 335, 586
Issus, Battle of (333 B.C.), 164, 513, 586
Italians
defection of states to Hannibal, 701
and Hannibal’s invasion, 691, 695
as mercenaries in Sicily, 338–39
as Roman allies, 341
and Roman cavalry, 514
ius-iurandum, 321
Jacoby, F., 532
Jakuszowice, 598
Jamasp (Sasanian king), 612
Jameson, Michael, 529
Janowitz, Morris, 538, 539
Jarhead (Swofford), 735
javelin men, 190
javelins, 190, 409. See also pilum (pila)
of psiloi, 150
Roman, 221, 223
thrown by riders, 521
Jerusalem, siege of, 251, 255
Jewish Antiquities (Josephus), 190
Jewish revolt, 263
John the Baptist on Roman soldiers, 267
John the Lydian, 543
Josephus
on fear and discipline in Roman army, 326
on helmets, 432, 435
on imperial legionary, 430
on maniples, 227n11
on prodromoi, 190
on Roman cavalry, 435
on Roman unit cohesion, 244
on Roman way of war, 285
on siege of Jotapata, 253
on sword, 433
on Vespasian’s march into Galilee, 230, 236
Joshua the Stylite. See Pseudo-Joshua the Stylite
Jotapata, siege of, 252–53
Jovian (Roman Emperor), 717
Jugurtha, 81–82, 229
Jugurtha of Numidia, 343
Jugurthine War, The (Sallust), 81
Julian (Roman emperor)
campaign into Sasanian Babylonia, 610
cavalry in vanguard, 478
death, 35–36
Persian expedition in 363, 711
ravaging Sasanian lands, 609
in Roman-Persian warfare, 717
victory over Alamanni at Strasbourg, 594
Junius Blaesius, Quintus, 247
justification of war, 535–37
freedom for Greeks, 678, 685
propaganda, 678, 685
Justin, 166, 176
Justinian (Roman Emperor), 138, 718
Justin II (Roman Emperor), 718
Justus, C. Trebius, 269
Juvenal, 267
Kagan, Donald, 131
Kalkriese. See Teutoburg forest
Kallet-Marx, Lisa, 539
Kasr al-Harit (Egypt) shield, 321
katapaltaphetai, 446
kataphraktoi, 189, 191
Parthians and, 602
Sasanian, 603
kataskopoi, 475, 478, 479
espionage by, 487
Kautilya, 517
Kavad (Sasanian king), 606, 608
father’s hostage to the Hephthalites, 613
reforms by, 613
siege of Amida in 502/503, 718, 721
Keegan, John, 279, 280, 457
Kegelhelm, 401
Kent, J. H., 483
Khuzestan developed by Sasanians, 611
Kimmig, Wolfgang, 321
kingship, Hellenistic, 682–83, 684
Knights (Aristophanes), 281
koine eirene (common peace), 536
Kolax (Menander), 53
kontos (contus), 434, 435
kopis, 149, 168, 411
Koptos Tariff inscription, 269
Krasilnikoff, Jens, 202
Krentz, Peter, 412, 532 (p. 762)
Kromayer, J., 279, 739
Kuhnen, H.-P., 594
Kusro I (Sasanian king), 608
conflict against the Roman Empire, 614
invasion of Syria in 540, 718
peace settlement with Rome in 532, 718
reforms by, 613
revolt of Bet Lafat under, 610
Kusro II (Sasanian king), 608
defeat of Bahram’s rebellion, 615
invasion of Roman Empire, 614, 718
patronage of Christian shrines and institutions, 614
Romans and, 718
Labienus, 234
Labisch, A., 354
Laches (Plato), 55–56, 734
Lade, Battle of (494 B.C.), 374, 378
Laelius, 697
Lakhmids in Sasanian army, 607
Lamachus, 624, 627, 631
Lambaesis, 518, 519
Lamian War, 170, 171
Lanassa, 678
Laodicea, 264
Lapis Satricanus, 218
Latin League, 30–31, 32
Lattimore, Richmond, 727, 731
law codes, military
appearance of first Greek, 319
Roman, 327
Laws (Plato), 57
Lazenby, J. F., 740
leadership
of Marius, 469–70
Roman authors on, 320
Xenophon on, 64
leadership in Roman imperial army, 35
Lechaeum, Battle of (391 B.C.), 156, 334
Lee, A. D., 487, 608
legions, 31–32. See also army, Roman
division in ten tactical units, 230
imperial, 236
number of, 223, 231, 231n13
reform under Gaius Marius, 34
soldiers’ loyalty to, 326
tactical arrangement, 220f
of veteran soldiers, 234
Lelantine War, 10
Lendon, J. E., 489
Leonidas, 288, 580
Leonymus, 413
Leucas, 626
Leuctra, Battle of (371 B.C.), 657–70
citizen losses of Lacedaemonians, 213
fate of survivors of, 315
map of battlefield, 663f
sources on, 657–58
Lewis, David, 55, 536
Library of History (Diodorus Siculus), 672
Liburnians, 391
in classis Britannica, 387
Tacitus on, 390
Libyans in Carthaginian army, 340, 705
Licinius (Roman Emperor), 391
Liddell Hart, B. H., 738–39
Life of Demetrius (Plutarch), 673
Life of Eumenes (Plutarch), 162
Life of Pyrrhus (Plutarch), 223
light cavalry, 190
and reconnaissance, 476, 479
social position, 489
light infantry. See also psiloi; velites
Greek, 150
organization, 146
separated from hoplites in Athens, 152
Hellenistic, 190
as oarsmen on warships, 369, 387
peltasts and, 334
Roman, 221–22, 227
thureophoros, 186
use against Hellenistic phalanxes, 185
limes (Roman frontier), 483–87
Lindeman, G., 289
linen used in body armor, 406, 407
literature, impact of classical warfare on, 727–36
Lives of the Philosophers (Diogenes Laertius), 58
Livius (Roman general), 703
Livius Andronicus, 223
Livy, 75, 82–85
on Aetolian mercenaries, 338
anachronisms in, 228
on arms and armor, 419
on identical equipment of Romans and Latins, 225
on use of pila, 427
on use of shields at Battle of Zama, 422
on battlefield trauma, 279
on Battle of Cannae, 287
on Battle of Side, 379
on cohorts, 228, 229
on debate about dedication of spolia opima by Cossus, 558
description of manipular army, 221n9
on drilling of recruits, 222
on evocatio, 549
on fetials, 560, 561, 562
on maniples, 229
on military reform of Servius Tullius, 219
mistake based on word thyreos, 423
Polybius as source for, 739
on religion, 542, 546
on Roman assault on Gytheum, 384
on Roman battle line at Magnesia, 224
on Roman reaction to mercenaries, 340
on Second Punic War, 339, 689, 698
on senatorial debates on triumphs, 553 (p. 763)
on structure of a magistrate’s year, 545
on treatment of the wounded in Roman army, 307
on triumphs, 554
on victims of defeat at Lake Trasimene, 282
writing included in Men at War, 731, 732
lochos (lochoi), 145–46, 184
Lock, Robert, 165
Locri, 691, 700
logades, 20
logistics, 206–8, 351–68
of Alexander, 464, 502
Greek armies, 206–7
Hellenistic armies, 207
Macedonian army, 207
and military intelligence, 354–58
Roman, 42
in Imperial era, 272–73
in Republican period, 232
studies of, 352–54
of Xerxes’s invasion of Greece, 352
Longthorpe, England, 106
Longus, Ti. Sempronius, 694
long walls
in Athens, 380
Sasanian, 611
long wars
of Imperial Rome, 246–51
sieges as alternative to, 251
Loomis, W. T., 344
lorica hamata, 431
lorica segmentata, 430–31
lorica squamata, 432
louage, system of, 342
loyalty, concept of, 685
for Diadochs and their troops, 680
loyalty, personal
Agesilaus and, 461
importance of, 462
during Roman Republic, 470
Successor kings and, 465
of troops to Hannibal, 698
Lucanians, 110, 691
Lucilius Capito, 269–70
Lucius Verus (Roman Emperor), 250–51
Lucullus, L. Licinius, 549, 555
Lusius Quietus, 341, 343
Lycians, 147, 149
Lycurgus of Athens, 54
Lycurgus of Sparta, 415, 461
Lydians, 574, 575
hoplite equipment of, 147
as other, 574
Lygdamis, 341
Lyncestians as hoplites, 147
Lysander
at Battle of Aegospotami, 289, 462
Gylippus under, 640
Lysias, speeches of, 54
Lysimachus, 676, 680
Lysistrata (Aristophanes), 53, 585–86
MacArthur, Douglas, 734
Macedon
advantages of kings over Greek generals, 317–18
as ally of Carthage in Second Punic War, 701
Macedonian society, 180
Macedonian War, First (214–205 B.C.), 384
machaira, 149, 150, 411, 434
machairophoroi, 208
Machiavelli, Niccolò, 328, 737
MacNiece, Louis, 731
Macrinus, 251
Macrobius
on devotio, 550
on evocatio, 549
Maecenas, 282
Magister Equitum, 516
Magister Peditum, 516
magistrates
prerogative of taking the auspices, 548
vow of departing, 546
Magnesia, Battle of (190 B.C.), 185
camels at, 192
loss of Macedonian lives at, 214
Roman forces at, 225–26
use of war chariots at, 192
Mago, 691, 692, 696, 702, 703
Maharbal, 696, 703
Maiden Castle (Britain)
excavations at, 286
remains from, 287f
Vespasian at, 252n9
Mainz, Roman military base in, 590
Maishan developed by Sasanians, 611
Malalas, John, 720
Malene, Battle of (494 B.C.), 155
Mamertinus, M. Petronius, 266
Mancinus, 561
maniples, 220
deployment of, 226–28, 467
formation of
flexibility of, 467
Samnite Wars and development of, 222–23
replacement by cohorts, 228
Mantinea, battles of, 158
Mantinea, First Battle of (418 B.C.), 208, 284
Argives in, 20
Athenian cavalry at, 476
Mantinea, Second Battle of (362 B.C.), 585, 661
Epaminondas fatally wounded at, 298
trials for cowardice after, 316
Mantineans
army of, 146
in Sicilian Expedition, 624 (p. 764)
Marathon, Battle of (490 B.C.), 158, 284, 570
Athenian army in, 20
burial of Spartan dead, 532
commemoration of, 533
festival of Carneia and, 534
Greek rituals before and after, 527
phalanxes at, 152
pre-battle behavior, 530
sculpture on, 583f, 584f
sights of, 290
violence during, 285
Marcellus, M. Claudius
dedication of spolia opima by, 557
ovation after capture of Syracuse, 553
Plutarch on, 689
siege of Syracuse, 444
tactics against Hannibal, 698
Marcomannic Wars (A.D. 166–180), 594–95
Marcomanni tribe, 263, 515, 591
Marcus Antonius
and Battle of Actium, 386
Velleius Paterculus on, 78
Marcus Aurelius (Roman Emperor)
Column of, 387
donative on accession, 262
and long wars, 248
plague during reign of, 138
ritual of initiation of war, 561
threat from the Marcomanni and Quadi tribes, 263
Marcus Caelius, tombstone of, 237f
Mardonius (Persian general), 8
breeding of horses, 494
Pausanias respecting body of, 288
at Plataea, 286, 581, 582
Marinovic, Ludmilla, 342
Marius, Gaius, 39f, 229, 285, 469
amount carried by soldiers, 356
army reform, 39
disappearance of velites, 231
consulships of, 34, 38–39
influence on Roman generalship, 469
innovation in design of the pilum, 427
rise of, 38
Sallust on, 82
and surgery, 304
“Marius’s Mules,” 39, 356
Markle, M. M., 410
marriage
politically motivated, 677–78
of Roman soldiers, 267
Mars, Roman festivals of, 543
Marshall, S. L. A., 538, 539
martial dress, Roman, 118
evolution of, 119–21, 121f
martial identity, Roman, 117–18
Masada, siege of, 251
masculinity and siege warfare narrative, 450–51
Masinissa of Numidia, 697, 700
Massalia, battle of, 130
Mauretania, Romans in, 247
Maurice (Roman Emperor). See also Strategikon (Maurice)
campaign into Sasanian Babylonia, 609, 610
Kusro II and, 718
Maurice, F., 352
Maurice of Saxe, 737, 738
mausoleum of Munatius Plancus, 423
Mayor, Adrienne, 137
meanings of war, Hellenistic, 681–84
medical instruments, 302f
found in valetudinaria, 309
Medical Questions (Rufus of Ephesus), 295–96
medical services, 305f
medical writing
as source on treatment of wounds, 294–96
on wound remedies, 303
Megara, 50–51, 682
Megarians in Sicilian Expedition, 624
Megellus, L. Postumius, 552
Meiggs, R., 55, 352
Melos, Athenian siege of (415 B.C.), 440, 645, 650
massacre of the Melians, 651
Memnon, 342, 343
Memorabilia (“Reminiscences of Socrate”) (Xenophon), 65
on military leadership, 462
Men against Fire (Marshall), 538
Menander
on bodies left on the battlefield at Delium, 290
comedies of, 53
during Sicilian Expedition, 633–34
Men at War (Hemingway), 731–32
Mende, siege of, 647
Mentor, 342, 343
mercenaries, 15, 330–50, 446
Aeneas Tacticus on, 66
army morale and use of, 461–62
Celts, 338
Greek, 203–6
at Battle of Cunaxa, 333
in Cyrus the Younger’s army, 571, 571n3
decline among urban Greeks, 338
fighting against other Greeks, 348
getting home, 292
in Near Eastern states, 11
payments in Archaic period, 204
in service to Assyrian and Babylonian kings, 330
in Successor’s Wars, 336
used by Dionysius of Syracuse, 205
in Hellenistic armies, 179, 181, 336–38
growing percentage, 195
retained regiments versus allied contingents, 206
in Hellenistic navies, 195
hiring of, 341–43
loyalty of, 348–49 (p. 765)
in mainland Greece, 334–35
punishment and, 316
remuneration of, 344–48
in Roman army, 340–41
placement in imperial marching column, 237
in Sicilian Expedition, 624
in Successor armies, 331
ubiquity in fourth century, 335–36
used by tyrants, 204
in the West, 338–40
Merton, Robert, 537
Messana, capitulation of (426), 645
Messer, W., 322
metal
used for spearheads, 409–10
used in body armor, 406
Metapontum, 691
Metaurus, Battle of the (207 B.C.), 703
Metellus, Lucius Caecilius, 135
Metellus, Quintus Caecilius
campaign against Jugurtha, 231, 469
Sallust on, 82, 229, 229n12
Methone, 646
Methymna siege by Mytilene, 647
metics in Athenian army, 145
Metz, K. S., 114
Middleton, Paul, 273
Miles gloriosus (Plautus), 451
Miletus, 145, 645
military bases
archaeology of, 106–8
Roman
communities around, 273–74
dating of archaeological sites, 104
growing food at, 272
storage and protection of supplies, 366–67
military courts, 319
military ethos
Macedonian, 180
Roman, 466–67
military intelligence, 474–92
Alexander and, 464
Caesar on acquisition of, 76, 357
collection of supplies and, 357
speculatores and, 485–86
weakness of Athenian intelligence during Sicilian Expedition, 626
military manuals
of Cato, 216–17
in Imperial Rome, 471
of Roman Empire, 217
on siege warfare, 446
military service, Greek, 199–200
military treasury, Roman, 34. See also aerarium militare
military tribunes, 225
Miller, Frank, 735
Miller, H. F., 344
Miller, William, 283
Millett, Paul, 737
Miltiades, 5
Mimnermus of Smyrna, 49, 51, 575
mines and quarries, Roman soldiers working in, 271–72
Minucius Rufus, Marcus, 383, 697
Minucius Thermus, Quintus, 222
missile, extraction or excision of, 301
misthophoros, as word for mercenaries, 331
misthos, 202, 345
Mithridates Euergetes, 343
Mithridates VI of Pontus
adoption of kataphraktoi, 189
army of, 187
use of war chariots, 192
Mnesimachus, 53
mobility of phalanxes, 182–83, 396
monetary fines, 326
monetization of warfare, 332
Mons Graupius, Battle of (A.D. 83), 242–43, 390
Mons Prophyrites, Egypt, 108
monuments built from triumphing commanders’ spoils, 555
moon
effect of lunar eclipse on Athenians at Syracuse, 637
phases of and battle, 529, 533
Moore, H. G., 734
morale issues, 256
mortuary studies, 158–59
Mossynoecians, 145
motivation in war
study of, 258–59
Tacitus on, 86–87
Motya, siege of (397), 157
Munda, Battle of
Caesar’s Tenth at, 234
mutilation of the dead at, 289
Mus, P. Decius, 550
muscle cuirass, 405–6
mutilation of the dead, 288–89
mutiny
Hyphasis mutiny, 166, 318, 514
in Roman Republican army, 324
Mycale, Battle of (479 B.C.), 155
Mytilene, sieges of, 645, 646
Nabis (tyrant of Sparta), 384
Naevius, 557
naming and ritualized relationships, 342
Napoleon, 737–38
Naqsh-i-Rustam
Shapur I (Sasanian king) inscription at, 711, 714n8, 717
victory monument of Shapur, 710, 710f
naval warfare, 157, 369–94. See also warships
advisors on, 194
logistics and, 353 (p. 766)
navies, Hellenistic, 180, 194–96, 376–77
financing, 382
navies, infrastructure and costs, 379–82
navy, Athenian, 145, 624
naval expeditions without funding, 202
treaties on wood for shipbuilding, 134
of triremes, 17
two-level galleys, 372
navy, Carthaginian, 695
in Second Punic War, 704
navy, Roman, 382–91
bases, 42
created by Augustus, 386–87
lustration of, 547
rowers in, 219, 387–88
Naxos, 628
neaniskoi, 208
Nearchus the Cretan, 360–61
Nemea River, Battle of the (394 B.C.), 665
Nepos, 658
Nepos, Cornelius, 689
Nereid Monument (Xanthus), 439, 439f
Nero (Roman emperor), 41
closure of the shrine of Janus, 545
Paulinus and, 242
Nero, Claudius, 698, 700, 703
New Carthage, capture by Scipio Africanus, 700
Newstead excavations, 496, 518
Nicias, 7, 452
request for help from Athens during Sicilian Expedition, 633–34
against Sicilian Expedition, 624
during Sicilian Expedition, 627, 637, 639
Nicias, Peace of, 623, 634
Niederbieber helmet, 435
Nisibis, 715, 717, 718, 721
nobility. See aristocracy
North, J., 543
Notitia Dignitum, 716
Numantia, Spain, 108, 428
Numidia, 340, 341, 354
Nutton, V., 308–9
oaths
of departing Roman magistrates, 546–47
Roman military, 321–22, 472
O’Brien, Tim, 283, 733–34, 736
Octavian. See also Augustus
and Battle of Actium, 386
ovation for defeat of Sex. Pompeius, 554
ritual initiation of war against Cleopatra, 561
in sea battles, 385
Velleius Paterculus on, 78
Odenathus (ruler of Palmyra), 717
Odysseus, 313–14
Odyssey (Homer)
contrast between Other and humans, 573n6
influence of, 60
on military discipline, 313
Siren song, 729
Oeconomicus (“The Estate Manager”) (Xenophon), 65
Oenoe, Spartan siege of, 648n5
Oldfather, W. A., 67
Old Oligarch, 376
Olympia
armor discovered at, 396, 408
spearheads found at, 409–10
swords found at, 410–11
Olympic Games as Greek preparation for battle, 284
Olynthiacs (Demosthenes), 54
Onasander, 471
On Horsemanship (Xenophon), 284
On Hunting (Xenophon), 284
On Materia Medica (Pedanius Dioscorides), 295
On Medicine (Celsus)
Onomarchus, 210
On the Estate of Menecles, 335
On the Navy Boards (Demosthenes), 54
On The Peace (Isocrates), 335
opponents, Roman, 243
Opsônion, 345
oracles, 528
and Theban army at Leuctra, 659
Orchomenus, siege of, 645
organization, military
in Achaemenid Persia, 147
archaeology of war and, 106–8
fortifications as information about, 106
Greek armies, 145–46
Hellenistic cavalry, 189–90
Iliad on, 458
in Persian empire, 147
Roman
antiquarian writing on, 216
archaeology and, 106–8
Sasanian, 607–8
of tribal armies, 145
Oribasius, 296
ornamenta triumphalia, 556
ostracon/ostraca, 268–69
Other, the
development of in archaic era poetry, 574–75
Herodotus on, 579
Otho (Roman Emperor), 244, 263
Othryoneus, 414
ovations, 553
overland transportation
limitations of, 354–56
use in invasions of Germania, 364
Ovid, 74
Owen, Wilfred, 52, 728, 729, 733, 736
pack animals, 135
mules in Vespasian army, 236 (p. 767)
Paetus, L. Caesennius
on the Armenian front, 250
Tacitus on, 258
Pagondas, 664, 669
paian (paean), 530, 577
Paktolos River, battle at the (395 B.C.), 666–67
Palmyra
camel corps of, 136
Roman base in, 106, 108
Pamphylians, hoplite equipment of, 147
pandemics, 138
Panegyricus (Isocrates), 335
pan-Hellenic unity
alliances, 10
vision of, 586
panoply of Greek hoplite, 18, 395, 396
cost of, 199–200
Pantites, 315
Parade of Daphnae (166), 214
Paraetacene, Battle of (317 B.C.), 24, 162, 180
Demetrius as cavalry commander at, 674
scale of, 674–75
victory of Eumenes, 187
Park, Robert, 537
Parke, H. W., 331, 344
Parmenio, 463
Parthian frontier, 248–49
Parthians
armies of, 602
Arsacid regime overthrown by Sasanians, 708
cavalry of, 513
armored, 189
horse archers, 193
influence on Roman equipment, 120
and siege warfare, 714
Tacitus on, 86
threat to Roman empire, 40
“Parthian shot,” 609
Patermuthis, 269
Paternus, P. Taruttienus, 327
patronage and Roman army, 37–38
patterns of warfare, 7–12
Paulinus, Suetonius, 241, 242, 244
Paullus, L. Aemilius (229?–160 B.C.), 323.185
at Pydna, 233
representation of equipment on monument of, 221n8
Servius Galba and, 468
during Third Macedonian War, 469
victory monument at Delphi, 422
Paullus, L. Aemilius (d. 216 B.C.), 225, 697
Paul of Aegina, 296, 300, 301
Pausanias
on Battle of Leuctra, 658
on muscle cuirass, 428
treatment of body of Mardonius, 288
Pax Romana, 129, 264
pectorale, 427–28
Peddie, J., 354
Peithon, 174
Peithon son of Crateuas, 173
Pelagonius
on cures for horses, 503
on endemic illnesses of horses, 504
on ideal warhorse, 497, 499
Pelopidas
at battle of Tegyra, 660, 665–66
commander of Sacred Band, 659
at Leuctra, 661
Peloponnese and mercenaries, 204, 342
Peloponnesian League, 10
help from Syracuse, 640
Spartan leadership of, 459
Syracuse and, 626
Peloponnesian War, Second (431–404 B.C.), 461
cavalry in, 22
inability to break into fortified places during, 193
Peloponnesian Wars
Athenian costs of naval warfare in, 382
Athens and plague during, 138
booty taken by Boeotians, 209
cavalry in, 157, 512
combined arms warfare during, 156
development of disciplinary systems, 316
environmental warfare during, 131
Gorgias on, 281
military innovations during, 460–61
psiloi during, 150
ship-to-ship combat during, 377
sieges during, 438, 653–55
list, 654–55
peltasts, 149–50, 153, 190
mercenaries, 334
Thracians, 338
poorer Athenian citizens as, 200
social position, 489
pentakosiarchia, 184
Pentecontaetia, sieges during, 644, 653
Perdiccas, 171, 172
“performance culture” of Athens, 48
Pergamum
inscription on contractual relationship between mercenaries and commanders, 347
as Roman maritime ally, 384
Pericles, 36, 138
and citizenship, 212
and siege of Athens, 442
use of battering rams, 650
Peri hippikes (“On Horsemanship”) (Xenophon), 64, 135
Perikeiromene (Menander), 53
perioikoi, 19, 19n3, 145
peripoloi (patrollers), 200
Peroz (Sasanian king), 612, 719
Persae (Aeschylus), 576–78
on Greek-Persian dichotomy, 570
Persepolis Fortification Tablets, 501 (p. 768)
Perseus of Macedon, 185
at Pydna, 225
training of horses, 500
Persia. See also Sasanian Persia
fleets of, 374
triremes, 374
Greek peace treaties with, 536–37
horses from, 493, 501, 513
imperialism as catalyst in warship development, 373
as power broker in Greece after Peloponnesian War, 585
role in Greek affairs, 332
Persian army
Achaemenid art on, 155
Aeschylus on, 578
battles against Greeks, 155
cavalry formation, 153
Herodotus on, 581
medium infantry, 149
siege techniques, 642
Persian Empire
army organization, 147
cavalry of, 150–51
infantry formation, 152–53
and power of money, 15
use of elephants in battle, 136
war chariots, 151
Persian invasion (480–479 B.C.), 10
estimates of size of, 352
Persians, stereotype of, 570, 574
Persians, The (Aeschylus), 52, 731
Persian warfare, 8–9
Persian Wars (499–479 B.C.)
Greek success in, 570
hoplites in, 20
victories of Greek hoplites in, 152
Pescennius Niger, 264
pezhetairoi, 163
phalangites, 21–22
phalanxes, 20f, 152
cavalry as protection of wings of, 188
deep deployment of, 664–66
development of, 396
in Hellenistic army, 180, 182
decline in training of, 182
as highly organized component, 184
limitations and weaknesses, 185, 186
subdivisions, 183–84
tactics used against, 185
Homeric heroic values and, 314–15
initial use of, 458
Macedonian, 396
mechanics of battle between, 153–54
organization in battle, 19–21
at Plataea, 152
Polybius on effectiveness of, 412
studies of, 740
and use of sarissa, 24, 182–83
phalgarchia, 184
Pharnabazus (Satrap of Phrygia)
admired by Xenophon, 586
and Spartan access to timber, 134
war chariots of, 151
Pharsalus, Battle of (48 B.C.), 221
Appian on, 243–44
Caesar at, 230, 233
Caesar on, 227, 470
number of men in cohorts at, 230
Pompey at, 227, 233
Phaselis, siege by Cimon, 647
Phasians, 145
Phayallus, 210
Phila, 677–78
Philetaerus of Pergamon, 201
Philip (Mnesimachus), 53
Philip III Arrhidaeus, 170
Philip II of Macedon, 13
Argyraspids and, 172
arms in tomb of, 123
army of
amount carried by soldiers, 356
creation of phalanx, 396
reforms, 23, 182, 317, 463
use of cavalry, 512
Demosthenes on way of fighting of, 46
as general, 463–64
Isocrates and, 586
pezhetairoi of, 163
political marriages, 677
resources of, 16
siege warfare, 193
siege engines, 675
technical innovation, 446
wounds of, 287
eye wound, 298
Philip V of Macedon, 185, 195
awareness of demographic base, 214
edict on booty, 209–10
light infantry and cavalry leading army of, 477
military law code, 319
Rome and, 384
Roman treaty of 215, 689
siege of Abydos, 438
treaty with Hannibal in 215, 694
Philippics (Demosthenes), 54
Philippus, Q. Marcius, 467
Phillips, G., 322
philoi, 330
Philon of Byzantium
advice concerning besiegers, 451
on catapult, 194
on hiring doctors when preparing for a siege, 305–6, 448
and psychology of the besieged, 452
on sieges, 441, 443
on storage of food for besieged cities, 448
treatises on engineering, 447
(p. 769)
Philopoemen, 343, 465
Philotas, 171, 173, 318
Philotas the Augaean, 167
Phleious, siege of (369 B.C.), 440
Phobos (deity of Panic Fear), 534–35
Phocaea, siege of, 645
Phocas, 718, 719
Phocion, 529
Phocylides, 575
Phoenicia, navy of, 17
Phoenicides, 337
phrourarkhos, 482
Phrynichus, 52
phylarch, 479
piaculum (expiation), 258
pilum (pila)
effect on depth of the maniple, 227
of Imperial era, 433
remains of, 221n8
in Roman Republic, 425–27
surviving examples of, 425
use by maniples, 228
use in Roman legion, 221
Pindar, 51
Piraeus, naval infrastructure at, 379–80
Pisidians, 170
Pisistratids
combined arms warfare, 155–56
mercenaries of, 332
Pisistratus, 15, 157–58
supported by Lygdamis, 341
Placidus, 252
plagues
brought back from Ctesiphon, 251
spread to the enemy, 138
plaision, 156
Plataea, Battle of (479 B.C.), 155, 570
archers in, 150
Athenian combined arms warfare at, 156
cavalry at, 157
Herodotus on, 571, 580–82
number of Lacedaemonians, 212
Persians, 412, 571
phalanxes at, 152
remains from, 290
shortage of Greek supplies at, 353
Spartans at, 529
burial of dead, 532
spoils in Persian horses from, 494
violence during, 285–86
Plataea, remaining walls of, 649f
Plataea, Spartan siege of (429–427 B.C.), 647–51
fate of defeated, 651
inventiveness during, 444
Plato
on acts of courage, 283
on Eastern ruler, 570
on inner war, 56
on internalized conflict, 57
on military training, 55–56
on war, 5
Plautius, Aulus, 242
Plautus
comedies of, 88
Miles gloriosus, 451
on Roman demand for satisfaction, 562
Pliny the Elder
on Archagathus, 307
on Arsacid Great King, 603
on medicinal qualities of substances, 303
as prefect of the Misenum fleet, 389
on throwing missiles from horseback, 434–35
on triumphs, 554
Pliny the Younger
on Pliny the Elder, 389
on role of soldiers, 270, 271
plunder
mercenaries and, 345
Roman allies paid with, 348
of sanctuaries by Dionysius of Syracuse, 210
Plutammon, 516
Plutarch
on Agesilaus’s austerity, 461
on Antigonus and Demetrius promoting freedom for Greeks, 678
on Apophthegmata Lakonika, 50
on Archilochus of Paros, 50
on Archimedes and siege of Syracuse, 444
on arms and armor
on iron cuirass, 405
on pilum, 427
on shields, 413
on Athenian triremes, 374
on battle of Ipsus, 676
on Battle of Lechaeum, 334
on Battle of Leuctra, 658
on betrayal of Eumenes, 175
on Caesar, 737
on Demetrius Poliorcetes, 673
on Eumenes, 162
on Gedrosian disaster of Alexander, 358
on hemithorakia, 407
on murder of Eumenes, 176
on Phocion at Battle of Tamynae, 529
on population of Sicilian cities, 205
on Roman fighting at Asculum, 223
on Solon, 50–51
as source for Second Punic War, 689
on Spartans and fear, 534
on tithing of booty, 531–32
on treatment of wounds, 297
on war in Boeotia, 657
poets, Roman, on war, 88
police force, hypaspists as, 165
policing the battlefield, 290–91
political class and military class, correlation of, 36
political inclusion, path to in Rome, 31
Politics (Aristotle), 58, 59
politics, Hellenistic war and, 681–82
Pollux
on Attic cuirass, 406
on corselets, 407
on hemithorakia, 407
on Laconian dagger, 412
on machaira, 412
Polyaenus, 471
on Battle of Leuctra, 658
on hemithorakia, 407
on spies, 487
on tactic used against Hellenistic phalanx, 185
Polybius, 48
on Archimedes “iron hand,” 194
on arms and armor
on Gaullish swords, 111
on pilum, 425–26
Roman armor, 419, 427, 428
Roman helmets, 429
Roman panoply, 421
on shields, 423
Spanish sword, 123
spearheads, 410
on Battle of Asculum, 225
on battle of Chios, 195
on Battle of Cynoscephelae, 185, 477
on Battle of Leuctra, 658
on Carthaginian army
mercenaries in, 339, 340
raids by, 383
on cavalry, 190
on generalship, 465
on growth of sophistication and wealth among Greeks, 337
on Hannibal, 696
on Hellenistic armies, 190
phalanx, 183
as hostage in Rome after Pydna, 514
influence on Livy, 83, 739
information about Rome during the Republic, 216
on light infantry, 221–22
on logistics, 42
on people’s consent for war, 546
on Po valley Gauls, 110
on Prusias II of Bithynia, 451
on Ptolemaic forces, 346
on Roman army, 285
age of troops, 223
allied forces in, 224
cohorts, 229
fustuarium for sleeping on guard duty, 320
manipular formation, 221
payment of allies, 348
on Roman hegemony, 30
on Roman military traditions, 468
on Roman readiness to adapt, 120
on Roman treaty ceremonies, 560
on sacrifice before battle, 529
on sarissa phalanx, 24
on Second Punic War, 688–89, 701, 702
on siege of Abydos by Philip V, 448–49, 452–53
on triumphs of victorious commanders, 551
on trophies, 530
Polyclitus, 379
Polycrates of Samos, 372–73
Polyperchon, 172, 173, 377
Pompey the Great
at Battle of Pharsalus, 227, 230
building erected by, 555
combining Roman and Hellenistic traditions, 470
fleet of, 385
triumphs of, 553
Poroi (“Ways and Means”) (Xenophon), 64
Porus, King of the Pauravas, 500, 513
post-traumatic stress disorders. See battlefield trauma
Potidaea
Battle of (432 B.C.), 156, 666
siege of (430/429 B.C.), 651, 652, 652n8
pottery
German, 590, 592, 596
Greek
illustrations of prisoners, 289
representations of violence on, 20
warships on, 370, 371f, 372
Slav, 597
vase paintings on corselets, 407
Pound, Ezra, 728, 729–30, 733
practices of war, Demetrius Poliorcetes and, 673–81
Praetorian Guard, 265
praetors, 545
Price, S., 543
principes, 220
age of, 223
replacing hastati, 228
prisoners, 289–90
possible medical treatment of, 310
Roman taken by Sasanians, 609
as sacrificial victims, 289
Sasanians settled in agricultural regions, 611
as source of intelligence, 488
Pritchett, W. K., 279, 529, 530
burial of dead, 532
Greek State at War, The, 527–28
on Roman military discipline, 321
on trophies, 530–31
on war and festivals, 533, 534
“Private Speeches” in Athens, 54
proconsular armies, Roman, 32 (p. 771)
Procopius
on battle of Callinicum, 720
on Justinian’s spies, 487
on Roman-Persian warfare, 711
details on pitched battles, 719
on Sasanian army, 606
prodromoi, 190, 476, 479
professionalization of armies
in Hellenistic armies, 331, 337
Roman, 472
under Augustus, 34, 324, 325, 341
Imperial era, 262, 264–65
in late Republic, 234
profit, as justification for war, 536
propaganda justifying war, 678, 685
property and military obligations in Rome, 37
provisioning. See also rations of soldiers; supplies, Roman; supplies of armies
of Roman army
and hunting, 129
in Imperial era, 272
of Xerxes’s army, 352
Prusias II of Bithynia, 450–51
Prusias of Bithynia, 378
Pseudo-Hyginus, 217
on duties of legions, 268
on exploratores, 480
Pseudo-Joshua the Stylite
on Roman-Persian warfare, 711, 719, 721
on Sasanian army, 606
Pseudo-Oppina, 496
psiloi, 150
psychology of war
Caesar and, 75–76
elephants as psychological weapon, 192
Livy on, 83
Philon of Byzantium on besieged, 452
Tacitus on, 86–87
Vegetius on, 80
warhorses, 499–500
Ptolemies
adoption of Roman army system, 187
importance of queens, 678, 685
mercenaries and, 346
Greek mercenaries, 338
use of elephants, 191
warships of, 375
Ptolemy I Soter, 378, 682
protection of soldiers’ families, 347
Ptolemy II Philadelphus
Ctesibius of Alexandria and, 446
as good paymaster, 346
Ptolemy IV Philopater
at Raphia, 181
use of elephants in battle of Raphia, 136
Ptolemy of Mauretania, King, 247
Ptolemy son of Lagus, 171
Punica (Silius Italicus), 689
Punic War, First (264–241 B.C.), 30
losses in, 32–33
necessity for Rome to build up fleet, 383
revolt of Carthaginian mercenaries after, 339
Punic War, Second (218–201 B.C.), 33, 688–707
aims of
Carthage, 694
Rome, 692–93
battles of, 693f
Carthaginian army
manpower at beginning, 690
strategy, 695
errors and miscalculations, 701–4
Carthaginian, 701–2
Roman, 701
impact
on Carthage, 705
on Rome, 704–5
lack of first-class general apart from Hannibal, 703
Livy on, 339
naval operations during, 383–84
reconnaissance during, 477
Roman army
manpower at beginning of, 689–90
opening strategy, 694–96
siege of Syracuse during, 444
sources on, 688–89
Spanish infantrymen, 702f
war decision after an ultimatum, 563
Punic Wars, 32
Roman shipbuilding during, 133
punishment, military. See also discipline, military; fustuarium (cudgeling to death)
discipline and, 312–13
in Imperial Roman army, 326
influence of outside factors on, 315
of mercenaries, 316
monetary fines, 319
purification practices, 530
Pydna, Battle of (168 B.C.), 24, 185, 186
army of Paullus at, 233
beginning of, 224
and Greece as Roman province, 307
Paullus’s victory monument at Delphi, 422
Pylos, Battle of (425 B.C.), 133
role of light infantry at, 460–61
Pylos, Spartan siege of (425 B.C.), 650
Pyrrhus, 4, 24, 561
aiding the city of Tarentum, 383
Demetrius’s troops defecting to, 680
innovation in infantry tactics, 186
Roman war with, 32
and shields of Macedonian cavalry, 189
siege of Sparta, 450
solving payment problems with war, 346
on tactics, 446–47
use of elephants, 136, 191
Pythen, 632
Pythia’s Prophecies, The (Plutarch), 531–32 (p. 772)
Quadi tribe, 263, 591
in Marcomannic Wars, 594
quadriremes, 194, 375
Quadruple Alliance, 645, 646
quaestors, 36
queens, importance in Hellenistic kingdoms, 678, 685
quinqueremes, 16, 194, 375
Roman, 383
raids, 157
by Carthaginians, 383
cross-border, 8
by Huns, 609
maritime, 375–76
by Romans, 384
Sasanian, 608
rams
at siege of Jotapata, 253
at siege of Plataea, 648
at siege of Samos, 157
use by Pericles, 650
on warships, 377–78
Rankov, N. B., 480, 486, 487
Raphia, Battle of (217 B.C.), 24, 181
Egyptian soldiers at, 346
elephants in, 136
Greek mercenaries of Ptolemy at, 337
numbers at, 676
Polybius on, 190
rations of soldiers, 14
in Greek armies, 206–7
on long campaigns, 208
supply system, 208
words used for, 202
reconnaissance, 358
along Roman limes, 483–87
in border security, 481–83
large-force reconnaissance, 475–78
Greek, 476
Roman, 477–78
small-force reconnaissance, 478–81
Greek, 478–80
Roman, 480–81
of terrain, 479
Livy on importance of, 83
recruitment, Roman, 33–34
reenactments, 114–15
Reilly, Charlie, 732
relationships between states, 6
religion. See also rituals of war, Greek; rituals of war, Roman
Cicero on Roman, 542
Dionysius on, 543
of Germans at beginning of first century A.D., 592
Hellenistic war and, 683–84
Livy on, 542, 546
Spartans, 529
remedies for wounds, 303–4
remuneration of soldiers
Athenian, 15
Greek, 202–3
mercenaries, 344–48
Anabasis on, 333
coinage and, 332
Demosthenes on, 344
Greek, 204
military versus civilian, 344
Ptolemy II as good paymaster, 346
Roman, 223, 262, 325, 348
allies, 348
in Sasanian army, 608
of soldiers in the third century, 345
subsistance versus wages, 346
of the Ten Thousand, 333
Republic (Plato), 56
Res Gestae (Augustus), 263
on closure of the shrine of Janus, 545
on Parthians, 709
retirement benefits for Roman veterans, 325
revenge
as honorable Roman motive, 251
as Roman strategic objective under Germanicus, 240
Reveries (Maurice of Saxe), 737
rewards
in Macedonian army, 319
in Roman Republican army, 320
Reynolds, David, 59
Rhegium, 626
conference of Athenian generals during Sicilian Expedition, 627
Rhine-Danube Roman frontier, 589–600
Rhodes
archers from, 150
fleet of, 17, 379
in Sicilian Expedition, 624
as Roman maritime ally, 384
slingers from, 150, 338
Rhodes, siege of (305/4 B.C.), 440
Diodorus’s narrative of, 444, 449
inventiveness during, 445
military technology in, 675
scientists at, 446
social measures taken during, 443
Ribemont-sur-Ancre, France, 111
Richardson, J. H., 560
Richer, Nicholas, 534
ritual, meaning in classical scholarship, 537
rituals of war, Greek, 527–41
after combat
battlefield trophy, 530–31
booty, 531–32
burial of the war dead, 532
funeral speeches, 532
sacrifice, 532–33
stripping the dead, 531 (p. 773)
before combat
festivals preventing expeditions, 529
military vows, 528
oracles, 528
purification, 530
sacrifice, 529
initiating combat, 530
marching paian, 530
rituals of war, Roman, 542–68
burning of enemy arms, 550–51
on campaign, 547–51
dedication of spolia opima, 557–59
of departing commander, 545–47
fetials and, 559–64
proper days for initiating fighting, 548–49
returning victor, 551–59
ritual preparation in March, 543
triumphs, 551–57
vows of commanders during battles, 549
roads, Roman, 42
placement of builders in imperial marching column, 237
Robinson, H. Russell, 430
on helmets, 429, 432, 435
on Roman armor, 428
Rodman, S., 731
Roisman, J., 176
Roman Emperors
assuring loyalty of the army, 262
use of mercenaries, 332
Roman empire. See also Roman Imperial era; Roman Republic
benefits of being part of, 264
declining supply of timber, 134
equestrian rank, 232, 514
establishment of, 40
foreign incursions in, 263
growth of, 231
impact of Second Punic War, 704–5
maps of, xxxvii
military training in, 285
plagues in, 138
provinces
banditry in, 268
economic effect of soldiers in, 272
role of soldiers in administration of, 270
Roman army and infrastructure of, 271
rise of, 30, 216–34
rituals in time of peace, 544
Sasanian raids on territories of, 608
taxes on agricultural sector, 132
war and peace, 129
warfare in third century A.D., 130
Roman Histories (Velleius Paterculus), 74
Roman History (Dio), 689
Roman Imperial era, 236–59
arms and armor, 430–36
challengers to emperors, 264
change in nature of war during, 261, 263
defeat and retreat, 256–59
Eastern cities presence of army in, 265
generalship during, 470–72
integration of soldiers and veterans in the provinces, 265–66
long wars, 246–51
material evidence of warfare from, 92
provincial administration, 483
role of army in the provinces, 268
relations between soldiers and civilians, 266–67
siege warfare, 251–55
Romanization, army and, 29
Roman military studies, 92n1
Roman-Persian warfare, 708–25
historical outline, 716–19
maps of, xxxviii
sources on, 711–12, 719
Roman Republic
armies during, 34
arms and armor of, 421–30
difficulties in tracing history of military formations and tactics during, 216
generalship in, 466–70
war and peace during, 543
Rome (city)
adoption of hoplite equipment, 219
population increase at end of 7th century, 218
sack of (410), 36, 41
Rome, war and warfare in, 29–44
new scholarly trends, 41–44
Roots of Strategy (Phillips), 279
Roth, J., 354
Rufus, Rutilius, 469
Rufus of Ephesus
on cranial fractures, 301
on removal of arrows, 301
“running out,” tactic of, 156
Ruspina, Battle of (46 B.C.), 234
Rustius Barbarus, 272
Sabin, P., 114
Sabinus, 468
sacramentum, 321, 546
Sacred Band, Theban, 146, 659, 665
at Leuctra, 660
Sacred War, First, 10
Sacred War, Third (356–346 B.C.)
Delphi sanctuary wealth and, 210
mercenaries in, 336
sacrifices, Roman
and divination, 547
at triumphs, 555
Sacrovir, revolt of, 263
saddles, Roman, 112–13, 507–8, 508f
Sakas
in Sasanian cavalry, 607 (p. 774)
Salamis, Battle of, 570
Aeschylus on fighting at, 577
Athenian fleet at, 374
commemoration of, 533
Greek rituals after, 527
ship-to-ship combat, 377
shortage of Greek supplies at, 353
Salamis, Demetrius siege of
machinery used, 675
Salinator, M. Livius, 700
Salinger, J. D., 736
Sallust, 75, 80–81, 229
Samnites
archaeological evidence on, 110
in Hannibal’s army, 691
influence on Roman fighting methods, 222
splendor of arms of, 117
warrior graves, 123
Samnite Wars, 222–23
Samos, siege of, 157
Samson, 137
sanctuaries
armies and, 211
diplomatic efforts to protect, 211–12
tithe of 10 percent of the booty at pan-Hellenic, 210
Sandburg, Carl, 290
Sandracottus (Chandragupta), 517
Sântana-de-Mures-Černjachov Culture, 596
Santayana, George, 735
Sappho on Lydian cavalry, 575
Sardis, battle in, 158
sarissa, 22, 163, 184, 410
limiting mobility of Hellenistic phalanx, 182–83
Sarmatians, 595. See also Iazyges
horses of, 496
influence on Roman equipment, 119
society of, 595
Sasanian Persia, 96–97, 108, 601–20. See also Roman-Persian warfare
administrative reorganization, 613–14
captives and economic development, 609
considered as equal by Rome, 708n1
Eran versus Aneran, 605–8
grand strategy of, 608–12
influence on Roman equipment, 120
military ideology of, 601–2
roots of, 602–5
reforms by Kavad and Kusro I, 613
rise of, 251
toppling of the Arsacids, 603
Saving Private Ryan (film), 282–83
Scaeva, 287
Scapula, P. Ostorius, 241
scientists, Greek, and siege warfare, 445–46
Scione
escaped Plataeans settled at, 650
siege of, 645
Scipio, L. Cornelius, 226
Scipio, P. Cornelius (consul 218 B.C.), 694
Scipio, P. Cornelius Aemilianus Africanus, 467
on decoration of shields, 423
Velleius on, 78
victory at Numantia, 469
Scipio, P. Cornelius Africanus, 38, 699f
battles in Spain, 226
institution of training, 222
Livy on, 83, 85
requisition of equipment by, 429
Scullard on, 740
in Second Punic War, 688, 699–700
study by Liddell Hart, 738–39
tactics of, 233
use of cohorts at Ilipa, 229
use of non-Italians in army, 231
use of Numidian cavalry by, 514
at Uzita, 233
Scipio, P. Cornelius Nasica Corculum, 225
Sciritae, 476, 489
Scotland, Flavian installations, 103f, 104
Scott, Ridley, 726, 734
Scullard, H. H., 740
sculpture
on battle of Marathon, 583f, 584f
horses on frieze of Parthenos, 494f
on lustration of Roman army, 547
Prima Porta Augustus, 709f
Roman armor in, 419, 420f, 428, 430
on Roman shield, 421–22, 422f
on Sasanian cavalryman, 607f
Shapur I victory monument, 710f
scutum (shield), 221, 421–23, 422f
effect on depth of the maniple, 227
in Imperial era, 433–34
Scythians
armored horses of, 513
early development of cavalry, 135
Second World War, The (Churchill), 59
Seleucids
adoption of Roman army system, 187
camel cavalry of, 192
Celt mercenaries and, 338
expulsion from Babylonia by Parthians, 602
and Greek mercenaries, 338
horse archers, 192
importance of queens, 678, 685
kataphraktoi, 189
military settlements, 346–47
use of elephants, 191
use of peltasts, 190
warships of, 375
Seleucus I, 191, 517, 676
Seleucus IV, 214
self-control, Hellenistic generals and, 465
self-enrichment through booty, 5
Selinus, 632 (p. 775)
Sennacherib, 372
Sentinum, Battle of (295 B.C.), 550
Septimius Severus (Roman Emperor), 137
challengers to, 264
military pay raise, 262
and Parthians, 250, 251
and siege of Hatra, 255
Servilius Vatia, Publius, 549–50
Servius Galba, 468
Servius Tullius, 219
Severus Alexander (Roman Emperor), 717
Sextus Pompeius Magnus, 385
shame, dread of, as impetus of discipline, 315
Shapur I (Sasanian king)
inscription at Naqsh-i-Rustam, 711, 714n8, 717
invasions of Roman east, 717
sack of Antioch, 603
siege of Amida in 359, 721
victory monuments of, 710f
Shapur II (Sasanian king), 605
invasion of 359, 711
revolt of Susa under, 610
and Roman-Persian warfare, 717
Shay, Jonathan, 280, 728
shields, 147–49
found at Olympia, 396
Greek, 397–400
Beotian, 398–99, 400f
effectiveness of, 413
of hoplites, 396, 397–98, 399f
introduction of two-handled hoplite, 396
pelte, 400
hoplon, 168
Macedonian, 399–00
cavalry, 189
of peltasts, 149–50
Roman, 421–23
of cavalrymen, 435
round, 434
scutum, 221, 227, 421–23, 422f
at time of Dura Europos siege, 436
shield aprons, 398, 399f
thureos, 186
thyreos, 423, 434
Shils, Edward, 538, 539
shipbuilding and deforestation, 133
shipsheds in Piraeus, 380, 380n7
cost of, 381
shipyards, 379
Sibyrtius, satrap of Arachosia, 162, 175–76
Sicels, hoplite equipment of, 147
Sicily
horse raising latifundia, 514
mercenary service in, 338
Sicyonians, 634
Side, Battle of (190 B.C.), 379
side arms, 149
siege engines and weapons, 445
artillery
development in Sicily, 157
emergence of, 144
of Batavians, 245
of Demetrius, 675
exotic, 194
sieges, descriptions as small dramas, 452
siege warfare, 157, 193–94
advances in, 446
attacking during a festival, 448
Caesar on importance and frequency of, 76–77
camps, 108
Delian League and, 10
Greek
forms of, 642
vocabulary concerning, 440, 642
Hannibal and, 697
Hellenistic, 445
maintaining social harmony in besieged cities, 443
during Peloponnesian War, 642–56
population after, 210
on Roman Empire’s eastern frontier, 714
of Roman Imperial era, 251–55
in Roman-Persian wars, 721–23
by Sasanians, 609, 714–15
Sasanians and, 603
success rate of sieges, 644, 644n2
Vegetius on, 80
signiferi, 226
Silenus, 690
Silius Italicus
cuirass description, 432
Punica, 689
Silures, 241
Simonides (Athenian general), 647
Simonides of Ceos, 51
Singara, Roman fortification at, 716
single combats
Bahram Chobin in, 614
challenges before battle of Dara, 720
on decorated tombs, 110
Pyrrhus in, 4
in Sasanian art, 601
Scipio Aemilianus in, 467
spolia opima and, 466, 557
size of armies
at Battle of Gaugemala, 513, 674
in Battle of Ipsus,