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date: 24 June 2021

(p. ix) Contributors

(p. ix) Contributors

Yaakov Ariel is Professor of Religious Studies at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. His research interests include Judaism in the late modern world; new Jewish religious movements; and Protestant Christianity and its attitudes toward the Jewish people and the Holy Land. Ariel has written numerous articles and books on these subjects. His book, Evangelizing the Chosen People: Missions to the Jews in America, 1880–2000 (2000), was awarded the Albert C. Outler Prize by the American Society of Church History.

W. Michael Ashcraft is Professor of Religion at Truman State University. He is the author of The Dawn of the New Cycle: Point Loma Theosophists and American Culture (2002); coeditor of New Religious Movements: A Documentary Reader (2005); and coeditor of Introduction to New and Alternative Religions in America (2006) in five volumes. He is also the reviews editor for Nova Religio: The Journal of Alternative and Emergent Religions.

Michael Barkun is Professor Emeritus of Political Science in the Maxwell School at Syracuse University. His books on millennialism include Disaster and the Millennium (1974); Crucible of the Millennium: The Burned-Over District of New York in the 1840s (1986); Religion and the Racist Right: The Origins of the Christian Identity Movement (1997); and A Culture of Conspiracy: Apocalyptic Visions in Contemporary America (2003). He serves on editorial boards for Terrorism and Political Violence; Nova Religio: The Journal of Alternative and Emergent Religions; Journal for the Study of Radicalism; and Communal Societies: The Journal of the Communal Studies Association, and also edits the Religion and Politics series for the Syracuse University Press. Professor Barkun has served as an adviser to the FBI and has held fellowships and grants from the Harry Frank Guggenheim Foundation, the Ford Foundation, and the National Endowment for the Humanities. His most recent book Chasing Phantoms: Reality, Imagination, and Homeland Security since 9/11 was published by the University of North Carolina Press in 2011.

David G. Bromley is Professor of Religious Studies and Sociology in the School of World Studies at Virginia Commonwealth University. He has written or edited over a dozen books on religious movements. His most recent books include Cults and New Religious Movements: A Brief History (with Douglas E. Cowan, 2008); Teaching New Religious Movements (2007); Critical Approaches to Drawing Boundaries between Sacred and Secular (with Arthur Greil, 2003); Cults, Religion, and Violence (with J. Gordon Melton, 2001); and Toward Reflexive Ethnography: Participating, Observing, (p. x) Narrating (with Lewis Carter, 2001). He is former president of the Association for the Study of Religion, and the founding editor of that association's annual series, Religion and the Social Order; and former editor of the Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, published by the Society for the Scientific Study of Religion.

Barry Chevannes was Emeritus Professor of Social Anthropology at the University of the West Indies, Mona, where he served as Dean of the Faculty of Social Sciences from 1996 to 2004. He authored three books and scores of articles on the Rastafari and Revival religions, male socialization, and Caribbean culture. A public scholar, he served as Chairman of the Institute of Jamaica, the National Ganja Commission, the Jamaica Justice System Reform Task Force, and the National Commission on Reparations. He was an Honorary Fellow of the Royal Anthropological Institute. Professor Chevannes passed away in 2010.

William P. Collins was Director of the Bahá’í International Library, 1977–90, and Chief of the Cataloging Division, United States Copyright Office, 1991–2000, and has been Program Planning Officer with the United States Copyright Office since 2000. He is author of Bibliography of English Language Works on the Bábí and Bahá’í Faiths, 1844–1985 (1990), and numerous articles on Bahá’í history and beliefs, including millennialism. He has served in various professional capacities on boards for the Bahá’í Faith, including the United States National Bahá’í Archives Committee, and the Editorial Committee of the Journal of Bahá’í Studies. He currently serves on the Editorial Board of the Bahá’í Studies Review.

David Cook is Associate Professor of Religious Studies at Rice University, specializing in Islam. His areas of specialization include early Islamic history and development, Muslim apocalyptic literature and movements (classical and contemporary), radical Islam, historical astronomy, and Judeo-Arabic literature. His books include Studies in Muslim Apocalyptic (2003); Understanding Jihad (2005); Contemporary Muslim Apocalyptic Literature (2005); Martyrdom in Islam (2007); and Understanding and Addressing Suicide Attacks, with Olivia Allison (2007). He is continuing to work on contemporary Muslim apocalyptic literature, with a focus on Shi`ite materials, as well as preparing manuscripts on jihadi groups and Western African Muslim history.

Douglas E. Cowan is Professor of Religious Studies at Renison University College in the University of Waterloo in Canada. He is the author or editor of ten books and several dozen articles and chapters related to a wide variety of topics concerning new religions and popular culture. His most recent books include Sacred Space: The Quest for Transcendence in Science Fiction Film and Television (2010); Sacred Terror: Religion and Horror on the Silver Screen (2008); and Cults and New Religions: A Brief History, with David G. Bromley (2008). He is a former co-general editor of Nova Religio: The Journal of Alternative and Emergent Religions.

Lorne L. Dawson is Professor of Sociology and Religious Studies at the University of Waterloo in Canada. He is cofounder and Director of the Laurier-Waterloo Ph.D. Program in Religious Studies, focused on the multidisciplinary study of religious (p. xi) diversity in North America. He has written two books (e.g., Comprehending Cults, 2nd ed., 2006), edited three (e.g., with Douglas Cowan, Religion Online, 2004), and published over sixty articles and book chapters. In recent years his research has been focused on the related issues of charismatic authority, millennialism and prophetic failure, and the comparative analysis of the process of radicalization in religious and terrorist groups.

Robert Pearson Flaherty completed his Ph.D. in comparative folklore and mythology/history of religions at the University of California, Los Angeles, in 1990. He has been living in Korea since 1994, where he currently teaches in the English Department of Kyungsung University in Busan. His general interests include anthropology of religions, comparative mythology, ritual studies, religious syncretism, millennialism, legend (especially experiential legend), and cultural psychology. He is especially interested in Korean studies: folk religion (minsok jonggyo); newly emerged religions (sinheung jonggyo); “Ancestor Worship” (Josang Sungbae); and “Korean Shamanism” (Musok Sinang). He has a prior interest in German folklore and an abiding interest in New Age religions, especially UFO religions. He has published articles in Nova Religio: The Journal of Alternative and Emergent Religions, Anthropology News, Anthropological Quarterly, and Folklore: Journal of the British Folklore Society. He is currently working on a book about Korean newly emerged religions.

Eugene V. Gallagher is the Rosemary Park Professor of Religious Studies at Connecticut College. He is the coauthor, with James D. Tabor, of Why Waco? Cults and the Battle for Religious Freedom in America (1995); and the author of The New Religious Movements Experience in America (2004). With W. Michael Ashcraft, he is the coeditor of Introduction to New and Alternative Religions in the United States (2006) in five volumes. He is co-general editor of Nova Religio: The Journal of Alternative and Emergent Religions. He has written widely on new religious movements in the United States and on religions in the ancient Mediterranean world.

Robin Globus is a doctoral candidate in the Religion and Nature Program in the Department of Religion at the University of Florida. Her dissertation project focuses on the effects of Endtime belief on environmental attitudes and behavior among theologically conservative Protestants. A National Science Foundation fellow in the University of Florida's Integrative Graduate Education and Research Traineeship (IGERT) program in Adaptive Management, she is also Assistant Editor of the Journal for the Study of Religion, Nature and Culture.

Robert Gnuse is the James C. Carter, S.J./Bank One Distinguished Professor of the Humanities in the Religious Studies Department at Loyola University New Orleans, where he teaches Old Testament and related courses. He is the author of twelve books, including, most recently, The Old Testament and Process Theology (2001); Emergent Monotheism in Ancient Israel (1997); and Dreams and Dream Reports in Josephus (1996), as well as eighty articles in Bible and related fields.

Rosalind I. J. Hackett is Professor and Head of Religious Studies at the University of Tennessee. She has published widely on religion in Africa, notably on new religious movements—for example, New Religious Movements in Nigeria (1987)—as well as on art, media, gender, conflict, and religious freedom in the African context. Her most recent books (edited) are Proselytization Revisited: Rights Talk, Free Markets, and Culture Wars (2008); and Religious Dimensions of Conflict and Peace in Neo-Liberal Africa (with James H. Smith, 2011). In 2005 she was elected President of the International Association for the History of Religions (until 2015).

Helen Hardacre is Reischauer Institute Professor of Japanese Religions and Society, Harvard University. She has done extended field study of contemporary Shinto, Buddhist religious organizations, and the religious life of Japan's Korean minority. She has also researched state Shinto and contemporary ritualizations of abortion. Before moving to Harvard in 1992, she taught at Princeton University (1980–89) and Griffith University (Australia) (1990–91). Her publications include The Religion of Japan's Korean Minority (1984); Lay Buddhism in Contemporary Japan: Reiyukai Kyodan (1984); Kurozumikyo and the New Religions of Japan (1986); Shinto and the State, 1868–1988 (1989); Marketing the Menacing Fetus in Japan (1997); and Religion and Society in Nineteenth-Century Japan: A Study of the Southern Kanto Region, Using Late Edo and Early Meiji Gazetteers (2002). Her current research projects include a study of Shinto history and the issue of constitutional revision in Japan and its effect on religious groups.

Massimo Introvigne is the managing director of CESNUR, the Center for Studies on New Religions, in Torino, Italy. He is the author of some sixty books in Italian, some of them translated into French, German, Spanish, English, Czech, and Croatian, and of more than one hundred articles on the sociology of contemporary religious pluralism and new religious movements. He is the editor of the award-winning encyclopedia of religions in Italy, Le religioni in Italia, published in two editions in 2001 and 2006.

Jeffrey T. Kenney is Professor of Religious Studies at DePauw University, where he teaches courses in history of religions and Islamic studies. His research focuses on modern Islamic thought in Egypt and the greater Middle East, with a special interest in political religion, radicalism, Islamism, modernization, and secularization. He is the author of numerous articles on the Kharijites, the first sectarian movement in Islamic history, and their legacy in modern Muslim discourse. His first book was Muslim Rebels: Kharijites and the Politics of Extremism in Egypt (2006). He is currently editing a textbook on modern Islam and researching a religious history of modern Egypt.

Scott Lowe is Professor and Chair of the Department of Philosophy and Religious Studies at the University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire. His first book, Mo Tzu's Religious Blueprint for a Chinese Utopia: The Will and the Way (1992), examined the Mozi, a Zhou dynasty text produced by a group that, had it existed in the United States in the 1970s, would have been labeled a “cult.” He has since written a number of articles (p. xiii) and book chapters on Falun Gong, Chinese millennial movements, Chinese religion-state relations, and several new religious movements in the United States, including Adidam and Transcendental Meditation.

Phillip Charles Lucas is Professor of Religious Studies at Stetson University. He is founding editor of Nova Religio, a scholarly journal dedicated to the study of new and minority religious movements throughout history. He has authored or edited four books, including New Religious Movements in the 21st Century: Legal, Political, and Social Challenges in Global Perspective (with Thomas Robbins, 2004); Cassadaga: The South's Oldest Spiritualist Community (with John J. Guthrie, Jr., and Gary Monroe, 2000); Prime Time Religion: An Encyclopedic Guide to Religious Broadcasting (with J. Gordon Melton and Jon R. Stone, 1997); and The Odyssey of a New Religion: The Holy Order of MANS from New Age to Orthodoxy (1995).

Rebecca Moore is a professor in the Department of Religious Studies at San Diego State University. Her research has focused on Jewish and Christian dialogue and on the history of biblical interpretation. She has served as president of the Society for the Study of the Bible in the Middle Ages and on the steering committee for the History of Interpretation Section of the Society of Biblical Literature. She has published extensively on Hugh of St. Victor, a medieval Christian canon whose biblical commentaries reflected contemporary Jewish influences. She published a history of Christianity titled Voices of Christianity: A Global Introduction (2005). She also coauthored a book with Risa Levitt Kohn titled A Portable God: The Origin of Judaism and Christianity (2007), which shows how Judaism and Christianity emerge from the same religious tradition—that of ancient Israel—at the same time. She was co-general editor of Nova Religio: The Journal of Alternative and Emergent Religions from 2000 to 2011 and has been an Associate Editor of Luther Digest since 2000.

Michelene E. Pesantubbee is Associate Professor of Religious Studies and American Indian and Native Studies at the University of Iowa. She is the author of Choctaw Women in a Chaotic World: The Clash of Cultures in the Colonial Southeast (2005); and “Wounded Knee: Symbol of Resistance and Recovery,” in Recovering Memory: Exposing Religion, Violence, and the Remembrance of Place, edited by Oren Baruch Stier and J. Shawn Landres (2006). She specializes in southeastern Native American religious traditions, Native American women and religion, and Native American religious movements. She currently serves on the Editorial Board for the Journal of Race, Ethnicity, and Religion.

David Redles is Associate Professor of History at Cuyahoga Community College in Cleveland, Ohio. He is author of Hitler's Millennial Reich: Apocalyptic Belief and the Search for Salvation (2005). His articles include “ ‘The day is not far off…’: The Millennial Reich and Induced Apocalypse,” in War in Heaven/Heaven on Earth: Theories of the Apocalyptic, edited by Glen McGhee and Stephen O’Leary (2005); “Nazi End Times: The Third Reich as Millennial Reich,” in End of Days: Essays on the Apocalypse from Antiquity to Modernity, edited by Karolyn Kinane and Michael A. Ryan (2009); “Ordering Chaos: Nazi Millennialism and the Quest for Meaning,” in (p. xiv) The Fundamentalist Mindset: Psychological Reflections on Religion, Violence, and History, edited by Charles B. Strozier, James W. Jones, and David M. Terman (2010); and “The Turning Point: The Protocols of the Elders of Zion and the Eschatological War between Aryans and Jews,” in The Paranoid Apocalypse: A Hundred-Year Retrospective on The Protocols of the Elders of Zion, edited by Steven T. Katz and Richard A. Landes (2011).

Jean E. Rosenfeld is Academic Researcher at the University of California, Los Angeles Center for the Study of Religion and an occasional lecturer in the Department of History. She is a historian of religions who has published articles about revitalization movements, millenarianism, and sacred space. Her book, The Island Broken in Two Halves (1999), examines the Maori “Spirit” movements in New Zealand—the King Movement, Pai Marire, and Ringatu—that led to the nineteenth-century Land Wars and the formation of a new, biethnic nation state. Since 1996 she has studied, taught, and written about the current wave of religious violence. She is the editor of Terrorism, Identity and Legitimacy: The Four Waves Theory and Political Violence (2011).

Glenn W. Shuck is Assistant Professor of Religion at Williams College. Among his books are Marks of the Beast: The “Left Behind” Novels and the Struggle for Evangelical Identity (2005); and Escape into the Future: Cultural Pessimism and Its Religious Dimension in Contemporary American Popular Culture (with John M. Stroup, 2007).

Peter Smith is Associate Professor and Chair of the Social Science Division at Mahidol University International College, Thailand, where he teaches courses in world history and the history of social thought. He has published extensively in the field of Babi and Bahá’í studies, including: The Babi and Baha’i Religions: From Messianic Shi’ism to a World Religion (1987); A Concise Encyclopedia of the Bahá’i Faith (1999); and An Introduction to the Baha’i Faith (2008). He is a member of the Editorial Board of the Bahá’í Studies Review.

Jon R. Stone is Professor of Religious Studies and affiliate faculty in American Studies at California State University, Long Beach. He is the author of A Guide to the End of the World: Popular Eschatology in America (1993); On the Boundaries of American Evangelicalism: The Postwar Evangelical Coalition (1997); Prime-Time Religion: An Encyclopedia of Religious Broadcasting (with J. Gordon Melton and Phillip Charles Lucas, 1997) and editor of Expecting Armageddon: Essential Readings in Failed Prophecy (2000); and Readings in American Religious Diversity (with Carlos R. Piar, 2007), among others. His most recent essay, “Prophecy and Dissonance: A Reassessment of Research Testing the Festinger Theory,” appeared in Nova Religio 12, no. 4 (May 2009).

James D. Tabor is Chair of the Department of Religious Studies at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte and is Professor of Christian Origins and Ancient Judaism, with a focus on apocalyptic and millenarian modes of thinking (200 b.c.e. to 200 c.e.). He has combined his work on ancient texts with extensive field work in (p. xv) archaeology in Israel and Jordan, including work at Qumran, Sepphoris, Masada, Wadi el-Yabis, the “John the Baptist” cave at Suba, the “Tomb of the Shroud” at Akeldama, and most recently the Mount Zion excavation in Jerusalem. Among his published books are Things Unutterable: Paul's Ascent to Paradise and Its Greco-Roman, Judaic, and Early Christian Contexts (1985); A Noble Death: Suicide and Martyrdom among Christians and Jews in Antiquity (with Arthur J. Droge, 1992); Why Waco? Cults and the Battle for Religious Freedom in America (with Eugene V. Gallagher, 1995); The Jesus Dynasty: The Hidden History of Jesus, His Royal Family, and the Birth of Christianity (2006); and Restoring Abrahamic Faith (2008). He currently has two books in press, The Jesus Discovery (November 2011) and Paul and Jesus: How the Apostle Transformed Christianity (April 2012), both with Simon & Schuster.

Bron Taylor is Professor of Religion and Nature at the University of Florida, where he assumed the Samuel S. Hill Ethics Chair in 2002. His writings focus on the ways in which nature-related perceptions and attitudes influence the environments people inhabit, as well as on the political, ethical, and religious dimensions of grassroots environmental movements. His books include Dark Green Religion: Nature Spirituality and the Planetary Future (2010) and Ecological Resistance Movements: The Global Emergence of Radical and Popular Environmentalism (1995). He is editor of the Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature (2005) and the Journal for the Study of Religion, Nature and Culture (from 2007), and he is founding president of the affiliated International Society for the Study of Religion, Nature and Culture. Information about his projects and writings is available at and

Garry W. Trompf is Emeritus Professor in the History of Ideas, University of Sydney, Australia. He was formerly Professor of History at the University of Papua New Guinea, and visiting professor to the universities of California (Santa Cruz), Utrecht, Edinburgh, Warsaw, and the Carl Jung Institute in Zürich. He has written extensively on Melanesian religion and so-called cargo cults in the Pacific. His books on Melanesia include Melanesian Religion (1991); Payback: The Logic of Retribution in Melanesian Religions (1994); Religions of Melanesia: A Bibliographic Survey (2006); and Religions of Oceania (with Tony Swain, 1995). His other relevant books are The Idea of Historical Recurrence in Western Thought (1979); Cargo Cults and Millenarian Movements: Transoceanic Comparisons of New Religious Movements (edited, 1990); and Early Christian Historiography (2000). He is the Sydney branch Director of the Center for Millennial Studies.

Hugh B. Urban is Professor of Religious Studies in the Department of Comparative Studies at Ohio State University. He is primarily interested in the role of secrecy in religion, particularly in relation to issues of power and knowledge. His primary area of research is Hindu Tantra in India, but he has also written widely on contemporary new religious movements, modern magic, and the role of religion and secrecy in the Bush administration. He is the author of six books, including Tantra: Sex, Secrecy, Politics, and Power in the Study of Religion (2003); Magia Sexualis: Sex, Magic, (p. xvi) and Liberation in Modern Western Esotericism (2005); The Secrets of the Kingdom: Religion and Concealment in the Bush Administration (2007); and The Power of Tantra: Religion, Sexuality, and the Politics of South Asian Studies (2009).

John Walliss is Senior Lecturer in the Faculty of Sciences and Social Sciences and Director of the Centre for Millennialism Studies, Liverpool Hope University, United Kingdom. He is the author of Apocalyptic Trajectories: Millenarianism and Violence in the Contemporary World (2004); and coeditor of The End All Around Us: Apocalyptic Texts in Popular Culture (with Kenneth Newport, 2009); and Reel Revelations: Apocalypse and Film (with Lee Quinby, 2010).

Catherine Wessinger is Rev. H. James Yamauchi, S.J., Professor of the History of Religions at Loyola University New Orleans. Her books include How the Millennium Comes Violently: From Jonestown to Heaven's Gate (2000); Annie Besant and Progressive Messianism (1988); and the following edited volumes: When They Were Mine: Memoirs of a Branch Davidian Wife and Mother, by Sheila Martin (2009); Memories of the Branch Davidians: Autobiography of David Koresh's Mother, by Bonnie Haldeman (2007); and Millennialism, Persecution and Violence: Historical Cases (2000). She has published a number of articles and encyclopedia entries on categories of millennialism. She is co-general editor of Nova Religio: The Journal of Alternative and Emergent Religions.

Melissa M. Wilcox is Associate Professor of Religion and Director of Gender Studies at Whitman College. She is author or coeditor of several books and numerous articles on gender, sexuality, and religion, including Coming Out in Christianity: Religion, Identity, and Community (2003); Queer Women and Religious Individualism (2009); and Sexuality and the World's Religions (with David W. Machacek, 2003).

Daniel Wojcik is Associate Professor of Folklore Studies and affiliate faculty in Religious Studies at the University of Oregon. He is the author of The End of the World As We Know It: Faith, Fatalism, and Apocalypse in America (1997); Punk and Neo-Tribal Body Art (1995); and Outsider Art Realms: Visionary Worlds, Vernacular Traditions, Trauma, and Transformation (2011). He has published a number of articles on American apocalypticism, Marian apparitions, supernatural photography, and vernacular artistic expression.