- The Oxford Handbook of Warfare in the Classical World
- Abbreviations and Spelling Norms
- Emperors from Augustus to Heraclius
- War and Warfare in Ancient Greece
- War and Warfare in Ancient Rome
- The Archaeology of War
- Warfare and Environment in the Ancient World
- The Classical Greek Experience
- The Three Thousand: Alexander’s Infantry Guard
- The Hellenistic World at War: Stagnation or Development?
- War and Society in Greece
- The Rise of Rome
- Imperial Rome at War
- War and Society in the Roman Empire
- Men at War
- Treating the Sick and Wounded
- Keeping Military Discipline
- The Business of War: Mercenaries
- Logistics: Sinews of War
- War at Sea
- Greeks Under Siege: Challenges, Experiences, and Emotions
- Generalship: Leadership and Command
- Finding the Enemy: Military Intelligence
- Greek Rituals of War
- Roman Rituals of War
- The Athenian Expedition to Sicily
- The Peloponnesian War and Its Sieges
- Epaminondas at Leuctra, 371 b.c.
- Demetrius “the Besieger” and Hellenistic Warfare
- The Second Punic War
- Roman Warfare with Sasanian Persia
- Epilogue: The Legacy of War in the Classical World
Abstract and Keywords
This chapter introduces the diverse troops, equipment, formations, and tactics that characterized the period from about 500–350 BC, exploring non-Greek as well as Greek military forces. Moreover, the battle mechanics and the experience of battle are analyzed. The chapter then suggests some possible fruitful directions for future research. Most Greek cavalry was been lightly armed and preferred to fight from a distance using javelins or bows. The victories of Greek hoplites in the Persian Wars resulted in massed heavy infantry combat and the exclusion of non-hoplites from the phalanx. Greek commanders exercised combined arms battles during and after the Peloponnesian War. The study of classical battles might greatly profit from archaeological reconstruction of arms and armor, and from practical experiments performed under controlled scholarly conditions.
John W. I. Lee, Associate Professor of History at the University of California, Santa Barbara
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