- The Oxford Handbook of Warfare in the Classical World
- Abbreviations and Spelling Norms
- Emperors from Augustus to Heraclius
- War and Warfare in Ancient Greece
- War and Warfare in Ancient Rome
- The Archaeology of War
- Warfare and Environment in the Ancient World
- The Classical Greek Experience
- The Three Thousand: Alexander’s Infantry Guard
- The Hellenistic World at War: Stagnation or Development?
- War and Society in Greece
- The Rise of Rome
- Imperial Rome at War
- War and Society in the Roman Empire
- Men at War
- Treating the Sick and Wounded
- Keeping Military Discipline
- The Business of War: Mercenaries
- Logistics: Sinews of War
- War at Sea
- Greeks Under Siege: Challenges, Experiences, and Emotions
- Generalship: Leadership and Command
- Finding the Enemy: Military Intelligence
- Greek Rituals of War
- Roman Rituals of War
- The Athenian Expedition to Sicily
- The Peloponnesian War and Its Sieges
- Epaminondas at Leuctra, 371 b.c.
- Demetrius “the Besieger” and Hellenistic Warfare
- The Second Punic War
- Roman Warfare with Sasanian Persia
- Epilogue: The Legacy of War in the Classical World
Abstract and Keywords
This chapter analyzes tactical intelligence, following a division by posture: offensive and mobile, and defensive or localized. There was an increase in the use of vanguards among the Greeks after the fourth century BC and among the Romans in the first. Cavalry widely used in this role. The role of reconnaissance in border security is then evaluated. It is noted that the speculatores who accompanied the legions left the field for the office sometime in the first century AD. Greek military intelligence never became professionalized, and did not ponder the sophistication of the prototypical organizations fielded by the tyrants of Cyprus and Sicily in the fourth century. Professionalism and unit identification in intelligence came neither to the poleis nor the kingdoms of Classical or Hellenistic Greece, and came finally to the Romans at least a century after they had pervaded the legions.
Frank Russell, Associate Professor of History, Transylvania University
Access to the complete content on Oxford Handbooks Online requires a subscription or purchase. Public users are able to search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter without a subscription.
If you have purchased a print title that contains an access token, please see the token for information about how to register your code.